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Oral Communications

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A group is composed of people who
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interact verbally and non verbally, occupy certain roles, cooperate to accomplish a goal
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Advantages of group problem solving are
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facilitates the pooling of resources, increases individual motivation, generally more pleasant and fulfilling then working alone
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what inhibits brainstorming
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evaluating ideas for usefulness and practicality
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the most effective decision making for a group is
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decision by consensus as group members understand the outcome and support it
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an individual should make a decision rather than the group when
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the problem is not very complex
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women v. men in group work
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women see power as something to be shared, men use it to enhance status
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T/F: Generally, a group with 12+ members works best
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False
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T/F: A group technique used to promote a free flow of ideas is groupthink
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False
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T/F: the more involved members are in making decisions, the less affective the decision is
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False
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T/F: Communication within a group is improved when they are encouraged to speak freely
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True
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T/F: If a group wants to achieve tasks and build relationships, it should eliminate self-serving roles
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True
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T/F: “killer phrases” and “Killer looks” when brainstorming indicate that some members don’t really want to help the group create new ideas and solutions
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True
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T/F: We often become defensive when we feel attacked causing us to sometimes distort messages
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True
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T/F: when group problem-solving, it is best to start by brainstorming for all possible solutions
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False
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T/F: People who see problems as games think up more creative solutions than people who see problems as work
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True
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Role Types: Information giving
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Task-Oriented roles
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Role Types: blocking
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Self-serving roles
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Role Types: compromising
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Maintenance – oriented roles
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Role Types: Encouraging
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Matintenance – oriented roles
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Role Types: joking
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Self-serving roles
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Which of the following about groupthink is true? a. it is an extreme way to avoid conflict b. if forces group members to think critically c. it is a drastic but effective way to improve group functioning d. it is an excellent way to solve problem
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a
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Which of the following statements about leadership is true? a. effective leadership is telling others what to so whether they want to or not b. the best leadership in most situations is to let people do what they do best c. leadership is the ability to influence others d. leadership is something that only those born to lead should do
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c
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Which one of the following behaviors would counter the groupthink mentality? a. rationalization is used to justify a group decision b. members refrain from disagreeing in order to preserve harmony c. members assume that silence means agreement d. members are encouraged to challenge opinions and make critical decisions
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d
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Pamela is in charge of an experienced sales team. Which leadership style would be best? a. Autocratic – constant direction b. laissez-faire – free to progress on own c. democratic – need guidance and decisions to be made for them d. any of these are over-rated
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b
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Effective leadership includes all of the following except which statement? a. encourage membership interaction b. take command to eliminate criticism anf conflict c. demonstrate role versatility d. keep the group discussion focused with an agenda
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b
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A democratic leader a. has a “leave them alone” or “hands off” attitude b. is compromised between an autocratic and a lassiez-faire leader c. is always effective when a quick decision is needed d. is always a strong leader because they give the orders
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b
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Which of the following terms could you correctly associate with lassiez-faire leader? a. “type X” b. “autocrat” c. “leave them alone” “a born leader”
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c
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In most situations, people generally prefer a a. autocratic leader who takes command and gives orders b. democratic leader who participates with group members but does not dominate c. Lassiez-faire leader who lets group members to develop and progress on their own
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b
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Which leadership theory is true for this statement? “leadership emergence is affected by things like the nature of the problem” a. traits b. situational c. functional d. transformational
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b
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Which leadership theory is true for this statement? “Some people are simply born leaders” a. traits b. situational c. functional d. transformational
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a
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Which leadership theory is true for this statement? “Leaders provide inspiration and vision as a guiding force” a. traits b. situational c. functional d. transformational
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d
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Which leadership theory is true for this statement? “Several group members should be ready to lead when the time or action demands” a. traits b. situational c. functional d. transformational
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c
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T/F: Achieved leadership is assumed from the within while designated leadership is selected from outside
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True
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T/F: A person’s culture has very little influence on how they communicate in a group
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False
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T/F: The perception of a message or expectation of a behavior of a leader is often influenced by gender-role stereotypes as well as by a group’s cultural makeup
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True
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The systematic step-by-step process can be summarized into four stages:
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topic selection, subject development, presentation practice, post-presentation analysis
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Audience analysis that utilizes demographics refers to such things as the audience’s a. social status b. occupation c.martial status d. religion
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all
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which of the following statements about demographics is true a.your own age can affect your presentation b. gender can influence your audience’s reaction c. older audience members might prefer a slower, more evenly paced delivery
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all
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When speaking to an audience that already agrees with you, your aim is to a. maintain support b. determine its demographics c. get a fair hearing d. make a front-end analysis
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a
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which of the following would not be necessary to know regarding the occasion for a speech? a. date and time b. location c. size of the audience
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all
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Which of the following is not a criteria for topic selection according to your textbook? a. is the topic worthwhile b. is the topic appropriate c. is the topic interesting d. is the topic complex
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d
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An effective thesis statement fulfills 3 guidelines
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single sentence, focuses the audiences attention, supports your specific purpose
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if you primary purpose is to inform, you a. should provide data that will enhance your audiences understanding b. should find ways to help listeners remember what you say c. may also include some elements of persuasion
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all
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Which of the following abilities are needed by a public speaker to be effective communicator? a. organize ideas logically b. readily adapt to the audience c. express ideas clearly
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all
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T/F: the core idea or the bottom line of your speech is the body of the speech
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False
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T/F: A good source of information about your audience is your own personal experiences
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True
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T/F: the motivation and enthusiasm of an audience for your topic will probably be most impacted by whether attendance is required or optional
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True
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T/F: Homogeneity means how well the audience likes the speaker rather than same values
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False
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T/F: The phase of speech preparation that is most frequently shortchanged is paying attention to audience analysis
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True
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T/F: once mastered, you won’t ever use the basic steps to speech preparation in the future
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False
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T/F: today’s media environment and the availability of trained speakers place an added importance on becoming effective at speaking in public
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True
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T/F: When performing a demographic analysis of the audience when preparing a speech, it is important to consider the age of the audience members
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True
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T/F: when presenting any speech, you should just stand up and speak without preparation
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False
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T/F: Public speaking can be a horror for a shy person, but it can also be liberating
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True
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T/F: the length of a speech has little influence on the effectiveness of the speech
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False
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which of the following statements is true concerning the use of “statistics”? a. statistics are simply facts expressed in numerical form b. statistics may be cited to explain relationships or to indicate trends c. to be effective as support, statistics must be honest and credible
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all
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which of the following serves to specify particular instances a. examples b. illustrations c. statistics d. testimonies
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a
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which of the following statement s about testimony in a speech is not true? a. it should be derived only from present-day sources b. it should be derived from a credible source c. it should be relevant d. it should be understandable by the audience e. it is used to reinforce the speaker’s claims
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a
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criteria for use of visual aids
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simplicity, clarity, and visibility
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a paraphrase of a testimony may be used when
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it is important to summarize or simplify what was said
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which of the following is not a true statement concerning a public speech a. speakers use repetition by repeating a quotation word-for-word b. speakers use restatement when using different words to present a quotation
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both are true
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Primary research includes a. informational surveys b. personal experiences c. interviews
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all
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T/F: visual aids make it easier for an audience to understand and remember the speech
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True
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T/F: a visual aid should be clear, visible, and complex
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false
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T/F: when deciding whether to use a particular supporting material, you should consider the information;s accuracy, recency, and reliability
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true
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T/F: the purpose of a definition is to increase the audience’s understanding
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True
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T/F: A line graph is the best visual to illustrate trends over time
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True
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T/F: verifying the quality of material found online is the responsibility of the audience not the speaker
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False
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T/F: it is a good idea to reproduce your speech word-for-word in your PowerPoint slides so the audience can read along with you as you present and discuss them
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False
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T/F: Facts stated in numerical form are anecdotes
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False
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T/F: when you cite someone else’s opinions, you are using definitions
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False
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T/F: when a speaker presents an idea repeatedly using the same words, this is called repetition
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True
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T/F: use of technology should not be used in a way that it becomes an obstacle to understanding
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True
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T/F: For visual aids to be effective, the audience’s interest should be stirred
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True
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T/F: Since quotations in a speech must always be exact words, never paraphrase a quotation
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False
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In outlining a speech,
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subordinate ideas serve to help develop and explain larger or main ideas
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A chronological pattern of organization
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develops an idea or problem in the order in which it occurred in time
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Transitional words (or speech sign-posts) such as “furthermore” and “next” help to signal
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that additional information is coming
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One purpose of the introduction is to
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gain the attention of audience members
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which of the following is an effective device in the introduction to a speech? a. illustration b. rhetorical question c. surprising statement d. suspense
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all
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The purpose of the conclusion is to a. summarize what has been discussed b. heighten the impact of the presentation c. provide a sense of closure d. provide repetition of better memory
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all
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The Principle of Redundancy can be expressed by
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tell them what you will tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them
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T/F: According to the text, the intro portion of your speech should be prepared before you prepare the body of the speech
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False
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T/F: the pattern used when information is presented according to specific sub-categories of the topics is called spatial
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false
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T/F: when explaining the various steps to building a boat from beginnign to end you would be best to use problem-solution order
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false
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T/F: how well a speech is organized has little effect on an audience’s understanding that content of the speech
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false
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An effective proportion of the intro, body, and conclusion of a typical speech is:
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10/15% introduction 70/80% Body 10/15% conclusion
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T/F: the topical format is most frequently employed in persuasive speeches
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False
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T/F: humor should probably not be used anywhere in a speech if it is not relevant to the topic, situation and audience
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True
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T/F: The basic purpose of a speech preview is to prepare your audience for the main points you will discuss in detail during the body of the speech
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True
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The advantage of a manuscript speech is
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it allows the speaker to use precise language when the occasion demans
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which of the following should be considered by the speaker before delivery? a. clothing b. eye contact c. gestures d. posture
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all
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Which of the following statements about posture is true? a. it should not (and rarely does) present any problem for speechmakers, because standing is something almost everyone does very well b. speakers often seem to forget the posture communicates a great deal c. to stand properly in public speaking, simply assume a casual, relaxed posture
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b
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During a speech, you should make eye contact with
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all audience members regardless of whether they appear to be listening or not
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the most effective delivery style in most public speaking situations is the
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extemporaneous speech
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T/F: when arriving at a speaking location, you don’t really need to test your equipment if you did that in practice at home
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False
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T/F: while speaking you should work to convey your enthusiasm about the topic
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True
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T/F: after you arrive at the podium, you should apologize if you feel unprepared
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False
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T/F: a speaker who uses strong, active verbs, figures of speech and images to liven a presentation is using vivid words and language
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True
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T/F: Gestures like putting hands into pockets or scratching can become a distraction
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True
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T/F: what you wear as a speaker doesn’t really matter just so you feel comfortable
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False
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T/F: Four basic vocal dimensions speakers should consider when preparing and presenting a speech are volume, quantity, pitch and rate
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False
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A speech that is outlined and rehearsed with notes
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Manuscript speech
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raising and lowering of the vocal tone to prevent a monotone sound
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vocal pitch
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the loudness of the voice that lets you be heard
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speaking volume
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a speech that is outlined and rehearsed with notes
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extemporaneous speech
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the speaking speed – fast or slow – of a speaker
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speaking rate
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use of ‘uhs”, “ums”, and “you-knows” in a speech
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non- fluencies
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a speech delivered on the spur of the moment
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impromptu speech
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A prepared written speech committed to memory
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memorized speech
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A person who delivers an informative speech aims to
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offer more information, provide background material, refine audience’s understanding, and answer “what is it?” and “How does it work?”
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which or the following is an example of an informative speech? a. we should support the equal rights amendment b. we must develop nuclear power plants c. we need to develop a balanced diet
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none
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information overload can occur if the speechmaker
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presents more data than the audience wants or needs
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effective speechmakers view audience members as
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active participants in the presentation
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how to help an audience remember information?
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repetition, relevance, newness, novelty
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if your objective in an informative speech is to tell the process of how a butterfly emerges from a cocoon, this would be labeled an
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explanation speech
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to help the audience understand and retain key points, a speaker will use
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repetition of main ideas and restatement of key concepts
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T/F: being able to effectively communicate meaningful information is a highly useful skill
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True
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T/F: speeches that explain, describe, or define are called persuasive
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false
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T/F: in general, people learn more if they are allowed to remain passive during a presentation
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false
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T/F: when a speech of definition deals with connotative or subjective meanings, you should organize the content in a way that will help the audience to understand the levels of meaning
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True
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T/F: Because humans’ ability to absorb information has not increased through time, we have a greater need to filter and edit the information we receive as listeners
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true
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T/F: using models or pictures can be effective if the actual object cannot be used
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true
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T/F: since emphasis can be created through repetition, restatement of main ideas is not necessary
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false
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T/F: a speaker’s job is to give the audience the most new information possible in a short time
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false
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According to Monroe’s Motivated Sequence _____________ is especially appropriate in the conclusion to a persuasive speech
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a call to action
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“to persuade my audience that allowing corporations to collect DNA samples of employees is unethical” is a specific purpose for a persuasive speech of
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value
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A speech to persuade the audience that “a tax rebate should be enacted because it is the best way to stimulate the economy” is what type of proposition
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policy
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When preparing a persuasive speech,
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it is equally important to know both the beliefs and the attitudes of the audience
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which of the following statements regarding attitudes and beliefs is not correct? a. attitudes are the building blocks of beliefs b. beliefs are measured on a scale of probable to improbable c. attitudes are measured on a scale of favorable to unfavorable d. beliefs are the building blocks of attitudes
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a
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in the Toulmin model of reasoning, you present a claim or assertion to be believed that must be supported by
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data or reasons, facts and evidence
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After gaining audience attention when using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence, you then need to
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establish a clear need for change
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a speaker’s credibility refers to
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how you are perceived by the audience
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T/F: according to Maslow’s hierarchy, survival needs are those associated with security
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False
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T/F: according to maslow’s hierarchy, survival needs are those associated with food and shelter
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True
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T/F: According to Maslow’s hierarchy, esteem needs are those associated with boosting our ego
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True
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T/F: According to Maslow’s hierarchy, esteem needs are those associated with protection
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False
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T/F: responsible persuasion can be successful by using coercion and manipulation
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false
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T/F: a successful persuasive speech is likely to rely more heavily on reason than emotional appeal
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false
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emotional proof of a persuasive appeal
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pathos
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irrelevant distraction to divert audience’s attention
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red herring
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attacks the person and not their idea
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ad hominem
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logical proof of a persuasive argument
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logos
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audience’s judgement of a speaker’s credibility
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ethos
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appeal based upon wide popular acceptance
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bandwagon appeal