Nonverbal Communications

Flashcard maker : Emily Kemp
Nonverbal communication
Behavior other than written or spoken language that creats meaning for someone
Interaction adaptation theory
Theory suggesting that people interact with others by adpating to their communication behaviors
Interactional synchrony
Mirroring of eachother’s nonverbal behavior by communication partners
Kinesics
Study of human movement and gesture
Emblems
Nonverbal cues that have specific, generally understood meanings in a given culture and may substitute for a word or phrase
Illustrators
Nonverbal behaviors that accomany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it
Affect display
Nonverbal behavior that communictes emotions
Regulators
Nonverbal messages that help to control the interaction or flow of communication between 2 people
Adaptors
Nonverbal behaviors that satisfy a personal need and help a person adapt or respond to the immediate situation
Backchannel cues
Vocal cues that signal your wish tos peak or not to speak
Proxemics
Study of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves
Intimate spaces
Zone of space most often used for very peronal or intimate interactions, ranging from 0 to 1.5 feet between individuals
Personal space
Zone of space most often used for conversations with family and frientds, rnging from 1.5 to 4 feet between individuals
Social space
Zone of space most often used for group interactions, ranging from 4 to 12 feet between individuals
Public space
Zone of space most often used by public speakers or anyone speaking to many people ranging beyond 12 feet from the individual
Territorility
Study of how animals and humans use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
Territorial markers
Tangible objects that are used to signify tht someone has claimed an area or space
Immediacy
Feelings of liking, pleasure, and closeness communicated by such nonverbal cues as incrased eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation
Arousal
Feelings of interest and excitement communicated by such nonverbal cues as vocal expression, facial expressions, and gestures
Dominance
Power, status, and control communicated by such nonverbal cues as a relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protected personal space
Expectancy violation theory
Theory that you interpret the messages of other based on how you expect others to behave
Perception checking
Asking someone whether your interpretation of his/her nonverbal behavior is accurate
Emotional contagion theory
Theory that emotional expressinis contagious, that people can “catch” emotions just by observing others’ emotional expressions
Primary way people communicate feelings and attitudes
Nonverbal messages
Percent of emotional meaning communicated through explicit verbal channels
7
Percent of emotional meaning communicated through people’s faces
55
Percent of emotional meaning communicated through vocal cues
38
Percent of emotioal meaning communicated nonverbally
93
Most significant source of emotional communication
Face
Key sources of nonverbal cues
Face, hands, feet
How nonverbal messages help us to makes sense of others’ messages
Help us manage verbal messages
Augment the emotional meaning of verbal messages
Ways nonverbal messages manage verbal messages
Substitue for verbal messages
Repeat verbal messages
Contradict verbal messages
Regulate verbal messages
Example of a nonverbal cue substituting a verbal message
Hitchhiker’s thumb
Ways nonverbal messages can augment verbal messages
Firmness of handshake
Length of a hug
Message communicated through synchronized behaviors
Partner’s mutal interest and positive regard
Percentage of social/relational meaning in messages is based on nonverbal communication
65
Challenges of interpreting nonverbal messages
Nonverbal messages are:
Often ambiguous
Continuous
Multichanneled
Culture-based
Influence of culture on nonverbal messages
Some underlying basis for expression emotions, but each culture still develops unique rules for displaying and interpreting gestures and expressions
Types of communication codes
Body movement and posture
Eye contact
Facial expression
Vocal cues
Personal space
Territory
Touch
Appearance
Categories of body movement and posture communication codes
Emblems
Illustrators
Affect displays
Regulators
Adaptors
Stages of quasi-courtship behavior
Courtship readiness
Preening behaviors
Positonal cues
Appeals to invitation
Courtship readiness
First stage of quasi-courtship behavior when you are attracted to someone and you begin to hold in your stomach, tense your muscles, and stand up straight
Preening behaviors
Second stage of quasi-courtship behavior and you begin to manipulte your appearance by combing your hair, applying make-up, straightening tie, etc.
Postional cues
Stage 3 of quasi-courtship behavior in which you use your posture and body orientation to ensure you will be noticed by others
Appeals to invitation
Fourth stage of quasi-courtship behavior in which cues intesify and you begin to use close proximity, exposed skin, open body positions, and eye contact to signal availability and interest
Warm people
Description for friendly people based on the person facing people directly, smiling more, making direct eye contact, fidget less, and generally making fewer unnecessary hand movements
Cold people
Description for distant people based on less eye contact, smiling less, fidgeting more, and turning away from their partners
Nonverbal cues that contribute to perceptions of liking
Open body and arm position
Forward lean
Relaxed posture
Examples of emblems
Open palm for quiet
Applause to show enjoyment
Finger to lips to stop noise
Example of an illustrators
News anchor turning a page to signal a new topic
Examples of affect displays
Face showing joy
Slumped sholders and lowered head showing depression
Soft tone of voice, open smile, and relaxed posture to show friendliness
Example of a regulator
When eager to respond to someone, you make eye contact, raise eyebrows, open mouth, raise index finger, lean slightly forward
Examples of adaptors
Adjust your glasses
Scratch a mosquito bite
Comb your hair
Functions of eye contact
Cognitive function
Monitor behaviors
Regulatory cues
Expressive function
Generally speaking, what increases the chance that you will accurately interpret a person’s facial expression
The more characteristics you have in common with the person
Number of different facial expressions people’s faces are capable of producing
>250,000
Primary categories of facial expressions
Surprise
Fear
Disgust
Anger
Happiness
Sadness
Microexpressions
Fleeting expressions that may last only 0.05 of a second
Circumstance in which people are better able to judge facial expressions
When they are more complex
Types of vocal cues
Pitch
Rate
Volume
Quality of voice
Pronunciation
Articulation
Purpose of vocal cues
Communicate emotions
Manage conversations
Using silence
Examples of backchannel cues
Lowering pitch for the final word to signal talking complete
Interjecting sounds to signal desire to talk
Positive silence
Managed uncertainty by taking until nothing left to say and enjoying the silence
Reasons we might be likely to touch others
Feeling friendly/happy
Ask someone to do something for us
Share info rather than ask for info
Try to persuade someone to do something
Talking about intimate topics
Social setting instead of professional setting
Thrilled and excited to share good news
Listen to troubled or worried friend
Primary dimensions that people synthesize and interpret nonverbal cues
Immediacy
Arousal
Dominance
Cues to show that we like someone
Close, forward lean
Typically face to face or side by side
Mutual eye contact
Smiling
Head nods, movement
Open, arms oriented toward others
Cultural and context appropriate touch
Higher pitch, upward pitch
Cues that show interest in you
Animation in face, voice, gesture
Forward lean
Flash of eyebrows
Nond of head
Cues that show dominance
Height
Facing a group
More space surrounding a person
More eye contact establishing power, dominance, and when talking
Frown, not smiling
Initiating touch
Voice is loud, low and greater range pitch with more interruptions and slight hesitation before speaking
Pointing at the other or at property
Standing, hands on hips, expanded chest, more relaxed
People most skilled at encoding nonverbal messages
Those better at accurately expressing their feelings and emotions
Those skilled at interpreting 1 channel of information
Those who are extroverted, have high self-esteem, nondogmatic, not shy, and expressive
Tose who select people-oriented jobs
Ways to improve nonverbal messages
Consider nonverbal cues in context
Look for clusters of nonverbal cues
Consider past experiences
Check your perceptions with others
Be aware that nonverbal expression of emotion is contagious
Look for cues that may communicate lying
Ways to detect lying
Look for nonverbal cues
Listen to conetn of what the person says
Measure physiological responses (HR, breathing, etc)
Ways to improve expressing nonverbal messages
Be mindful of your nonverbal behavior
Observe others’ reactions to your nonverbal behavior
Ask other about your nonverbal behavior
Pracitce

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