Oceanography Stuff-Chapters 1 and 2

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What is Marine Science?
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The process of discovering the facts, processes, and unifying principles that explain the nature of the oceans and their associated life forms.
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What is Oceanography?
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The study of the water in the ocean, the life within it, and the solid earth beneath it.
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What are the four main branches of oceanography?
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biological, chemical, geological, and physical
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What has made the exploration of the ocean possible?
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technology
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traditional science disciplines that marine science draws on
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physical science, life science, and Earth and space science
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Why do marine scientists have training in traditional disciplines?
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because they integrate traditional science concepts and apply them to marine science
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What are the four areas that marine science involves?
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science as inquiry, science and technology, science in personal and social perspectives, and the historical nature of science
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Why is the concept of situatedness important to marine scientists?
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In oceanography, you apply scientific concepts that you will never personally demonstrate or observe, and ____ gives you some basis for judging the worth of scientific concepts
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What are the disciplines that apply basic marine science?
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atmospheric science, astronomy, ecology, biomedical research, environmental science, and marine engineering
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What are the cross-disciplines in which marine scientists need education?
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mathematics, history, technology, social sciences, literature, and the arts
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ocean geology
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the study of the structure of the seafloor and how the seafloor has changed through time; the creation of seafloor features; the history of sediments deposited on the seafloor.
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ocean chemistry
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the study of the chemical composition and properties of sea water and the effects of pollution on seawater
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physical oceanography
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the study of waves, tides, and currents; the ocean-atmosphere relationship that influences weather and climate; the transmission of light and sound in the oceans
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ocean biology
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the study of various oceanic life forms and their relationships to one another; adaptations of life to the marine environment; developing ecological and sound methods of harvesting seafood
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three reasons to learn the history of oceanography
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it’s connected to the world’s overall history, its past helps you understand why and how people apply marine sciences today, and it’s interesting
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four main stages in the history of oceanography
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ancient uses and explorations, the Middle Ages, European voyages of discovery, and the birth and growth of modern marine sciences
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three main reasons for early civ. to interact with the ocean
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obtain food, discover new lands, means of trade
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first recorded voyage: when and by whom
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3200 BC by the Egyptians
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Phoenicians’ contributions to ocean exploration
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est. first trade routes throughout Med. to Great Britain, and first to use North Star to navigate
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significance of early Polynesian seafaring
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it was the earliest known regular, long-distance, open-ocean seafaring beyond sight of land
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how ancient explorers navigated near shore
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piloting (using references on shore to navigate)
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how ancient explorers navigated in the open ocean
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used sun, constellations, North Star, and sea conditions
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Pytheas the Greek’s Discovery
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noted you can predict the tides based on the phases of the moon, and used north star to find latitude
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Eratosthenes the Greek’s contributions
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calculated the Earth’s circumference and invented the first latitude/longitude system
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significance of herodotus’s map
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one of the earliest published maps of the world that the Greeks knew
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significance of Strabo’s book geographic
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demonstrated the Greek’s expanding knowledge about the world, and his map was accurate
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significance of Ptolemy’s map
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showed a portion of the Earth as a sphere on flat paper, improved on Hipparchus’s latitude/longitude system, and found out how to divide a degree of latitude into 60 minutes and then 60 seconds
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purpose of latitude and longitude mapping
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to identify specific locations on the Earth’s surface
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parallel
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a latitude line which circles the planet around the earth’s axis
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another name for the 0 degree parallel
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the Equator
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meridian
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a longitude line which begins at one pole and ends at the other
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which city does the 0 degree longitude line run through
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Greenwich, England
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effect of the Middle Ages on the knowledge of geography and science
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suppressed further advancements of knowledge in the west
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climate change that affected Scandinavia and when
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9th century, a warming global climate freed the North Atlantic of ice
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significance of climate change in Scandinavia
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allowed Vikings to explore westward
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what impt. navigational tool were the Chinese responsible for?
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the magnetic compass, by 1125
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two tech. innovations chinese ships had by the mid 1400s
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central rudders and watertight compartments
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1 degree
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60 minutes (‘)
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1′ (minute)
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60 ” seconds
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wilmington’s latitude
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37 degrees, 15 minutes, 45 seconds North
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wilmington’s longitude
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75 degrees, 30 minutes, 30 seconds West
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where is international date line
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in the Pacific Ocean
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tropic of cancer
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23.5 degrees north
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tropic of capricorn
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23.5 degrees south
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what did vikings build
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ships with sealed compartments
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1 fathom
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6 feet
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motivations to explore ocean in 15th century
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economics, politics, and religion
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who were three explorers that established the route around the Cape of Good Hope to India?
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prince henry the navigator of portugal, Bartholomeu Dias, and Vasco de Gama
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purpose of Christopher Columbus’ four expeditions
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to find a route to Asia and the East Indies
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who was the first european to recognize that south america was a new continent?
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amerigo vespucci
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What was Vasco Nunez de Balboa’s accomplishment?
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crossed Isthmus of Panama, and first European to sail in the Pacific
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who led the first expedition around the world, and when?
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Ferdinand Magellan. 1519-1522
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who was the first british explorer to sail around the globe?
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Francis Drake
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who led the second expedition around the world, and when?
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Francis Drake. 1577-1580
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what made James Cook’s voyages different from those before him?
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first major expeditions launched with science and exploration as their only goals
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what, invented in 1735, was a major breakthrough for open-ocean navigation?
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the chronomete
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what did the chronometer do?
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allowed sailors to calculate longitude at sea; referenced to Greewich, England
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what were the geographical discoveries of Cook’s expeditions?
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the location of Australia, and the Hawaiian Islands
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Who proved the existence of Antarctica?
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the United States Exploring Expedition
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Why is Matthew Maury known as the father of physical oceanography?
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because of his study of ocean currents, winds, and other physical aspects of the sea
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who is known as the father of physical oceanography?
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matthew maury
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Darwin’s explanation of coral reefs
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as the seafloor descends, the coral grows upward from its base to remain in the shallow water it needs to survive
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what theories did Darwin propose as a result of his observations during the HMS Beagle expedition?
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theory of natural selection and theory of evolution of species
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when did Darwin propose his theories of natural selection and evolution of species?
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after the HMS Beagle expedition
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what was the first expedition devoted entirely to marine science?
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the Challenger expedition
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who did first systematic plot of currents and temperatures?
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HMS Challenger
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who made a map of bottom deposits?
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HMS Challenger
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who outlined the main contours of the ocean basins?
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HMS Challenger
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who discovered the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Mariana Trench?
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HMS Challenger
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what change led to the growth and expansion of modern oceanography in the 20th century?
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the Industrial Revolution
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why did the Industrial Revolution lead to the growth and expansion of modern oceanography?
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technology explosion; no longer at mercy of winds while sailing
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who mapped the Atlantic seafloor with echo-sounding technology and created the first detailed map?
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the German Meteor expedition
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what was the first ship specifically designed and built for ocean studies?
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the Atlantis
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who found the deepest part of the ocean, located in the Mariana Trench?
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the second HMS Challenger expedition
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what was the HMS Challenger expedition’s accomplishment?
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found deepest known part of the ocean and named it Challenger Deep
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what allowed for the direct observation of the seafloor?
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submersibles and self-contained diving
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what did submersibles and self-contained diving allow for?
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the direct observation of the seafloor & pick specific samples
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what are the three types of submersible that have been used for underwater research?
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the bathysphere, the bathyscape, and the deep-diving submersible
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bathysphere
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steel ball with a window and oxygen recirculating system
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bathyscape
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a sphere attached to a large float instead of a cable and a ship
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deep-diving submersible
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a two-three person vessel that dives in moderate to deep depths
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advantages of submersibles?
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greater depth and duration
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disadvantages of submersibles?
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high cost, large size, logistical complexity
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advantages of scuba
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simplicity, portability, low cost
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disadvantages of scuba
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limited depth, short duration
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what are 4 other technologies that have opened underwater research?
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Remotely Operated Vehicles, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, electronic navigation, and ocean observation satellites
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how have LORAN-C and GPS benefitted seafaring and oceanography?
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made navigation significantly more accurate and easy
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what made navigation significantly more accurate and easy?
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LORAN-C and GPS
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true north
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north pole
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magnetic north
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moves around northern hemisphere
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1 nautical mile
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1 minute of latitude

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