Organic Chemistry

Functional Group
is a single element or group of elements that are attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound that add certain characteristics to that carbon compound and will tell you what class the compound belongs to. 
Functional Group
Group that imparts an indentifiable chemical behavior to the compound.
Alkly Group/ Radical (R)
a saturated hydrocarbon (Alkane) that has one hydrogen atom removed which allows for a point of attachment for the functional group.
General Formula
formula that denotes a CLASS of compounds and includes the functional group and a symbol (R) denoting a radical.
General Formula
simply tells which functional group and the radicals/alkyl groups present in a compound of that class
Structural Formula
a chemical formula which shows the spatial arrangement (blue print) of the atoms and the linkage of every atom.
Structural Formula
formula shows the exact positioning of each atom and bond in the compound
Line Formula

  • condensed version of the structural formula
  • written all on one line and demonstrates the relationship of the substituent groups (alkyl & functional) in the molecule
  • points out the functional group

General Formula

or

Type Formula

used to predict the number of hydrogens in any of the hydrocarbons (alkane, alkene, alkyne) provided the number of carbons is known.

 

an expression of the fixed ratio between C and H in all of the hydrocarbons

General Molecular Formula

or

Type Formula

used to determine a hydrocarbons molecular formula by using the prefix of the compounds name to determine the number of carbons and the suffix to determine which type formula to use.
Alkane molecular formula
CnH2n + 2
Alkene molecular formula

 

 

CnH2n

Alkyne molecular formula
CnH2n-2

Alkyl Group/ Radical

 

Type Formula

derived from the saturated hydrocarbons or Alkanes by the elimination of one Hydrogen atom which allows for a point of attachment for a functional group.

Alkyl Group/Radical

 

Type Formula

CnH2n+1
Isomerism
the possession by 2 or more distinct compounds of the same molecular formula, each molecule having the same number of atoms of each element, but in different arrangements or structural formulas
Isomers
2 or more compounds of different physical and chemical properties having the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

Aliphatic

or

Acyclic

carbons in a compound that are in an OPEN CHAIN formation

 

C – C – C – C

Carbocyclic

carbons in a compound that are attached to each other in a CLOSED CHAIN formation rather than an open chain formation.

 

 

must be at least 3 carbon atoms in order to form a closed chain.

[image]

[image]

Benzene
[image]
Aromatics

  • Subgroup of Carbocyclics
  • any compound containing a resonance-stabilized ring (such as benzene)

Benzene
6 carbon ring with alternating double bonds
Aromatic Radical
stems from Benzene where one of the carbons has lost a hydrogen
Heterocyclic

carbons in a closed chain compound that also contains atoms of some other element within it.

 

  • less than 5 carbons will be Gas
  • 5-16 carbons will be Liquid
  • 17+ carbons will be Solid

Paraffins
not chemically active alkanes
Alkane

  • saturated hydrocarbon
  • carbon atoms attached by a SINGLE bond
  • Carbon more than half the H number

Methane

Marsh Gas

molecular formula CH4

Methane

Marsh Gas

[image]
Ethane
[image]
Propane
[image]
Ethane

saturated hydrocarbon with 2 C

 

molecular formula:

C2H6

Propane

molecular formula:

 

C3H8

ALKENES

  • unsaturated hydrocarbons
  • have 2 carbons joined by a DOUBLE bond
  • C number is exactly half the H number

ETHENE

ETHYLENE

molecular formula:

C2H4

 

Simplest alkene

(unsaturated hdyrocarbon)

ETHENE

ETHYLENE

[image]

PROPENE

PROPYLENE

[image]
PENTENE
[image]

PROPENE

PROPYLENE

Molecular formula

C3H6

PENTENE

molecular formula:

C5H10

ALKYNES

  • unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Carbon atoms joined by TRIPLE bond
  • Carbon number less than half the Hydrogen number

ETHYNE

ACETYLENE

molecular formula

C2H2

ETHYNE

ACETYLENE

[image]
PROPYNE
[image]
PROPYNE

molecular formula

C3H4

CYCLIC

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

carbon atoms in a CLOSED CHAIN
Benzene

molecular formula:

C6H6

TOLUENE

METHYLBENZENE

[image]
TOLUENE

molecular formula:

C7H8

 

line formula:

C6H5CH3

HALIDES
class of aromatic compounds which arise from the Halogens
HALOGENATION
the method of replacement of a hydrogen atom by a Halogen

CHLOROMETHANE

METHYLCHLORIDE

molecular formula

CH3CL

CHLOROMETHANE

METHYLCHLORIDE

[image]

DICHLOROMETHANE

methylene chloride

[image]

TRIChloromethane

Chloroform

[image]

TETRAchloromethane

Carbon Tetrachloride

[image]

Dichloromethane

Methylene Chloride

Molecular formula:

CH2CL2

TRIchloromethane

Chloroform

 

molecular formula:

CHCL3

 

  • used to be used as an anesthetic
  • highly flammable

Tetrachloromethane

Carbon Tetrachloride

every H has been replaced by a halide

 

molecular formula:

CCl4

Alcohols

  • derivatives of the hydrocarbons where a hydrogen atom is replaced by a Hydroxyl Group (OH)
  • will acts as a base
  • will neutralize an organic acid

Base
a compound that was a metal plus hydroxide (OH)
Monohydroxy Alcohols

alcohols that have 1 (OH) group attached

 

3 groups/types of alcohols:

  1. primary alcohols
  2. secondary alcohols
  3. terriary alcohols

Primary Alcohol

alchols where the OH is attached to the carbon located at the end of the carbon chain

 

  • can be first or last carbon
  • only 1 OH group

Methanol

Methyl Alcohol

Wood Alcohol

molecular formula:

CH40

 

line formula:

CH3OH

Methyl Alcohol

Wood alcohol

Methanol

[image]

Methanol

Wood Alcohol

Methyl Alcohol

  • good solvent for organic compounds
  • used as types of gas, antifreeze, varnishes & shellacs
  • severly poisonous

 

  1. Methanol is used in the producation of Formaldehyde/Methanal
  2. by partially oxidizing Methanol (CH3OH0) you get Methanal (HCHO)

ETHANOL

Ethyl Alcohol

Grain Alcohol

[image]

Propanol

Propyl Alcohol

[image]
Isopropyl Alcohol
[image]
Glycol
[image]

GLYCEROL

GLYCERIN

[image]
SORBITOL
[image]

Ethanol

Ethyl Alcohol

Grain alcohol

molecular formula:

C2H60

 

Line formula:

C2H5OH

Ethanol

Ethyl Alcohol

Grain alcohol

  • prepared by the fermentation of sugar by enzymes found in yeast
  • called alcoholic fermentation
  • used in the prep of ether and chloroform
  • type of drinking alcohol

partial oxidation of gives you acetaldehyde/ethanal

Propanol

Propyl Alcohol

molecular formula:

C3H80

 

line formula:

C3H7OH

Secondary Alcohols

  • alcohols where the hydroxyl group (OH) is attached to a carbon that is attached to 2 other carbons

 

  • OH is attached to a carbon that has 2 other radicals attached to it.

Isopropyl Alcohol

Rubbing alcohol

molecular formula:

C3H80

 

line formula:

CH3CHOHCH3

 

(CH3-CH-OH-CH3)

Tertiary Alcohols

  • alcohols where the OH group is attached to a carbon that is attached to 3 other carbons
  • OH is attached to a carbon that has 3 other radicals

Dihydroxy Alcohols
alcohols containing 2 hydroxyl groups attached

Glycol

Ethylene Glycol

molecular formula:

C2H602

 

line formula:

C2H4(OH)2

Glycol

Ethylene Glycol

coolant or antifreeze

 

Humectant or Wetting Agent used to retain mositure in the tissues

Trihydroxyl Alcohols
alcohols containing 3 OH (hydroxyl groups) attached to carbon

Glycerol

Glycerin

 

molecular formula

C3H803

 

line formula:

C3H5(OH)3

Glycerol

Glycerin

a softener used in hand lotions

 

a Humectant or Wetting Agent as well as a solvent for embalming fluid

Polyhydroxy Alcohols
alcohols containing many OH groups
Sorbitol

molecular formula:

C6H1406

 

line formula:

C6H8(OH)6

Sorbitol

  • sugars are a derivative of
  • used in the synthesis of vitamin C

 

Isomers are used in embalming fluids as Humectants or Wetting agents

Oxidation

the addition of oxygen

or

the removal of hydrogen from a compound

Aromatic Alcohols

occur when an OH group is substituted onto the side chain of an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene)

 

 

  • not directly attached to benzene ring
  • attached to a carbon that is attached to the benzene ring

Phenol Alcohols

occur when OH is substituted DIRECTLY onto the benzene ring

 

any benzene derivative with 1+ OH groups in direct combination with the benzene ring

Phenol

Carbolic Acid

molecular formula:

C6H60

 

line formula:

C6H5OH

Phenol

Carbolic Acid

  • highly poisonous
  • powerful germicide as well as preservative and disinfectant
  • great bleaching agent

 

when it’s put in solution it ionizes as an acid would

Monoaldehydes
aldehyde that contains one CHO group
METHANAL / FORMALDEHYDE

Molecular formula is: CH2O

Line Formula is: HCHO

  •   a colorless gas with an irritating / suffocating odor.
  • It is soluble in water.
  • readily oxidized to formic acid / methanoic acid
  • is a saturated solution of formaldehyde, water and another agent, most commonly methanol.

INDEX
term used to express the concentration of formaldehyde in embalming fluids; defined as the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters of solution
ETHANAL/ACETALDEHYDE

molecular formula: C2H40

 

line formula: CH3CHO

ETHANAL/ACETALALDEHYDE
[image]
DIALDEHYDES
aldehydes that contain two CHO groups
Polymerization
the linking together of basic chemical units to form a polymer that is a large molecule which is a multiple of the original weight molecule.
GLYOXAL

molecular formula:

C2H202

 

line formula

(CHO)2

GLYOXAL
[image]
GLUTERALDEHYDE
[image]
BENZALDEHYDE
[image]
DIMETHYL KETONE/ACETONE/PROPANONE
[image]
methanoic acid/formic acid
[image]
ETHANOIC ACID/ACETIC ACID
[image]
ETHYL ACETATE
[image]
METHYL SALICYLATE/OIL OF WINTERGREEN
[image]
METHYL ETHER/DIMETHYL ETHER
[image]
ETHYL ETHER/DIETHYL ETHER
[image]
METHYL AMINE
[image]
METHYL ETHYL AMINE
[image]
TRIMETHYLAMINE
[image]
UREA
[image]
GLUTERALDEHYDE

molecular formula:

C5H802

 

line formula:

OCH(CH2)3CHO

 

  • excellent germicide
  • “cold chemical” sterilant
  • good preservative less firming than formaldehyde

CYCLIC/AROMATIC ALDEHYDES
used as reoderants/perfuming agents in embalming fluids
BENZALDEHYDE

molecular formula:

C7H60

line formula:

C6H5CHO

 

  • simplest of aromatic aldehydes
  • colorless oily liquid, smells like almonds
  • used as perfume & flavoring agents

KETONES

  • are derivatives of hydrocarbons
  • are prepared by the partial oxidation of secondary alcohols

ACETONE/DIMETHYL KETONE/PROPANONE

molecular formula
C3H60

 

line formula:

CH3COCH3

 

  • simplest ketone
  • formed by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol

ACETONE/DIMETHYL KETONE/PROPANONE

  • colorless
  • soluble in water
  • active ingredient in nail polish remover & adhesives
  • good solvent for lacquers
  • funny sweet oder in diabetic keto-acidosis

 

ORGANIC ACIDS/CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

were once a hydrocarbon that lost one hydrogen atom which was replaced with the functional group COOH

 

prepared by: partially oxidizing an aldehyde or fully oxidizing a primary alcohol

METHANOIC ACID/FORMIC ACID

molecular formula:

CH202

line formula:

HCOOH

 

  • simplest organic acid
  • acid secreted by the stings of bees or ant, pine needles and nettles
  • strongest acid in the fatty acid series

ETHANOIC ACID/ACETIC ACID

molecular formula:

C2H4O2

line formula:

CH3COOH

 

acetum latin for vinegar

 

Glacial Acid

100% Acetic Acid

 

forms crystals like a glacier when frozen

ESTERS

  • the characteristic constituents of fruits and flowers, they all have a pleasant odor
  • produced by the interaction of organic acids + an alcohol

ETHYL ACETATE

molecular formula:

C4H802

line formula:

C2H5COOCH3 or CH3CH2OC(O)CH3

 

produced by the interaction of ethyl alcohol and acetic acid

METHYL SACLICYLATE/OIL OF WINTERGREEN

molecular formula:  C8H803

line formula: C6H4(OH)COOCH3

 

  • produced by the interaction of salicylic acid and methyl alcohol
  • principle ester used in embalming fluids as a reodarant
  • natural produce of many plants including wintergreens

ETHERS

  • composed of 2 hydrocarbon radicals joined by an atom of oxygen known as organic oxides
  • insoluble in water
  • extremely flammable
  • used as solvents for organic compounds

METHYL ETHER/DIMETHYL ETHER

molecular formula: C2H60

line formula: CH3OCH3

 

  • used as an aerosal spray propellant
  • creates a chemical reaction where cryogenic freezing used to remove warts when with propane’
  • clean-burning alternative to liquified petroleum, liquified natural gas, diesel and gas

ETHYL ETHER/DIETHYL ETHER

molecular formula: C4H10O

line formula: C2H5OC2H5 or CH3CH2OCH2CH3

 

  • used as a common solvent
  • rarely has been used as a general anesthetic

AMINES

  • organic derivatives of ammonia where 1 or more of the 3 H’s of NH3 are replaced by an alkyl (R) or aromatic groups
  • organic equivalent of a base; have a tendency to neutralize acids
  • very disagreeable odor, strong fishlike odor which comes out through decomposition

METHYL AMINE

simplest amine

 

molecular formula: CH5N

line formula:CH3NH2

UREA

  • waste product of human protein
  • formed in the liver from the breakdown of ammonia and secreted into the blood
  • selectively absorbed by the kidneys & excreted into the urine

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out