Nutrition note

vitamins and mineral
vitamins:
* organic in chemist’s sense

water soluble: distributed into water-filled compartments of body + fluid in spinal cord.

* B vitamins (thiamin,riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, b6, b12, folate)
*vitamin C

Fat soluble:stored in liver and body fat
*A
*E
*K
*D

Amount needed: very small

VITAMIN FUNCTION
Promote and regulate body processes

Many act like coenzymes

Coenzymes: a small organic molecule that assist an enzyme in its function

enzymes: proteins that act as catalysts to help boost chemical reactions in the body.

MINERALS
Inorganic elements
MINERAL TYPES
*major (>5mg)
* trace minerals(<5mg) amount needed: mg or mcg functions -cofactors for enzymes
– body structures (bone)
-electrolyte carrying electrical charge
for neverous system,muscule contraction, blood pressure.
BIOAVAILABITY
The extent to which a nutrient can be extracted from food and used by the body.
BIOAVAILABITY
Body need (to some extent): During pregnancy,calcium absorption improves and calcium excretion is reduced so the recommended intake does not go up.

Food source: the hemeiron in meat is more absorbed than the iron in the plan.

Cooking method: cooking vegetables in lots of water cause some water soluble vitamin be lost- but not all of them.

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
The vitamins and minerals we are covering are essential.
-Human body can’t make or can’t make enough of needed in the diet.

Deficiency symptom: occurs when intake is inadequate.

TWO GROUPS OF ACCOUNT RECEIVABLES
The major Minerals:
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sodium
Chloride
Potassium
Sulfur

The trace Minerals
Iodine
Iron
Zinc
Copper
Flouride
Selenium
Chromium
Molybdenum
Manganese

ANTIOXIDANT NUTRIENTS
Oxygen-containing molecules (often called free radicals) tend to damage other body molecules by stealing electrons from them

Source:
* Normal body processes(energy metaboslism)

*pollutant

*toxins in cigarette smoke

OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
– cancer
– oxidized LDL cholesterol in atherosclerosis (qua trinh ma fat, mineral build up inside artery -dong mach chinh’)
HOW ANTIOXIDANT FIGHTS AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
The body has numerous antioxidant systems to keep these in proper balance:
-some vitamins are antioxidants
-some minerals act as cofactors for antioxidant enzyme sysmtems.
DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS
Vitamins : C & E & Beta Carotene (used to make vitamin A)

Mineral: Selenium & Zinc & Copper

VITAMIN C- WATER SOLUBLE ANTIOXIDANT
Additional functions
– connective tissue synthesis (skin and bone health)
-enhances iron absorption
-immune function (preventing cold)
VITAMIN C SOURCE
– natural: citrus, peppers, berries

-fortified foods: added to many beverages

VITAMIN C

DEFICIENCY & TOXICITY

-Abdominal discomfort
-Constant use of oral tablets erodes tooth enamel
VITAMIN E FUNCTION
– provides antioxidant protection for cell membranes

free radical formation and damage
-occasionally, oxygen gains an extra electron from the electron transport chain, thereby generating a free radical

-to regain its stability, the free radical attacks a nearby molecule (such as lipid or protein) and steal an electron.

-left with an unpaired electron, this molecule becomes a free radical itself and attacks another nearby molecule. the chain reaction continues,causing widespread damage.

ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION

-antioxidants, such as vitamin E neturalize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons

-the destructive chain reaction is stopped, but vitamin E is no longer active

– like vitamin E, vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, it also restores vitamin E to its active form. An abundance of dietary antioxidants minimizes free-radical damages.

VITAMIN E SOURCE
Source:
-Plants, oil, nut seeds
– wide spread in diet
-destroy by heat and light so useless
VITAMIN E-TOXICITY AND DEFICIENCY
Deficiency: rare
Symptom: Anemia(a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy
red blood cells.)

Population at risk: premature infants

Toxicity
Symptoms- very high doses interfere with some drugs
Population at risks- supplement users

SELENIUM
Function
– A cofactor for an antioxidant enzyme that works with vitamin E

Deficiency-
Keshan Disease (china) related to a virus

SELENIUM BENEFITS AND SOURCE
– Research is not conclusive but cancer rates are higher where soil SE is low

-Source: sea foods & meat & whole grain

should we take antioxidant supplements
– research: high consumption of food and vegetable & lower of risk cancer and heart disease
-morality rate was higher for supplemented group
-foods is a better choice than supplements
NUTRIENTS IMPORTANT FOR GROWTH/DEVELOPMENT AND IMMUNITY
Vitamin A
Zinc
Iodine
D (bone health)
-and many other nutrients play roles here too
VITAMIN A FORMS
-Preformed: retinol family

-precursor: caroteners (many are also antioxidant)

VITAMIN A FUNCTION
-RETINOL:
-vision in dim light
-epithelial (bie^?u mo^) cell health
-immunity
Carotenes
-antioxidants
-can be used to make retinol
VITAMIN A SOURCE
liver
milk
margarine (bo)

catorinoids: yellow,orange, deep green veggies

VITAMIN A
The BAE unit is used to equate the different forms of the vitamin in food

1 mcg RAE (retinol activity equivalent)

= 1mcg retinol

2mcg supplemental beta carotene
12 mcg beta carotene from foods
24 mcg other carotenes

VITAMIN: DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY
DEFICIENCY
-Symptoms: decrease cell devision + deficient development
Night bindness
Xerophthalma (a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears)

Revatinization
-eyes cannot make lubricant to har or clear out dust from duct->blindness exhaustion death

Revatinization
-rough, scaly skin.

Toxicity
-symptom: death, liver failure to fracture bone abonomarlities

hernorrhages: hair losses, skin rash.

ZINC
Function:
– cofactor for many enzymes
– sense of taste
-growth & development

food sources:
-meat, poultry, & fish & legiume

Deficiency : growth failure & taste perception dull

Toxicity: to much lower HDLC
UL is 40mg/day
RDA is 8-11mg
Between RDA and UL is rather small

IODINE
Function: thyroid hormones
*metabolic rate
*temperature
*growth and development

Food sources:
-sea foods
-dairy products
-bleached flour
-plants grown in iodine-rich soil
-iodized salt(added)

IODINE: DEF AND TOXIC
DEF: -goiter: enlarged thyroid gland
-cretinism: mental + physical retardation from development

tox: enlarged thyroid

NUTR FOR HEALTHY BLOOD
-Folate
– B12
-B6
-vitamin K
– Iron
-Copper- won’t cover
FOLATE
Function:new cell synthesis (including red blood cells)

Sources: dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, added to enriched grain

Bioavailability: synthetic form is more bioavailable in easier for body to digest
DEE (dietary date equivalent unit equates form

FOLATE DEF AND TOX
def: symptom: anemia
high blood homocysteine–> heart disease
birth defects- spina bifida two halves of the slender bones that should complete the casement of the spinal cord fail to join

population at risk: scotch-irish

FOLATE- TOXICITY
symptom: can mask a vitamin B-12 deficiency
def increase the risk of developing cancer but worse after already have cancer because the cells divide faster

population at risk: high dose supplement user

B12- ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT
function: partner with folate in new cell synthesis
nerve cell health

Source: foods from animals

very tiny amount needed: (two years for a healthy person to develop a deficiency)

Absorption mechanism: intrinsic factor (made in the stomach) is needed in the absorption for your diet.

B12- DEF AND TOX
DEF: anemia

at risk: vegans & individual lack of intrinsic factor to absorb b-12

tox: no UL

B6- FUNCTION, SOURCE, DEF AND TOX
function:
-new cell synthesis
-protein metabolism

source: (plant form might be less bioavailable)
-meat
-vegetable
-whole grains

VITAMIN B6
DEF: symptom: a new nervous system disorder skin + mouth abnormalities (rashes)
high risk group: alcoholics, individual taking the drug TNH for tuberculosis

tox: symptom: nerve damage
population at risk: high dose supplementation

VITAMIN K-function
-blood clotting
-synthesis of the bone protein
vitamin K-source
source: -intestinal bacteria
-found in many foods (milk is low though)

def: symptom: bleeding
population at risk: new born in the US-new born receive a vitamin K injection

Tox: appear to non toxic. some clogging require a constant drug intake

IRON-function
function: help to transport oxygen (hemegolon) required some enzymes

food source: meat-heme iron-is more easily to absorb.
plant source-less well absorbed: legumes, dried fruits, tofu, added in many cereals.
-vitamin c and meat protein improve absorption

IRON- DEF AND TOX
-women need much more than men due to menstrual losses
-deficiency: anemia
-tox
liver tissue damage
pro-oxidant
ingestion iron supplement is the major cause of poison in children
MINERALS RELATED TO BONE HEALTH
Vitamin D
Vitamin K(covered with blood)
Calcium
Magnesium (covered with blood pressure)
Flouride
VITAMIN D-funtion
function: bone health: regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism
-vital to calcium absorption
-regulate cell metabolism
VITAMIN D- SOURCES
-sources:
skin synthesis : needs vary with sun exposure
foods: added to milk, oily fish, egg yorks.

activation: liver,kidney

VITAMIN D-TOX AND DEF
DEF: symptom: rickets & Osteomalacia (is the softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization. )

Population at risk:- low sun exposure
-low diet intake

tox: symptom: excess calcium deposition

population at risk: -supplement
-extreme high dairy consumption
-skin synthesis is regulated so we don’t overdose this way

CALCIUM-function
function:Bone and teeth
-nerve conduction and muscle contraction
-regulate many cell processes
CALCIUM- DEF AND TOX
DEF: symptom: bone loss
population at risk: women petitte
fair skin (genetic link to vitamin preceptor)
Prevention:
+ calcium + vitamin D
+ physical acvity
+avoid excess protein caffein phosphorous

toxicity: symptom: interferes with absorption of other minerals (iron)
supplement users are at risk

PHOSPHOROUS- FUNCTION AND SOURCE
Function:
-bone and teeth
-energy metabolism (part of ATP)
-part of DNA/acid-based balance

Source:
high, protein foods(meat and beans)

PHOSPHOROUS- DEF AND TOX
Def: recommended intake should be a bit less than calcium
-deficiency is very rare

-toxicity: too much interferes with calcium absorption
-populations at risk: those eating with high animal protein diets.

FLOURIDE- FUNCTIONS AND SOURCE
Function: Bone and tooth structure

Source:
-water
-dental rinses
-tea
-sea foods

FLOURIDE- DEF AND TOX
DEF: symptom: weak tooth enamel-cavities
-Individual at risk: in adequate intake

toxicity: fluorosis
-brown spots on teeth
-weak teeth and bones

NUTRIENTS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN ENERGY METABOLISM
-Thiamin (b1) -riboflavin (b2)-niacin (to reduce fat & cholestrol in your blood) -biotin (vitamin B7) -pantothenic acid (b5)
THIAMIN-FUNCTION
function: cofactor for enzymes in energy metabolism

food source:
-whole and enrich grain
-meats
-legumes

THIAMIN- DEF AND TOX
Deficiency:
-beri-beri
symptom: muscle wasting and paralysys, edema
-at risk: diet mainly unenriched white rice, alcoholics
-toxicity: no UL defined
RIBOFLAVIN-FUNCTION AND SOURCE
function: cofactorfor enzymes in energy metabolism
source: grain and dairy
RIBOFLAVIN- DEF AND TOX
Symptom: skin and mouth problems
at risk: alcoholics

Toxicity: no UL defined

NIACIN- FUNCTIONS AND SOURCE
Function: cofactor for enzymes in energy metabolism
source:
high protein foods
can be made from amino acid tryptophan.
NIACIN- DEF AND TOX
def: 4D: dermattis (inflammation of the skin, diarrhea, dementia (loss of brain function), death
At risk: alcoholics

Toxicity: symptom: headache & hot flashes
-at risk: high supplement doses

BIOTIN AND PANTOTHENIC ACID-FUNCTION, SOURCE,DEF AND TOX
-function: cofactor for enzymes in energy metabolism
-source: wide spread in foods
-deficiency: very rare
-toxicity: no UL determined
NUTRIENTS RELATED TO BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION
Sodium
Potassium
Magnessium
Calcium
SODIUM-FUNCTION, SOURCE
function: electrolyte
-nerve and muscle function
-blood pressure regulation

source of sodium: processed foods

SODIUM-DEF AND TOX
DEF: hyponatremia
symptom: confusion, weakness
individual at risk- long duration exercise

Toxicity: chronically high intake increases the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension)

POTASSIUM-FUNCTION
function: electrolyte
-nerve and muscle function
-blood pressure regulation

food source-fresh,whole foods milk

POTASSIUM- DEF AND TOX
Def:
-muscle cramping
-increase risk of hypertension
toxicity:
-no UL
-unlikely as long as kidney is healthy
MAGNESIUM-FUNCTION AND SOURCE
function: electrolyte
-bone structure
-nerve and muscle function

adequate intake helps to prevent hyperintension

MAGNESIUM-FOODS SOURCE
-nuts and bea
-legume
-soy
MAGNESIUM
-DEF: rare
toxicity:
-avoid taking more than 350mg/day (UL does not apply to food)
THE DASH DIET PATTERN
-lower blood pressure
NUTRIENT CONSEQUENCES OF DASH
increase potassium & calcium & magnecium

-may be combined with reduced sodium for increased effect

OTHER ESSENTIAL MINERALS
Chloride
Sulfur
Copper
Chromium
Selenium
Manganese
Molybdenum
MINERAL OF UNCERTAIN STATUS
Boron
Nickel
Silicon
Tin
Vanadium
Cobalt(part of vitamin b-12)
others
PHYTOCHEMICALS-definition
compounds from plants which are not essential nutrients, but appear to impact health
CAROTENOIDS- SOURCES AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS
-many are antioxidant (beta carotene which can also be used to make vitamin A)
-lutein and zeaxathin may protect again age-related eye disorders (epecially macular degenerator)
lycopene may protect against prostate
FLAVOINONIDS AND OTHER PHENOIS- SOURCES AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS
-sources: bright colored fruits and vegetables, tea, chocolate
-possible effects: may acts as antioxidants derease inflamation,reduce plague build up in arteries inhibit cancer development.
IDOLES AND ISOTHIOCYANATES-SOURCES AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS
-sourceS: cruciferous vegetable, broccoli,kae, cauliflower, cabbage,turnip, brusseis sprouts.
-possible effects: may help against cancer
ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS- SOURCES AND EFFECTS
-source: onion, garlic,chieves,leeks
-effects: may protect against heart disease and cancer
PHYTOESTROGENS- SOURCES AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS
source: soy and other legumes
possible effects: may help lower cholesterol block the action of estrogen (sudden strong feelings of heat and sweat) and reduce the risk of estrogen stimulated breast cancer
TANNINS- SOURCES AND POSSIBLE EFFEECTS
-source: grape,wine,tea
-possible effect: antioxidant may help prevent cancer and heart disease

-higher tea intake= risk of anemia

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