Oceanography Final Exam Study

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What type of boundary is occurring here at the mid-ocean ridge?
What type of boundary is occurring here at the mid-ocean ridge?
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Divergent boundary
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Two unequal high and low tides daily is called a ______ .
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Mixed tide.
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How is bioluminescence used by organisms?
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* to attract a mate * to lure prey * to confuse predators or warn them * to communicate with members of the same species
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About ____% of available energy transfers from each level of the tropic pyramid to the next.
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10% transfers to the next level
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As you move away from the mid-ocean ridge in distance, the age of sea floor rocks _______________.
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Increases.
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What are the four main branches of oceanography?
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*Physical oceanography (studies tides, waves, and currents) *Biological oceanography (studies the life within the ocean and the ecosystems) *Chemical oceanography (studies the chemistry of the seawater and the reactions within it) *Geographical oceanography (studies the sediments and geology of the seafloor, plate tectonics)
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What is the definition of a wave period?
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The time it takes for the same spot on two waves to pass a single point
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The shore bottom that is splashes but not submerged is ___ zone of the benthic zone. (High tide mark)
The shore bottom that is splashes but not submerged is ___ zone of the benthic zone. (High tide mark)
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Supralittoral
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A single equal high and low tide daily is called a _______.
A single equal high and low tide daily is called a _______.
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Diurnal tide
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Science is….
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* a body of knowledge * an organized method * used to gain knowledge * ALWAYS changing * NOT STATIC
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Where are the westerlies typically found?
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30-60 degrees latitude
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As you move CLOSER in distance to the mid-ocean ridge, the age of sea floor rocks ___________.
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Decreases (new sea floor is created at the mid-ocean ridge, so the closer you get to it, the younger in age the rock is.)
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What part of the ocean seafloor contains the most biological sediment?
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The continental shelf
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What is a hypothesis?
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An if….then statement that can explain the observation and can be tested
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The Coriolis Effect deflects to what direction in the Southern Hemisphere?
The Coriolis Effect deflects to what direction in the Southern Hemisphere?
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To the Left
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What is the definition of a wave frequency?
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The number of waves that pass a fixed point in one second
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The Coriolis Effect deflects in what direction in the Northern Hemisphere?
The Coriolis Effect deflects in what direction in the Northern Hemisphere?
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To the right
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Neuston are a subgroup of _____.
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Plankton.
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Describe where the Coriolis effect is the strongest and the weakest.
Describe where the Coriolis effect is the strongest and the weakest.
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The Coriolis Effect has its greatest effect at the equator and zero effect at the poles.
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Why is the ocean conveyor belt important?
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It redistributes heat and moderates the Earth’s climate.
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What do scientists think causes the Coriolis effect?
What do scientists think causes the Coriolis effect?
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The rotation of the Earth around its axis
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What is oceanography?
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The science of recording and describing the ocean’s processes and contents
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The ______ zone refers to the water portion of the ocean.
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Pelagic
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Why does it benefit you to understand the marine environment?
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* it helps you become someone who can speak and vote for marine preservation * be part of the solution to the many problems * understand the consequences of interactions with the sea
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What is a primary consumer?
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An organism that consumes primary producers
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Where will you find the Northeast Tradewinds?
Where will you find the Northeast Tradewinds?
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0-30 latitude in the Northern Hemisphere
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The zone between the low-tide mark and the edge of the continental shelf is the _____
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Neritic zone
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Why don’t tsunamis destroy ships in the open sea?
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Their periods are so long that ships rise and fall very slowly when they pass under them.
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What do scientists think cause plate tectonics?
What do scientists think cause plate tectonics?
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Convection currents
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The _____ zone refers to the bottom of the ocean.
The _____ zone refers to the bottom of the ocean.
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Benthic
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What are examples of sessile epifauna?
What are examples of sessile epifauna?
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Barnacles and rock scallops
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During ____ ,the sun and moon align relative to the Earth.
During ____ ,the sun and moon align relative to the Earth.
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Spring Tide
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How would the effects of global warming differ from what is currently happening if water was not a polar molecule?
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It would be drastically worse. Water’s polar ability helps the earth moderate its temperature and water has the highest specific heat. So changing these two would be cause drastic changes.
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How do mangroves affect the coast?
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They absorb wave energy and they help hold sediment in place.
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What is the formula for water and what does it mean?
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H2O = 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
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Have humans seen much of the ocean?
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No, humans have seen only mainly the surface of the ocean. They have not explored the vast depths that lie beneath it.
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What are the four major layers of the Earth, going from the center of the Earth outward?
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The inner core, the outer core, the mantle and the crust
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During _____, the sun and moon are at right angles to the Earth.
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Neap tides
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If you were standing on the coast and noticed the water started going out to the open ocean, what would you think is happening?
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A tsunami is about to occur
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What are the properties of water?
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Cohesion, adhesion, polar molecule, ice floats, universal solvent
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What marks the boundaries between tectonic plates?
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Mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, trenches are thought to.
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Why are estuaries important to many species?
Why are estuaries important to many species?
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They serve as a nursery and as a breeding area for many species. They are also very nutrient rich. This is why many species use it as both a breeding ground and a nursery.
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What regions of the ocean produce the most primary productivity?
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Coastal temperate regions and subpolar regions
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What is coral bleaching?
What is coral bleaching?
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The result of waters getting too warm, corals expel the algae living in their tissue causing them to turn completely white. This is a side-effect of global warming.
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What has made true exploration of the oceans possible?
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Technology
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Describe what occurs at a convergent boundary and what forms there.
Describe what occurs at a convergent boundary and what forms there.
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Plates collide together and can form mountains, volcanoes.
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What are hydrogenous sediments?
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Minerals directly from seawater
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What attributes make life differ from nonlife?
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* uses energy to perform useful work * uses energy to create temporary order within itself * obeys the second law of thermodynamics
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What are cosmogenous sediments?
What are cosmogenous sediments?
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Sediments from comets or cosmic dust.
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Why does the sun heat the Earth unevenly?
Why does the sun heat the Earth unevenly?
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* the Earth is an elliptical orbit * the Earth is tilted on its axis * the Earth is a sphere
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What are lithogenous sediments?
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Litho means land or rock, so these are actual rock sediments. You will find these pretty close to the continental shelf due to them not traveling far from where they entered the ocean at.
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Which ocean basin is the largest and thought to be the remains of the universal ocean?
Which ocean basin is the largest and thought to be the remains of the universal ocean?
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The Pacific
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What is convection caused by?
What is convection caused by?
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Warm air rising and cool air flowing in to replace it
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Longshore drift moves material along the coastline…
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* due to the effect of Longshore current * primarily with the prevailing winds
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Important facts about Groundwater:
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* Groundwater is polluted very easily. * 50% of the population gets drinking water from groundwater. * Groundwater is depleted quicker than it is replenished.
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What happens to waves when they reach shallow water?
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They slow down
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The oceans are important to life on Earth because they influence….
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* weather and climate * where humans live on Earth
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Does the moon or the sun have a greater influence on tides and why?
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The moon has twice the gravitonal force of the sun due to it being closer to Earth.
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What are the three types of progressive waves?
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Orbital, longitudinal, and transverse
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What is cellular respiration?
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The conversion of carbohydrates to usable energy
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Why are people in Georgia not worried about a hurricane hitting them?
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The Georgia coast has not had a major hurricane since 1911. Because we have a curved coastline, we are positioned so that our coastline is protected from most storms. We also have a wide continental shelf. This is why you can walk for miles at low tide. Most Georgians have never experienced a major storm.
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What are tidal deltas?
What are tidal deltas?
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Where tide water moves in and out between barrier islands
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If a pesticide like DDT gets into our ecosystem, which animal in the food chain would have the highest amount of it?
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The animal at the top of the food chain because the level of DDT will be multiplied and increased as you move up the food chain. (If the pesticide is used on the grass to get rid of a certain pest, then it is washes into the ocean. The phytoplankton will have the DDT and then the zooplankton that feed on them will already have it as well but their levels will increase by 10% by feeding on the phytoplankton. Then as you move up food chain it will increase even more. So the top predator, large birds feeding on fish or large fish like tuna or large mammals like dolphins would be the ones with the most.)
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Neuston are organisms that ______
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Float.
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What gases contribute to global warming?
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Carbon dioxide, methane, and CFC’s
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How do shark’s achieve a natural buoyancy?
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Their oily liver
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What % of our atmosphere is nitrogen?
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78%
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How are sediments classified by size?
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Based on the diameter of an individual particle
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What are primary producers?
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Organisms that create energy-rich compounds
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What is a scientist?
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Someone who uses the processes of science to find answers about how and why things work in the world and in the observable universe.
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Why was Wegener’s plate tectonics theory rejected by other scientists?
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Wegener was a meteorologist not a geologist.
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The global water cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor….
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From the ocean to the land. (The water evaporates over the ocean and moves to the land).
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Most of the sunlight that reaches Earth…
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Is not captured by living organisms.
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What are the two main factors that control primary production in land based ecosystems?
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Temperature and moisture
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What is the main cause of eutrophication?
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Excess of nutrients such as in run offs from land.
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Offshore oil production includes what types of equipment….
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Drilling ships, platforms, and pipelines.
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Does the age of seafloor rocks increase or decrease in age as they move away from the mid ocean ridge?
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Seafloor is youngest at the mid ocean ridge and gets older as you move towards the trenches.
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Where will you find the highest concentration of biological sediments? (The continental slope, the continental rise, the continental shelf, or the trenches)
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The continental shelf.
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Where is the next most likely place for us to do oil drilling?
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The Arctic Ocean
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What ocean is more likely to have a tsunami occur there due to plate tectonics?
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The Pacific Ocean due to the ring of fire where a lot of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
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What does it mean when you say water is a polar molecule?
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It means the atoms are partially charged due to the unequal sharing of electrons.
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If we overfishing specific population of fish, what are some reasons that might cause it NOT to recover from our overfishing?
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*competition from other species *irregular breeding cycles due to stress *predation on the young
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What are consequences of global warming?
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Rising sea levels, increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, increase of droughts and heat waves
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What atmospheric gases contribute to global warming?
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Carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
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Why are pelagic fish often stressed out in rectangle tanks?
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The open ocean does not have harsh corners and edges that rectangle tanks do. This is why you often see pelagic fish at aquariums in circular tanks.
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How do plants often eliminate other species of plants?
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It is just like in the rainforest, the plants that get the most light often grow big causing shade on smaller ones thus eliminating them from competing for the light.
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How do organisms that live in the tidal areas adapt to wave shock?
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They often have suction cups, a very strong anchorage system, and usually a low body profile.
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Why is it difficult for organisms to live on soft bottoms in the intertidal zone?
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The sea bottom is constantly moving due to wave and tidal motions.
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What are some ways we use as evidence for seafloor spreading?
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Magnetic pole reversal and the age of the seafloor.
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Why do we rarely have a limited amount of carbon in our ecosystems?
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Carbon comes from the air so it is always in high supply.
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How can you generally describe the weather in the Equatorial climate zone?
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Wet weather and low air pressure (remember air pressure is high at the poles, low at the equator and rotates in between them).
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What is the most common adaptation for birds when it comes to what they eat?
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Their beaks vary, often shorebirds have long beaks for digging in the sand and mud.
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Estuaries often have low biodiversity but ….
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His primary production.
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What force causes plate tectonics?
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Convection currents
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Why are volcanoes the natural disasters that cause the lowest number of deaths in the US each year?
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Most active volcanoes are in the Pacific Ocean. The US does not have many active volcanoes.
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How does water’s polar properties help us prevent global warming?
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Ice floats because it is less dense. The floating ice helps insulate the water below it and provides a home for many diverse organisms. Global warming is reducing the amount of sea ice we have due to the increase in air temperature.

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