Nursing 122

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Art
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Any branch of creative work, especially painting and drawing, that displays form, beauty, and any unusual perception.
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Literature
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All writings in prose or verse.
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Media
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All the means of communication, such as newspapers, radio, and television.
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Stereotype
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A fixed or conventional conception of a person or group held by a number of people that allows for no individuality.
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Clinical nurse leader (CNL)
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A master’s degree-educated RN who assumes accountability for client care outcomes through the assimilation and application of research-based information to design, implement, and evaluate client plans of care. The CNL is a provider and a manager of care at the point of care to individuals and cohorts or populations. The CNL designs, implements, and evaluates client care by coordinating, delegating, and supervising the care provided by the health care team, including licensed nurses, technicians, and other health professionals (AACN Updated White Paper on the Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader, July 2007).
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Doctor of nursing practice (DNP)
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A practice focused doctoral degree in nursing. The degree that is recommended by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) for all advanced practice nurses by 2015.
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Clinical nurse specialist (CNS)
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An advanced practice nurse who possesses expertise in a defined area of nursing practice for a selected client population or clinical setting. The CNS functions as an expert clinician, educator, consultant, researcher, and administrator.
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Florence Nightingale
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(1820 to 1910) Considered the founder of organized, professional nursing. She is best known for her contributions to the reforms in the British Army Medical Corps, improved sanitation in India, improved public health in Great Britain, use of statistics to document health outcomes, and the development of organized training for nurses.
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Professional nurse
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A specially trained professional that addresses the humanistic and holistic needs of patients, families, and environments and provides responses to patterns and/or needs of patients, families, and communities to actual and potential health problems. The professional nurse has diverse roles, such as health care provider, client advocate, educator, care coordinator, primary care practitioner, and change agent (Katz et al, 2009).
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Energy management
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Ensuring that the right amount of effort matches the right task to optimize an outcome while gauging the amount of personal energy expended or taxed to achieve the desired result.
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Goal
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A tangible, measurable, and attainable act in a specific period of time. It has broad-term results, experiences, or achievements toward which someone is willing to work.
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Milieu
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The physical or social setting in which something occurs or develops.
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Novice to expert
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Five stages of proficiency in the development of skill acquisition and performance within the domain of clinical nursing practice that frames a transition from reliance on abstract principles of the new learner to becoming an involved performer who is engaged in a situation—the expert performer (Benner, 2001).
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Objective
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An identifiable, measurable act that implements one’s goal and is typically short termed.
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Priority setting
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The act of deciding what should be done first and what activities should follow sequentially; establishing an ordered list or ranked items based on importance or urgency; method used to determine what actions need to be accomplished ahead of others; represents the execution of ranked items.
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Procrastination
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The act of intentionally and/or habitually putting off doing something that should be done.
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Technology management
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Application of information systems and equipment to enhance work and life activities to maximal benefit.
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Time management
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The development of processes and tools that increase efficiency and productivity within the set standard of time.
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Accreditation
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Voluntary process by which schools of nursing are approved to conduct nursing education programs.
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Advanced practice nurse (APN)
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Legal title for nurses prepared by education and competence to perform independent practice.
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American Nurses Association (ANA)
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Professional organization that represents all registered nurses.
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American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)
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An independent agency of the American Nurses Association that conducts certification examinations and certifies advanced practice nurses.
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Certification
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Process by which nurses are recognized for advanced education and competence.
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Compact state
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A term of law. In the context of the Nurse Licensure Compact, a state that has established an agreement with other states allowing nurses to practice within the state without an additional license. The interstate compacts are enacted by the state legislatures.
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Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)
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A subsidiary of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) with responsibility for accrediting baccalaureate and higher-degree nursing programs.
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Continued competency program
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A variety of initiatives to ensure nurses knowledge, skills, and expertise beyond initial licensure.
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Grandfathered
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Statutory process by which previously licensed persons are included without further action in revisions or additions in nurse practice acts.
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International Council of Nursing (ICN)
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Professional organization that represents nurses in countries around the world.
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Licensure by endorsement
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The original program whereby nurses licensed in one state seek licensure in another without repeat examinations. The requirements are included in state nurse practice acts or accompanying rules and regulations.
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Mandatory continuing education
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Educational requirements imposed by individual states for renewal of a license.
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Mutual recognition of nursing
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Program developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2009c). The Nurse Licensure Compact program establishes interstate compacts so that nurses licensed in one jurisdiction may practice in other compact states without duplicate licensure.
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National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)
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Organization whose membership consists of the board of nursing of each state or territory.
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National League for Nursing (NLN)
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Professional organization whose members represent multiple disciplines. The National League for Nursing conducts many types of programs, including accrediting nursing education programs.
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Nurse practice act
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Statute in each state and territory that regulates the practice of nursing.
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State board of nursing
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Appointed board within each state charged with responsibility to administer the nurse practice act of that state.
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Sunset legislation
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Statutes that provide for revocation of laws if not reviewed and renewed within a specified time period.
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Advanced practice nursing
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Based on knowledge and skills acquired through basic nursing education, with licensure as a registered nurse (RN) and graduate education and experience that includes advanced nursing theory, physical assessment, and psychosocial assessment and treatment of illness. Includes nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse-midwives (CNMs), certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs).
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Clinical nurse leader (CNL)
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The CNL is a master’s degree-prepared generalist who oversees the care coordination of a distinct group of patients in any setting. The CNL actively provides direct patient care in complex situations, evaluates patient outcomes, and has the decision-making authority to change care plans when necessary. This clinician puts evidence-based practice into action to ensure that patients benefit from the latest innovations in care delivery and is envisioned as a leader in the health care delivery system.
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Doctor of nursing practice (DNP)
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The DNP is an expert in advanced nursing practice who has an earned clinically focused doctorate degree in nursing.
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Interprofessional team
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Health care team composed of professionals from different disciplines including chaplains, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, physical therapists, physicians, respiratory therapists, social workers, and speech language pathologists who cooperate, collaborate, communicate, and integrate care to ensure that care is continuous and reliable.
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Nursing roles
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(1) Traditional duties and responsibilities of the professional nurse, regardless of practice area or setting, such as the roles of care provider, educator, counselor, client advocate, change agent, leader and manager, researcher, and coordinator of the interprofessional health care team. (2) Duties and responsibilities of the professional nurse that are guided by specific professional standards of practice and usually are carried out in a distinct practice area (e.g., flight nurse, forensic nurse, and occupational nurse).
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Acculturation
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The process of becoming adapted to a new or different culture.
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Assimilation
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The cultural absorption of a minority group into the main cultural body.
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Biculturalism
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Combining two distinct cultures in a single region.
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Culture
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Shared values, beliefs, and practices of a particular group of people that are transmitted from one generation to the next and are identified as patterns that guide thinking and action.
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Cultural humility
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Incorporates a lifelong commitment to self-evaluation and self-critique, to redressing the power imbalances in the patient-clinician dynamic and to developing mutually beneficial and advocacy partnerships with communities on behalf of individuals and defined populations (Tervalon and Murray-Garcia, 1998).
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Cultural sensitivity
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Experienced when neutral language, both verbal and nonverbal, is used in a way that reflects sensitivity and appreciation for the diversity of another (American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Cultural Competence, 2007).
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Enculturation
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Adaptation to the prevailing cultural patterns in society.
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Ethnicity
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Affiliation resulting from shared linguistic, racial, or cultural background.
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Ethnocentrism
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Believing that one’s own ethnic group, culture, or nation is best.
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Marginalized population
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A subgroup of the population that tends to be hidden, overlooked, or on the outer edge.
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Minority
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An ethnic group smaller than the majority group.
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Prejudice
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Preconceived, deeply held, usually negative, judgment formed about other groups.
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Stereotyping
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Assigning certain beliefs and behaviors to groups without recognizing individuality.
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Transculturalism
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Being grounded in one’s own culture, but having the skills to be able to work in a multicultural environment.
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Worldview
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Perspective shared by a cultural group of general views of relationships within the universe. These broad views influence health and illness beliefs.
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Active communication
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A participatory form of communication that promotes change.
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Active listening
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The process of hearing what others are saying with a sense of seriousness and discrimination.
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Aggressive communication
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A manner of communicating that limits the focus on or understanding of the opinions, values, or beliefs of others.
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Assertive communication
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A form of communication that enables a person to act in his or her own best interest without denying or infringing on the rights of others.
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Blocking
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Obstructing communication through noncommittal answers, generalization, or other techniques that hamper continued interaction.
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Communication
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A process of relaying information between or among people by the use of words, letters, symbols, or body language.
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Conflict
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An experience in which there is simultaneous arousal of two or more incompatible motives.
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Decode
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A process whereby the receiver takes the message and interprets its meaning.
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Empathy
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An attempt to experience another person’s point of view without losing one’s own identity.
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Encode
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A process of translating an idea already conceived into a message suitable for transmission.
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Equality
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An attitude that relays acceptance and approval of another person.
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Feedback
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Response from the receiver, which can be verbal or nonverbal.
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Filtration
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Unconscious exclusion of extraneous stimuli.
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Information
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Data that are meaningful and alter the receiver’s understanding.
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Interpretation
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Receiver’s understanding of the meaning of the communication.
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Negative communication techniques
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Behaviors that block or impair effective communication.
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Nonassertive communication
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Communicating in a timid and reserved manner resulting in limited concern for one’s own rights regardless of the situation.
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Nonverbal communication
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Unspoken cues (intentional or unintentional) from the communicant, such as body positioning, facial expression, or lack of attention.
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Openness
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An attitude of willingness to self-disclose, react honestly to the messages of others, and own one’s feelings and thoughts.
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Passive communication
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A form of communication in which the individual fails to say what is meant
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Perception
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The manner in which one sees reality.
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Positive communication techniques
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Behaviors that enhance effective communication.
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Receiver
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The destination for or receptor of a message.
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Sender
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Anyone who wishes to convey an idea or concept to others, to seek information, or to express a thought or emotion.
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Supportiveness
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The concern that is fostered by being descriptive rather than evaluative and provisional rather than certain.
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Biculturalism
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The merging of school values with those of the workplace.
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Compassion fatigue
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The gradual decline of compassion over time as a result of caregivers being exposed to events that have traumatized their patients.
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Horizontal hostility (also known as lateral hostility)
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\”A consistent (hidden) pattern of behavior designed to control, diminish, or devalue another peer [or group] that creates a risk to health and/or safety\” (Hinchberger, 2009). Bullying, negative insinuations, undermining, and exclusion are examples.
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Mentoring
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A mutual interactive method of learning in which a knowledgeable nurse inspires and encourages a novice nurse.
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Novice nurse
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A nurse who is entering the professional workplace for the first time; usually occurs from the point of graduation until competencies required by the profession are achieved.
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Preceptor
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An experienced professional nurse who serves as a mentor and assists with socialization of the novice nurse.
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Reality shock
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Occurs when a person prepares for a profession, enters the profession, and then finds that he or she is not prepared.
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Role model
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A person who serves as an example of what constitutes a competent professional nurse.
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Socialization
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The nurturing, acceptance, and integration of a person into the profession of nursing; the identification of a person with the profession of nursing.
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Transition
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Moving from one role, setting, or level of competency in nursing to another; change.
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Workplace violence
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Sexual harassment and abusive acts from patients that can be physical, verbal, and emotional and lead to a hostile work environment. It has been suggested that identifying workplace violence is difficult due to its subjectivity by the recipient.
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Accountability
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An ethical duty stating that one should be answerable legally, morally, ethically, or socially for one’s activities.
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Autonomy
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Personal freedom and right to make choices.
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Beneficence
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An ethical principle stating that one should do good and prevent or avoid doing harm.
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Bioethics
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The study of ethical problems resulting from scientific advances.
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Code of ethics
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Set of statements encompassing rules that apply to people in professional roles.
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Deontology
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An ethical theory stating that moral rule is binding.
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Ethical sensitivity
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The capacity to decide with intelligence and compassion, given uncertainty in a care situation, with an additional ability to anticipate consequences and the courage to act (Weaver, Morse, and Mitcham, 2008).
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Ethics
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Science or study of moral values.
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Ethics acculturation
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The didactic and experiential process of developing ethical reasoning abilities as a part of ongoing professional preparation
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Nonmaleficence
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An ethical principle stating the duty not to inflict harm.
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Utilitarianism
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An ethical theory stating that the best decision is one that brings about the greatest good for the most people.
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Values
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Ideas of life, customs, and ways of behaving that society regards as desirable.
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Veracity
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An ethical duty to tell the truth.

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