Oceanography Ch.2

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is the deepest part of the ocean called; How deep is it?
Marianas Trench; 11,022 m deep
Where is Earth’s highest mountain; how tall is it?
Hawaii; 10,203m tall
Who funded the expedition of the Mariana Trench recently?
James Cameron
What is the Southern Hemisphere also known as?
The Ocean Hemisphere
What is the Northern Hemisphere also known as?
The Land-Ocean Hemisphere
How much of the total liquid water on Earth is in the Pacific Ocean?
51%
How much of the total liquid water on Earth is in the Atlantic Ocean?
25.6%
How much of the total liquid water on Earth is in the Indian Ocean?
20.6%
What percentage of the Earth’s surface is water?
71%
What percentage of the Earth’s surface water is ocean?
97%
What is the average depth of the ocean?
3700 m
What is the average temperature of the ocean?
3.9 degrees C
What is the average salinity of the ocean?
34/35 ppt
Who had the earliest recorded voyages on water; where did they take place; how long ago was it?
The Egyptians; the Mediterranean; 2000 YA
Which Pharaoh was the first pyramid built for?
Pharaoh Snefru
What did Snefru try to do with his sea voyages; How do we know this to be true?
Increase trading; Hieroglyphics show that ocean trade was being conducted in the Red Sea
Who were the first regular ocean traders until roughly 1200 BC
Cretans
Who first sailed through the straits of Gibraltar to markets as far as Britain & Africa roughly 1,200 YA?
The Phoenicians
What are some other characteristics of the phoenicians?
They rose to power in the Mediterranean, Earthquakes destroyed their culture/land so they set sail, Had more advanced ships so they were better able to go into the open ocean
Who were the first to consistently explore outside the Mediterranean roughly 900-700 BC?
The Greeks
How did the Greek ships look?
Their hull design is shorter, more rounded to better handle the open ocean waves
What would happen to a long hulled boat in the ocean?
The hull would be in-between two wave crests and would likely break the boat in the middle
What did early ocean goers think that the Canary Current was?
A river, because it was so strong
What is the Greek name for river?
Okeanos
What is the Latin variant of Okeanos; What word is derived from this?
Oceanus; Ocean
What building was built by Alexander the Great; what happened to it?
The Alexandria Library; was destroyed by rising sea levels and earthquakes
Who was the librarian at Alexandria; What did he do?
Eratosthenes; was an astronomer, philosopher and the first to calculate the circumference of Earth
How far off was Eratosthenes in his circumference measurement?
7%
Who voyaged the Pacific Ocean 30,000 YA?
The Polynesians
Where did the Polynesians eventually reach?
The Easter Islands and Hawaii
What is a stick chart?
A map composed of sticks that are latched together. When the sticks cross and a white dot is placed it indicates an island. White strings that are connected indicate current systems
What nationalities are Vikings?
Danish and Norwegian
What kind of ships did Vikings have; Why did they need these ships?
Fast, strong, stable ships that were good for bobbing up and down in the North Atlantic; to attain wealth by plundering/pilaging
What North American place did the Vikings sail to; what did they call it; What is the evidence to support this?
Newfoundland; Vinland; L’anse aux meadows which was abandoned in 1020 AD
Who was Henry the Navigator?
The 3rd son of the royal family of Portugal who explored with captains from 1451-1470
Where did Henry the Navigator house the information he brought back from sea?
Sagres
Who explored the Pacific Ocean during the Renaissance?
The Chinese
What kind of ships did the Chinese have; What happened to the Chinese?
The most sophisticated boats, called caraval; They stopped exploring because it was too expensive
Explain the caraval ship
It was a multicasted ship that allowed you to sail against the wind, hull is still short and deep
What are some things Columbus did?
Made the caraval ship famous, Tried to find a route to Asia from the East, but instead found the “New World”. He went to his grave thinking he discovered islands off the coast of Asia
Who was Magellan?
A Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain who tried to open a trade route with the East. He was killed in the Philippines in 1521 and cannibals ate him
What did Magellan’s sailors show?
They showed was possible to circumnavigate the globe
Who was James Cook; what was his ships name?
The first marine scientist; HMS Endeavor
How was Cook able to fund his voyages?
The British Navy funded his voyages to assert British presence in the pacific
How do you calculate latitude?
At dusk look for north star. Then use a protractor to measure the angle from the north star to the surface. That is your latitude
How do you calculate longitude?
Using a Harrison clock, start at noon and every hour you move 15 degrees. From this you can calculate how far you’ve traveled
What did Charles Wilkes do?
Launched the United States Exploring Expedition in 1838, helped establish the natural sciences as reputable in America, circumnavigated the world, was a difficult person to work with
What did Matthew Maury do?
Was in charge of the US Navy’s Depot of Charts & Instruments and compiled this information into the world’s first wind and current charts
How did B.Franklin contribute to Oceanography?
In 1769 he made a chart of the Gulf Stream
What ship did Charles Darwin sail on?
HMS Beagle
What did Charles Wyville Thomson do?
Convinced the Royal Society & Royal Navy to provide a ship for exploration of the world’s oceans for research not military purposes, also coined the term “oceanography”
What type of sampling did Charles Wyville Thomson do first on the HMS Challenger?
Dredging/deep sea sampling, and primitive diving bells
What was the research vessel after HMS Challenger; what was the research on?
DSDP Glomar Challenger; deep sea drilling
What was the research vessel after DSDP Glomar Challenger; what was the research on?
ODP Joides Resolution; deep sea drilling at greater depth
What are the research vessels after ODP Joides Resolution; Where does the funding come from?
IODP Chikyu (drilling ship that is able to drill through gas pockets), Submarine, Ice Breakers; funded by japanese

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