nursing interventions for fluid and electrolyte imbalance

question

How should you treat thickened secretions that result from fluid volume deficit?
answer

-replace fluids 3000ml a day for a normal healthy person -warm drinks and gargle -cough deep breathe -humidity -hot shower
question

Why do you need to watch for clots with FVD, and what needs to be done?
answer

The blood thickens and DVT precautions should be taken.
question

What effect does cardiac output in an individual with FVD have on cerebral function?
answer

In FVD, cardiac output decreases and so does blood flow to the brain, resulting in confusion. Fall precautions should be taken.
question

What is a quick and effective pharmacological solution to fluid volume excess.?
answer

Loop diuretics (ides) lasix/furosemide bumex/bumetanide demadex/ torsemid
question

What vital sign has to be monitored when administering diuretics?
answer

blood pressure
question

What is a potassium sparing diuretic?
answer

aldactone
question

Loop diuretics can cause what side effect if given two quickly?
answer

ototoxicity
question

It is important to monitor O2 saturation, have patient in high fowlers, use incentive spirometer, and TCDB with fluid volume excess why?
answer

excessive fluid will move to the plueral space
question

What is the treatment for hypoproteinuria?
answer

Diet high in protein, but be sure also include carbohydrate for energy, so that protein can be replaced
question

What is needs to be monitored when giving fluid replacement to a patient with hypernatremia and why?
answer

vital signs need to be monitored and cerebral edema needs to be watched for
question

You never give potassium how?
answer

IV push
question

What is the maximum amount of m/Eq/hour for K+ runs?
answer

10 (floor)-20 (ICU)
question

K+ can cause what complication when given intravenously?
answer

phlebitis, it should be given in the largest vein possible
question

How do you treat hyperkalemia?
answer

eliminate K+ at the source, give oral or IV diuretics
question

What is the drug of choice to treat hyperkalemia?
answer

Kayexalate
question

Why is D5W and insulin an effective emergency treatment?
answer

It pulls K+ into the cell
question

Calcium gluconate can treat what effect of hyperkalemia?
answer

It quiets cardiac irritability
question

NaHCO3 induces alkalosis. How does this treat hyperkalemia?
answer

alkalosis pulls potassium into the cell
question

What is a long term treatment for hyperkalemia?
answer

dialysis
question

What can give a false high potassium reading?
answer

prolonged use of a tourniquet, small needle
question

When assessing for hyperkalemia, what medication class is it important to assess for?
answer

ACE inhibitors, particularly captopril
question

What is the priority for a person with hypocalcemia?
answer

airway
question

What is a treatment for acute hypocalcemia?
answer

IV Ca++ (CaCl and Ca gluconate large difference in amount given)
question

Why is it important to check the IV site before giving Ca++?
answer

Ca++ is a vesicant, it pulls from tissue and can cause necrosis
question

Why should you have the patient on a heart monitor when administering Ca++?
answer

Ca++ has sedative effects and can cause bradycardia
question

Why do patients with hypercalcemia need to stay hydrated?
answer

Hypercalcemia can lead to kidney stones
question

What do diuretics do for hypercalcemia?
answer

They can rid the body of Na and Ca++
question

Biphosphates push Ca++ where?
answer

Ca is pushed into bone
question

Why would you give MgSO4 by IV in the emergency room?
answer

To prevent seizures in a case of hypomagnesia
question

What do you treat with hypermagnesia?
answer

identify underlying cause and treat

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member