Newman Chapter 2

Which of the following statements is considered a characteristic of a “good” formal theory?
It is logical and internally consistent

Which of the following statements best describes how theories help explain observation?
They identify orderly relationships

Human development theories are needed to
help explain behavior at different levels of analysis

Evolutionary theory places the study of individual development in the context of
individual development in the context of the history of the species

Evolutionary psychology includes the study of
the origins of a social behavior

Which of the following statements best illustrates the link between evolutionary theory and psycho social theory?
individuals face a continuous struggle to adapt traits and abilities to environmental demands

Which of the following is considered the focus of Freud’s psychosexual theory?
The influence of sexual and aggressive drives to motivate behavior

According to psychosexual theory, which structure houses the person’s moral and ethical principles?
supergo

____ is a common defense mechanism used by children and adults in which they claim that a bad experience never happened
denial

according to psychosexual theory, what are the stages of development?
oral, anal, phallic, latency genital

Which of the following statements reflects an important contribution made by psychosexual theory to the study of human development?
the role of childhood experiences can be used to explain adult behavior

Which of the following is considered the focus of Freud’s psychosexual theory?
Psychosocial theory suggests directions for development beyond adolescence into adulthood and old age

Which of the following psychosexual terms is most closely related to the processes of cognition?
Ego functions

What is the difference between a scheme and an operation in cognitive developmental theory?
an operation is a mental manipulation of related schemes

In Piaget’s theory, which of the following are considered the two complementary processes that account for
adaptation?
assimilation and accomodation

Accomodation is refered to as the
tendency to modify schemes to account for new attributes revealed through experience.

The first stage in Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory is
sensorimotor intelligence

Which of the following statements best describes a characteristic of formal operational thought?
Logic is based on the creation of a system of interrelated rules that can be used for problem solving

Which of the following is considered one of Piaget’s contributions to understanding infant cognition?
Infants establish logical connections

By asking children how they know what they know, Piaget introduced the study of
metacognition

In contrast to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on
social context

What is the zone of proximal development?
distance between developmental level and level of potential development

Which of the following statements is considered an implication for human development based on Vygotsky’s
theory?
Social interaction and culture shape an individual’s cognitive development.

Vicarious reinforcement can best be described as learning
b. by observing what happens to someone else who is either rewarded or punished for their actions

When Don watches his brother practice the piano, he sees how proud his mother is and how she compliments him for his hard work. This encourages Don to practice his trumpet. According to social learning theory, this is an example of which of the following?
Vicarious reinforcement

Which of the following best describes the difference between cognitive behaviorism and the other theories of learning?
Cognitive behaviorists study internal mental activities that influence behavior.

Sudha has been driving to school using the same route for two years. Although she has never had time to stop at
the Coffee Corner on her way to school, she knows where it is and how to direct a friend there. This is an example of which of the following concepts?
Cognitive map

According to Walter Mischel’s six types of cognitiveaffective factors that influence behavior, which of the
following best describes self-regulatory plans?
Strategies to achieve one’s goals

Which of the following terms refers to the system of meanings and patterns of behavior that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next?
Culture

Which of the following is an example of cultural determinism?
Some cultures value aggressiveness and reward aggressive behaviors, whereas other cultrues consider aggression shameful or a sign of immaturity

Young children are scolded for being selfish but when they are adults they are expected to be assertive and self- reliant. This is an example of
cutural discontinuity

According to cultural theory, what determines whether behavior appears to occur in stages?
The degree of discontinuity in cultural conditioning

Which of the following is considered a link between social role theory and psychosocial theory?
Role relationships and the radius of significant others

In order to adapt to changes in the environment, systems require which of the following?
feedback mechanisms

According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, which of the following refers to the passage of time?
Chronosystem

The application of systems theory to families has focused primarily on
how families establish boundaries and rules

Which statement best describes systems theory?
Family members are interdependent in which each member can influence the others

Assumptions of any theory may or my not be correct? True or false?
True

Psychosexual thoery gives a greater role to the individual in shaping his or her own development than psychosocial? True or false
False

According to cognitive theory, accommodation is the tendency to interpret new experiences in terms of an existing scheme? True or false
False

Inner speech helps the child problem solve? True or false?
True

Vygotsky theorized that language is a barrier between generations? True or False
False

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