Nonrenewable Energy Study Guide

Nonrenewable Resources
-resource which the earth’s crust has a limited amount of.
-still being formed, but to replenish, could take millions of years

Oil
-dead organic material buried in marine sediment and transformed by time, heat and pressure.

Oil
most used source of energy in the US
-100% of transportation

OPEC
organization of petroleum exporting countries

Bioremediation
covering oil spill with bacteria and bacteria consume oil
-only in small amounts

Oil Pollution Act of 1990
required double hulled tankers

Natural Gas
a gas formed from fossil remains of ancient plants and animals
-mainly methane
-found in close proximity to oil deposits

Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)
-pumps high pressure water with additives into rocks in order to crack them
-methane is getting into groundwater
-leaking and gushing of fluid (animals drink it, then die)

Coal
plant material that was compressed under very high pressure to form dense, soild carbon structures

Coal
most abundant fossil fuel

Coal
supplies powerplants

Lignite
soft coal, brown or brown-black
-moist, produces little heat
-used to fuel electric power plants

Bituminous
-soft coal, dull to bright black
-most common
-produces a lot of heat
-much of this coal contains sulfur which causes major environmental problems without pollution control

Anthracite
-hard coal, dark, brilliant black
-burns most cleanly (not contaminated with sulfur)

Surface Mining
-coal is within 30m/100ft from surface
-coal is scraped out of ground and loaded into trains or trucks
-creates hill of loose rock called *spoil banks*

Subsurface Mining
-if coal is deeper than 100 ft
-digging networks of tunnels deep underground to reach underground deposits

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
-permits and inspections of active coal mining rites
-companies must restore areas that have been actively surface mined
-prohibits coal mining in sensitive areas (national parks, wildlife refuges)
-pre-1977 mines to be slowly restored using a tax charged to coal mining companies

Fossil Fuels
partially decayed remnants of organisms

300,000,000, warm, horsetails, ferns, club mosses, swamp, water, ocean floor, decaying, sediment, Heat, pressure, carbon.
_______ yrs ago, the climate of Earth was ___ and plants grew all yr round. Plants like _____, ______, and _______ were large trees. As ancient organisms died, they fell into the _____ where they were covered by _____ or sank to the ________. The water prevented the organism from _________. Overtime these plants piled up and layers of ________ accumulated covering the plants. ~Time Passes~ _____ and _______ deep underground converted the non-decomposed organic material into _____-rich fossil fuels.

Saudi Arabia
most Oil deposits are found in……

Everyday products made from petroleum
-candy, waxes, food, cosmetics
-polypropylene coat
-heating oil four houses
-toothbrush

It goes up!
WHat happens to the cost of oil when the demand is far greater than the supply?

-use skimmers to vaccuum up oil
-burn the oil
-use disperants so that deep water microbes could eat it
What did officials do in the Gulf of Mexico to help clean up spill? (3)

-methane is getting into water
-fracking fluid is leaking (dead livestock)
-exploding water wells
Environmental concerns raised due to hydraulic fracturing (3)

less expensive, safer, more complete soil removal
Pros of Surface Mining (3)

-more destructive to land
Cons of Surface Mining (1)

-disturbs much smaller surface area
-spoil often left in mine
Pros of Subsurface Mining (2)

-expensive
-dangerous (mining accidents, black lung disease, cancer, coal mine fires)
Cons of Subsurface Mining (2)

CO2, Nitrogen, Sulfur Oxides, Mercury, Toxic coal ash
What pollutants are released from the burning of coal in power plants?

-no radioactive emissions
-no widespread effects of major accident
-no radioactive waste
-will last several hundred more years
-smaller and cheaper
Pros of Coal-fired powerplants (5)

-extensive disturbance on surface and underground
-increase in greenhouse emissions
-SO2, NO, particulate matter and other pollution are released
-increase in health problems and fatalities of workers and those living around the plant
-more solid waste.
Cons of Coal-fired power plants(5)

coal miners, transportation, power plants, coal crusher, shovel it into…, fire, steam, turbine, generator, electricity
Sun->plants->water->pressure->coal->

Oil
Supplies nearly 100% of our transportation

nuclear power, coal, oil, natural gas
Used to make Electricity

nuclear power
104 power plants in the US

Coal
Most abundant fossil fuels in N. America

Oil
World’s main energy source

Coal
Powered the steam engine during the industrial revolution

Coal
Over 600 power plants in the US

Nuclear Power
Generates 80% of France’s electricity

Natural Gas
Composed primarily of methane

Half Life
the length of time needed for half the atoms of a sample to decay

Fission
larger atoms of certain elements are split into 2 smaller atoms of different elements

Fusion
2 smaller atoms are combined to make one larger atom of a different atom

Enrichment
the process of making more concentrated uranium to use in a reactor.

Chain Reaction
when the stray neutron causes other atoms to split, thus causing even more stray neutrons which cuase other atoms to split, etc. etc.

Reactor Core
fission occurs here

Steam Generator
heat produced by fission produces steam from liquid water

Turbine
uses steam to generate electricity

Condenser
cools the steam, converting it back into liquid

Primary water circuit
heats water using energy in fission reaction
-closed system, so it cannot become steam due to increased pressure
-RADIOACTIVE!!!

Secondary water circuit
from reactor core, very hot water circulates to steam generator, where it boils the water
-converts water to steam that turns a turbine that spins a generator to produce electricity.
-then steam is condensed back into liquid

Tertiary water circuit
provides cool water to the condenser (cools the steam)
-as water in this circuit is heated, it moves to a cooling tower, where it is cooled before circulating back to the condenser.

Nuclear Meltdown
@ high temps (more than 1000 degrees) the metal encasing the uranium melts, releasing radiation.

neutron
The “bullet” that starts the U-235 fission process is what part of the atom?

Neutrons
Control rods provide control of the nuclear reaction by absorbing what?

Chernobyl
Worst nuclear disaster?

reactor core exploded
What happened at Chernobyl?

no containment building
What made Chernobyl so devastating?

radiation targets cells that reproduce quickly (stomach, skin, etc.) hence the reason vomit, nausea, etc. Eventually cancer
What are the effects of exposure to radioactive material?

-less disturbance from mining
-no greenhouse gas emissions
-no air pollutant
-fewer health probs among workers
-no hazard to people living in immediate area
-less solid waste generated
-uncertain supplies left
Pros of Nuclear power plants (7)

-possibility of major radioactive emissions during a meltdown
-if meltdown occurs catastrophic widespread effects
-has radioactive waste
-expensive
Cons of Nuclear power plants (4)