Test Questions on Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
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The branch of chemistry which deals with carbon compounds, including those with no relationship to life.
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Covalent Bond
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Inter-atomic relationship created by the sharing of at least one pair of electrons.
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
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Contain only only carbon-to-carbon single bonds. The most chemically inert of all organic compounds.
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
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Contain carbon-to-carbon double or triple bonds.
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Atomic Structure of Carbon
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Atomic Number = 6, Protons = 6, Electrons = 6, Atomic Weight = 12.0. Electrons in first energy level = 2; second energy level = 4.
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Carbon
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An element that has the capacity to share four electrons in order to achieve a more stable configuration.
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Bonding: Carbon to Hydrogen or Halogens
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Shares one electron.
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Bonding: Carbon to Oxygen or Sulfur
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Shares up to two electrons.
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Bonding: Carbon to Nitrogen
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Shares up to three electrons
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Halogens
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Flourine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), and Iodine (I).
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Hydrocarbon Molecule
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Contains only carbon and hydrogen. Can be divided into aliphatic and aromatic classes.
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Substituted Hydrocarbon
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One or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by another atom or group of atoms called a Functional Group.
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
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A saturated hydrocarbon that contains only hydrogen (the maximum number) and carbon. Does not contain benzene ring.
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Aromatic Hydrocarbon
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Contain at least one benzene ring or similar structural features.
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Benzene
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Consists of a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds.
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Alkanes
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(CnH2n+2)
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Cycloalkanes
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(CnH2n)
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Classification: Primary
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(1°) Carbons that are covalently bonded to one other carbon. They are at the end of a carbon chain and referred to as terminal carbons.
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Classification: Secondary
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(2°) Carbons that are covalently bonded to two other carbons.
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Classification: Tertiary
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(3°) Carbons that are covalently bonded to three other carbons.
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Structural Formula
Structural Formula
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Shows the actual bonding of atoms to each other.
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Condensed Formula
Condensed Formula
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Shows all the atoms in a molecule and places them in a sequential order.
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Molecular Formula
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States the actual number of each kind of atom found in a molecule.
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Structural Isomerism
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Compounds that have identical molecular formulas but different structures.
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Cis-trans Isomerism
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The formation of cis-trans isomers is a consequence of the absence of free rotation. Geometric isomers that only differ from each other in the 3-dimensional arrangement of the substituents in space. They have identical bonding and substituents.
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Alkane
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Saturated hydrocarbons (containing only carbon-to-carbon single bonds); derivatives of methane. Noted by the suffix “-ane” and sometimes by the prefix “cyclo-“
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Alkene
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. Noted by the suffix “-ene”
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Alkyne
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Noted by the suffix “-yne”
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Functional Group
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An atom or group of atoms arranged in a particular way that is primarily responsible for the chemical and physical properties of the molecule in which it is found. There are a total of 10 of these.
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Alcohols
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Organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group (R-OH). Noted by the the suffix “-ol”
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mono-
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Contains one group
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di-
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Contains two groups.
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tri-
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Contains three groups.
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tetra-
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Contains four groups.
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Thiols
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Any organic compound having the -SH functional group (R-SH). Also called the sulfhydryl. Noted by the suffix “-thiol”
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Carboxylic Acids
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Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group, also referred to as organic acids. Noted by the suffix “-oic acid”
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Esters
Esters
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Organic compounds formed by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Noted by the suffix “-oate”
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“-yl”
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Nomenclature for the alchohol group in an ester.
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“-oate”
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Nomenclature for the acid group in an ester.
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Aldehydes
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Hydrocarbon derivatves in which two of the hydrogen atoms, attached to a terminal carbon, have been replaced by a double-bonded oxygen atom (carbonyl group). Noted by the suffix “-al”
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Ketones
Ketones
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Organic compounds containing the carbonyl group attached to two organic radicals. Noted by the suffix “-one”
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Ethers
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An organic compound whose molecules have two alkyl groups joined to the same oxygen atom (R-O-R). Noted by the suffix “-oxy” and “-ane”
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Amines
Amines
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Organic compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more of its hydrogen atoms by one or more hydrocarbon radicals (R-NH-R). Noted by the prefix “amino-“
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Amides
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Organic compounds whose molecules have a carbonyl nitrogen bond. They are the product formed in a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine.
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The organization that formulated nomenclature rules to name hydrocarbons.
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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
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Meth-
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Prefix – 1 carbon.
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Eth-
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Prefix – 2 carbons.
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Prop-
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Prefix – 3 carbons.
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But-
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Prefix – 4 carbons.
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Pent-
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Prefix – 5 carbons.
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Hex-
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Prefix – 6 carbons.
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Hept-
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Prefix – 7 carbons.
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Oct-
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Prefix – 8 carbons
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Non-
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Prefix – 9 carbons
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Dec-
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Prefix – 10 carbons.
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Hydrocarbon Combustion
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The reaction of alkanes, alkenes, or alcohols with excess oxygen yields carbon dioxide, water, and heat.
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Hydration
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A reaction involving th addition of water (H2O).
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Dehydration
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Removal of water (H2O).
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Oxidation (OIL)
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[o] Loss of hydrogen or electron, the gain of oxygen.
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Reduction (RIG)
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[R] Loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen or an electron.
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Halogenation
Halogenation
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The substitution of Hydrogen with one or more Halogens (Group VIIA elements).
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Hydrogenation
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A reaction involving the addition of Hydrogen.
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Disulfide
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When two thiols undergo oxidation, they yield this structural unit which is composed of a linked pair of sulfur atoms (R-S-S-R).

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