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Nutrition Chap 11

question

Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins? a. Require bile for absorption b. Found in the fat and oily parts of foods c. Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue d. Pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity than water-soluble vitamins
answer

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
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What is the main carrier of the fat soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
answer

Chylomicrons
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Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins? a. Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria b. Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation c. Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet d. Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins
answer

Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
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If the diet contains precursor Vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form Vitamin A?
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Intestinal cells
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Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body? a. Tryptophan b. Chlorophyll c. Xanthophyll d. Beta-carotene
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Beta-carotene
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How many different forms of Vitamin A are active in the body?
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3
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All of the following are forms of vitamin A except a. retinol. b. retinal. c. retinoic acid. d. retinoquinone.
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Retinoquinone
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Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues? a. Albumin b. Rhodopsin c. Retinol-binding protein d. Transcarotenoid protein
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Retinol-binding protein
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As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes? a. Blood clotting b. Growth of bones and teeth c. Synthesis of visual pigment d. Maintaining mucous membranes
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Blood clotting
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What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
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Blindness develops
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Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision? a. Retinoic acid is the form required for synthesis of retinoblasts b. Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration c. Retinol is the form bound to beta-carotene in the corneal membrane d. Pigment molecules in the retina are composed of a molecule of vitamin A bound to an omega-3 fatty acid
answer

Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
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What is the name of the Vitamin A compound that is active in visual response?
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Retinal
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Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process? a. Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal b. Light energy strikes the cornea and excites pigments to release retinoic acid c. Visual pigments deep in the brain are excited by light transmitted through the retina d. Epithelial cells on the surface of the eye respond to light energy by transmitting opsin molecules along nerve pathways to the brain
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Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
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What % of the body’s vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
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90
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What tissue contains the majority of the body’s store of vitamin A? a. Liver b. Adipose c. Retinal cells d. Intestinal mucosal cells
answer

Liver
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Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health? a. It stimulates uptake of calcium from the intestines b. It promotes synthesis of specific bone proteins involved in the mineralization process c. It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur d. It inhibits oxidation of bone mucopolysaccharides thereby preserving bone crystal integrity and promoting growth
answer

It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
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Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he’s consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn’t eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear? a. “Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!” b. “As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes.” c. “Well, there isn’t any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven’t consumed vitamin A for some time now.” d. “Don’t worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects.”
answer

Don’t worry, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse affects
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If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
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1-2 years
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How many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?
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250 million
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Why does vitamin A status depend on the person’s protein status? a. Adequate protein intake is a marker for liberal intake of the vitamin b. Dietary protein assures synthesis of the vitamin’s GI tract transporter c. Adequate protein intake reduces the risk for infection from bacteria that degrade the vitamin d. Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
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Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol binding protein
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Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of
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Vitamin A
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Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?
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Inhibition of oxidation
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The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is
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Night blindness
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Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
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Vitamin A deficiency
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Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions? a. Acne b. Rickets c. Osteomalacia d. Night blindness
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Night blindness
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The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group? a. Adults b. Elderly c. Newborns d. Adolescents
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Newborns
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Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A? a. Osteomalacia b. Osteoporosis c. Xerophthalmia d. Prolonged blood-clotting time
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Xerophthalmia
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Keratinization is the result of
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Vitamin A deficiency
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What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?
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Deficiency of Vitamin A
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Keratinization of lung cells may result from
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Deficiency of Vitamin A
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Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
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They have chemical structures similar to Vitamin A
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What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity? a. Children b. Adolescents c. Adults d. Elderly
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Children
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Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A? a. They increase teratogenic risk b. They are effective in treating acne c. They lead to keratinization of tissue d. They reduce risk for neural tube defects
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They increase teratogenic risk
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The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is the
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retinol activity equivalent
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Which of the following is a feature of Accutane? a. It is effective in treating rickets b. It is less toxic than pure vitamin A c. It is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne d. It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
answer

It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
question

All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except a. overconsumption from foods is harmless. b. overconsumption from supplements is harmless. c. drinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements. d. smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.
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Overconsumption from supplements is harmless
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How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent?
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12
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On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?
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3
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Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?
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skin yellowing
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Why shouldn’t a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane?
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It’s a teratogen and could be harmful to the baby
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n which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur? a. Adolescent women b. Overweight adults c. Those taking vitamin A supplements d. Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily
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Those taking vitamin A supplements
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To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than a. 5,000 RAE. b. 10,000 RAE. c. 4 times the RDA. d. 10 times the RDA.
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4 times the RDA
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The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately
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800 retinol activity equivalents
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Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults? a. Eating beef liver once a month b. Consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements c. Drinking 2 quarts of vitamin A-fortified milk daily d. Consuming large amounts of dark green and deep orange vegetables
answer

Consuming high dose vitamin A supplements
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in foods? a. Most carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A b. The carotenoid with the highest conversion rate to vitamin A is lycopene c. Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing d. Carotenoid absorption is inhibited by foods rich in chlorophyll
answer

Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods? a. Anthocyanin in beets masks the presence of beta-carotene b. Margarine made from corn oil is a poor source of vitamin A c. Most carotenoids can be converted in the body to active vitamin A d. Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
answer

Chlorophyll in dark leafy green vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
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Which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in food? a. Most carotenoids have vitamin A activity b. Bioavailability depends in part on the presence of preformed vitamin A c. Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing d. Bioavailability is highest for alpha-carotene but this form is present in least amounts in the diet
answer

Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat free dressing
question

Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition? a. Sweet potato b. Orange juice c. Peanut butter d. Powdered skim milk
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sweet potato
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A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except a. liver. b. bananas. c. apricots. d. sweet potatoes.
answer

bananas
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Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A? a. Corn b. Pumpkin pie c. Baked potato d. Whole-grain bread
answer

pumpkin pie
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Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods? a. Fast foods are generally considered good sources of vitamin A b. A regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children c. Xanthophylls in certain vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the liver d. Chlorophyll in vegetables can be converted to active vitamin A in the intestinal cells
answer

A regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
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Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A? a. Corn b. Spinach c. Carrots d. Cantaloupe
answer

Corn
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The plant version of vitamin D is known as
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ergocalciferol
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The animal version of vitamin D is known as
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cholecalciferol
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All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the: skin, liver, kidney, intestines
answer

Intestines
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Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity? a. Cholecalciferol b. 7-Dehydrocholesterol c. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D d. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
answer

1,25- Dihydroxy vitamin D
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Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body’s synthesis of vitamin D? a. Cholesterol b. Tryptophan c. Beta-carotene d. Eicosapentanoic acid
answer

Cholesterol
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Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D? a. Bone b. Carotene c. Tryptophan d. Exposure to sunlight
answer

Exposure to sunlight
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In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active? a. Liver only b. Kidney only c. Liver and kidney d. Liver and intestines
answer

Liver and Kidney
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All of the following are other names for vitamin D except a. calciferol. b. calcitonin. c. cholecalciferol. d. dihydroxy vitamin D.
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Calcitonin
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Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone? a. Vitamin D b. Vitamin K c. Phylloquinone d. Alpha-tocopherol
answer

Vitamin D
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The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following except the a. liver. b. bone. c. kidney. d. intestine.
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Liver
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What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
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Promote calcium and phosphorous absorption and promotes calcium mobilization
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A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
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D
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What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults? a. Rickets b. Osteomalacia c. Keratomalacia d. Hyperkeratosis
answer

Osteomalacia
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What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?
answer

Adult women
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In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
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Skeletal
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Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency? a. Bowed legs b. Rupture of red blood cells c. Frequent respiratory infections d. Abnormally high blood calcium level
answer

Bowed legs
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Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient? a. Osteomalacia and rickets b. Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release c. Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease d. Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia
answer

Osteomalacia and rickets
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Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D deficiency? a. It causes a calcium deficiency b. It causes excess iron absorption c. It leads to overt signs only rarely d. It leads to low blood calcium which in turn promotes seizures
answer

It causes excess iron absorption
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All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except a. deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition. b. excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys. c. fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population. d. the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
answer

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.
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Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly? a. Consumption of little or no milk b. Excessive use of hypertension medications c. Wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen while outdoors d. Diminished capacity of liver and kidney synthesis of activated vitamin D
answer

Excessive use of hypertension medications
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The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced a. exposure to sunlight. b. milk intake of older people. c. absorption of dietary vitamin D. d. activation of vitamin D by the kidneys.
answer

Absorption of dietary vitamin D
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Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults? a. Increased bone density b. Increased bone calcification c. Deformity of leg bones, ribs, and skull d. Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
answer

Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
question

Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store? a. Whole-grain bread b. Vitamin D-fortified milk c. Vitamin A-fortified carrot juice d. Omega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk
answer

Vitamin D fortified milk
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D? a. The bioavailability of vitamin D from soy milk is low b. Lifeguards on southern beaches have increased risk for vitamin D toxicity c. Most adults living in the southern United States need small amounts of dietary vitamin D d. The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
answer

The average consumption in the united states does not meet the recommended intake
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Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition? a. Vitamin D deficiency may be created by a calcium deficiency b. Only about one-half of the world’s population relies on sunlight to maintain adequate vitamin D nutrition c. Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity d. In people living in northern U.S. cities, vitamin D stores from synthesis during the summer are usually sufficient to meet the needs during the winter
answer

Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
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Which of the following enables much of the world’s population to maintain adequate vitamin D status? a. Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight b. Wide availability of low-cost fish products c. Wide availability of food assistance programs d. World Health Organization distribution of vitamin D capsules
answer

Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
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Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney? a. Excessive intake of vitamin D b. Inadequate intake of vitamin D c. Excessive intake of tocopherols d. Inadequate intake of tocopherols
answer

Excessive intake of Vitamin D
question

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D? a. Toxicity from vitamin D may result from overexposure to the sun b. Requirements are much higher in the elderly due to degenerative bone diseases c. Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source d. Absorption from most food sources is very poor, necessitating the enrichment of grain products
answer

Fortification of milk with the Vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
question

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet? a. Meat b. Fortified milk c. Fruits and vegetables d. Enriched breads and cereals
answer

Fortified milk
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis? a. Tanning lamps and tanning booths do not stimulate vitamin D synthesis b. Sunscreens with sunburn protection factors of 2 and above prevent synthesis of vitamin D c. The ultraviolet rays of the sun are able to easily pierce heavy clouds and smog to promote vitamin D synthesis d. Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
answer

Dark skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
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Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D? a. Egg yolks b. Red meats c. Tomato juice d. Whole-wheat bread
answer

Egg yolks
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Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition? a. A dietary source is oily fish b. The DRI fails to account for skin synthesis of vitamin D c. Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity d. People who are not outdoors are advised to drink at least 2 cups of vitamin D-fortified milk daily
answer

Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
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What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age? a. 5 μg b. 8 μg c. 10 μg d. 14 μg
answer

5 μg
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Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which vitamin has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
answer

E
question

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
answer

antioxidant
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What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
answer

eliminator
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Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share? a. Both function as antioxidants b. Both require bile for absorption c. Neither participates in protein synthesis d. Neither is affected by the processing of foods
answer

Both function as antioxidants
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How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
answer

It slows oxidation of low density lipoproteins
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The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of a. lysosomes. b. free radicals. c. mucopolysaccharides. d. polyunsaturated fatty acids.
answer

polyunsaturated fatty acids
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What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
answer

Alpha
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The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except
answer

Vitamin E
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Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people? a. Rickets b. Xerophthalmia c. Muscular dystrophy d. Erythrocyte hemolysis
answer

Erythrocyte hemolysis
question

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E? a. Functions as a hormone-like substance b. Toxicity symptoms include bone abnormalities c. Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids d. Important food sources include enriched breads and pasta
answer

Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
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Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
answer

The vitamin is widespread in foods
question

There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except a. premature infants. b. people with intermittent claudication. c. women with fibrocystic breast disease. d. people with problems of sexual impotence.
answer

People with problems of sexual impotence
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Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy? a. Diabetes b. Pernicious anemia c. Muscular dystrophy d. Intermittent claudication
answer

Intermittent claudication
question

To convert the number of tocopherol equivalents to alpha-tocopherol, multiply by the factor
answer

.8
question

Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols? a. Easily destroyed by air and oxygen b. Act as precursors for the menaquinones c. May dissolve from foods into cooking water d. Absorbed from the intestines into the portal circulation
answer

Easily destroyed by air and oxygen
question

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods? a. Vitamin E is fairly stable to heat b. Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E c. Saturated oils are the major dietary sources of vitamin E d. The amount of alpha-tocopherol in foods is underestimated
answer

Most convenience foods are poor sources of Vitamin E
question

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet? a. Meats b. Citrus fruits c. Vegetable oils d. Milk and dairy products
answer

Vegetable oils
question

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E? a. Butter b. Carrots c. Milk fat d. Corn oil
answer

Corn oil
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In comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level?
answer

65
question

Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin
answer

E
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Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols? a. Good food sources include lean meats and dairy b. The various tocopherols perform similar roles in the body c. They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats d. The various tocopherol compounds can be converted to the active alpha-tocopherol
answer

They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
question

Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share? a. Both are synthesized in the body b. Both are required for normal vision c. Neither has an effect on bone metabolism d. Neither has an effect on erythrocyte function
answer

Both are synthesized in the body
question

What is prothrombin?
answer

A protein needed for blood clot formation
question

Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis? a. Albumin b. GI mucosa c. Prothrombin d. Mucopolysaccharides
answer

Prothrombin
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In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
answer

Blood clotting
question

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? a. It participates in synthesis of bone proteins b. Large amounts can be stored in adipose tissue c. Good food sources are legumes and raw fruits d. Intestinal bacterial synthesis provides over 90% of the body’s need for most people
answer

It participates in the synthesis of bone proteins
question

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? a. A deficiency increases the risk for hemophilia b. A deficiency leads to keratinization of the cornea c. Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K d. There are multiple forms in the diet of which menadione is the naturally occurring form
answer

Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
question

Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin? a. It activates lysosomes involved in remodeling bone b. It binds calcium in the GI tract to enhance absorption c. It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals d. It works synergistically with the kidneys to reduce urinary calcium excretion
answer

It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
question

Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency? a. Achlorhydria b. Antibiotic therapy c. Presence of oxalic acid in food d. Insufficient intake of green leafy vegetables
answer

Antibiotic therapy
question

Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explained that it a. was needed to prevent eye disease. b. prevented possible bleeding events. c. protected the baby from lipid oxidation. d. was needed to promote good bone growth.
answer

Prevented possible bleeding events
question

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except a. infants frequently require a supplement at birth. b. good food sources are plants of the cabbage family. c. risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods. d. gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
answer

gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.
question

Which vitamin is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
answer

K
question

Which vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns?
answer

Vitamin K
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Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?
answer

Liver
question

What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
answer

Newborns
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Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K? a. Deficiencies lead to intravascular clotting b. Major dietary sources are whole grains and legumes c. No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes d. Primary deficiencies are more common than secondary deficiencies
answer

No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
question

What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
answer

Green leafy vegetables
question

The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
answer

phylloquinone
question

Approximately what percentage of the body’s store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?
answer

50
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What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
answer

90-120 micrograms
question

Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin? a. Retinol b. Tocopherol c. Phylloquinone d. Cyanocobalamin
answer

Cyanocobalamin
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals? a. They are destroyed by cigarette smoking b. They arise from normal metabolic reactions c. They typically stop chain reactions associated with the production of peroxides d. They are known to accumulate even in the presence of abundant antioxidant nutrients
answer

They arise from normal metabolic reaction s
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E? a. Both protect against LDL oxidation b. Neither reduces arterial inflammation c. Neither participates in regulating blood clotting d. Both act as prooxidants at physiological intakes `
answer

Both protect against LDL oxidation