Neurology: Demyelinating Diseases: Multiple Sclerosis. Acute
2. *Environmental factors*:
i. Infections (the virus can influence on nervous system directly or through the autoimmune mechanisms).
ii. Geographical (groundwater properties, the number of light days in a year)
iv. Social conditions
v. Diet (dominating meat in the diet)
vi. Other factors (trauma).
Antibodies against myelin also may be generated in the periphery or intrathecally. Ongoing inflammation leads to epitope spread and recruitment of other inflammatory cells (ie, bystander activation). The T cell receptor recognizes antigen in the context of human leukocyte antigen molecule presentation and also requires a second event (ie, co-stimulatory signal via the B7-CD28 pathway, not shown) for T cell activation to occur. Activated microglia may release free radicals, nitric oxide, and proteases that may contribute to tissue damage
2. Primary progressive.
3. Secondary progressive.
4. Relapsing progressive.
6. Spinal form.
7. Neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease).
8. Marburg variant.
* cortical [epileptic attacks, psychiatric disorders]
Visual* brainstem *Cerebellar.
*Thoracic *lumbar – *sacral* pseudo exacerbation.
*Remission (complete, incomplete)*.
– Remittent – progressive.
– Progressive – remittent.
2. II – patient has difficulty to walk and weakness on 2-3 km.
3. III – patient has spastic-paretic gait, difficulty to walk and weakness on 200-300 m.
4. IV – patient can’t walk without help.
5. V – patient can’t walk or has blindness.
*OVERALL MS Sx SHOULD LAST FOR 24 HOURS*.
i. Subjective sensory disturbances are early signs of MS
ii. Then conductive sensory disorders are joined to them
iii. Muscle – joint sense usually suffers at the fifth year of the disease and later
iv. The loss of vibration sense points on posterior columns lesion
2. Motor disorders – weakness in lower extremities. This symptom is much more common at the age of 25 – 40 years. Hemiparesis, lower paraparesis and monoparesis
3. Brainstem disorders:
iii. vestibular ataxia;
iv. Sometimes trigeminal pains are observed
4. Retrobulbar neuritis is a progressive loss of vision, color vision disturbances. It lasts for about several weeks
5. Oculomotor n. disorders (diplopia and cross eye)
6. Pelvis disorders (retention of urine, micturition)
7. Acute vestibular syndrome
8. Cerebellar disorders – ataxia, disorders of coordination (Dysmetria, hypermetria, Intention tremor, Asynergy)
9. Nonspecific symptoms:
i. General weakness
ii. Cognitive disorders
iv. Attention disturbances
v. Behavioral disorders
vi. Depression, euphoria and fatigue syndrome
2. Insignificant increase of protein contents and moderate pleocytosis*[WBC]* in CSF.
3. Lymphocytosis, eosinophilia – in exacerbation stage;
leukopenia, lymphopenia – in the period of remission.
4. Increased thrombocytes aggregation and fibrinogen contents.
5. Increased IgG contents in serum and decreased T – lymphocytes quantity.
1. Patient should have at least 2 focuses of lesion and 2 exacerbations, or 2 exacerbations of 1 clinical focus and 1 paraclinical supposed focus.
2. There should be at least 3 focuses in MRI (2 of them should be located paraventricular, 1 – subtentorial (that means in brainstem or cerebellum).
The diameter of focuses should be at least 6 mm, or there should be 4 focuses, 1 of them periventricular.
Reduce progression of disabilities.
Reduce new lesions seen in the MRI.
Lowers the T-Cell Trafficking across BBB .
8 mlU SubQ every other day.
Approved for RRMS, 30% effective.
SDx: *Flu like Symptoms*
Slows the crossing of T-cells across the BBB.
*AVONEX*: 30 Micrograms IM Weekly
* Reduces Relapses*
*Slows Rate of Disability Progression*
*Reduce MRI Lesions Burdon*
SDx: Flu Like symptoms, Needs Blood /Liver Monitoring.
*22-44 MicroGram SubQ 3x/week
* Reduces # & severity of Relapses.
* Delays Disability*
*Reduces MRI Lesion* Burden.
*20 mg SubQ daily.
* Polymer of 4 AA found in Myelin, that Suppress the T-Cells and Mods. the Immune system. Reduces Inflammation.
*Approved for RRMS*
* Reduces the Freq of Relapses.
* Does not Reduce the Disability.
* Safe in Pregnancy.
* 1 SubQ/Day Shot.
*SDx: No Side effects.
* 300mg IV , 1x / Mo. IV inFusion.
* Reduces relapses by 67%*
* Slows Disability Progression*
*Reduce MRI Lesions Burdon*
* Risk of PML*
Also used in Ulceritis.
*REDUCED RELAPSES BY APPROX. 50%*
*REDUCED DISEASE PROGRESSION*
*Reduce MRI Lesions Burdon*
BELIEVED TO LIMIT THE MIGRATION OF LYMPHOCYTES FROM THE LYMPH NODES.
*SDx: Need to monitor for Cardiac side effects.[Sudden Cardiac Deaths]*
* Ophthalmologic Exam, monitor for MAcular degeneration*
*Blood Monitoring for Zoster or Shingle Virus*
* 7mg, 14mg 1x/day oral*
*REDUCES ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES IN CNS*
*IMMUNOMOD. W/ ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT*
*80% ReducTION IN NEW BRAIN MRI Lesions *
*REDUCED RELAPSES BY APPROX. 30%*
*REDUCED DISEASE PROGRESSION, 30%*
SDx: * BLOOD mONITORING*
240 mg 2x/day.
*REDUCED ANNUAL RELAPSES BY APPROX. 53%*
* REDUCE Disability Progression by 38%*
*ReducTION IN NEW BRAIN MRI Lesions *
MOA: Believed to have an anti oxidant effect and inhibit pro-inflammatory immune pathway.
* Favorable Side Effects* FLUSHING FOR AN HOUR AFTER ADMINISTERING THE MEDx. U GET USED TO IT.
2. Polioencephalomyelitis – it is characterized by the lesion of CN’s nuclei and spinal cord gray substance.
3. Optical Encephalomyelitis and optic myelitis – are characterized by optic nerve neuritis and symptoms of lesion of brain and spinal cord.
4. Disseminated myelitis – the spinal cord is damaged on different levels.
2. Together with this medicine we prescribe anabolics, K, Ca, vitamin C.
3. In acute stage we prescribe desensibilization and dehydrating medicines. In case of severe bulbar disorders we include resuscitation measures.
4. Plasmapheresis and vitamin B are also used.
5. In residual period we prescribe massage, dibazol, KJ, biostimulants, Lidasa, Seduxen, sanatorium treatment.
*1. Corticosteroids and ACTH*
i.* Prednisone* is used orally 1 – 1.5 mg/kg/day twice a day during 10 – 14 days. Then during the next 2 months we decrease the dose gradually.
ii. One of the most popular schemes for *Methylprednisolone* usage is 500 – 1000 mg per day i/v in 500 ml of physiological solution during 3 – 5 days. Then Prednisone is used in dose 0.5 – 1 mg/kg during 3 – 7 days with gradually decreasing of dose during the next 2 – 3 weeks. This way of usage has much more expressed and quick effectiveness and insignificant outside effects
iii. *Dexamethasone* is used i/v or i/m according to the scheme – 8 mg per day during 7 days, 4 mg – 4 days, 2 mg – 3 days. It is used at retrobulbar neuritis
iv. ACTH has immune suppressive activity, inhibits cellular and humoral immunity. It is used in dose 40 – 100 U i/m during 10 – 14 days.
v. *Plasmapheresis* is used in case of exacerbation.
2. Cytostatic and immune modulators, nonspecific immune suppressors
i. *Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide, Cyclosporine*
ii. The representatives of immune modulators are – T – activin, Timalin, Myelopid, Levamisole. They are prescribed at progressive forms of MS.
iii. *T – Activin*is used in dose 100 mcg s/c every evening during 5 days, then 1 – 3 injections every 10 days.
iv. *Timalin* is used in dose 10 mg i/m twice a day during 5 days, then every 10 days 2 injections are used.
3.* Cytokines, interferon*
i. There are 3 types of Interferon – α, β, γ.
ii. α – Interferon has neither toxic nor treating activity.
iii. γ – Interferon activates immune system and that’s why it provokes exacerbations.
iv. β – Interferon inhibits production of γ – interferon, increases activity of T – suppressors, has antiproliferative, antiviral and immune modulating properties.
v. *Rebif *- is a modern human β – interferon produced by “Serono” production. It is used in dose 6 – 12 mln s/c 3 times per week. It is one of the most effective modern medicines in MS patients, but unfortunately it is very expensive
4. Antigen – specific immune therapy
i. *Copaxone*: 20 mg per day s/c during 6 – 24 months. It has selective immune modulating action.
B. Other treatment:
Vitamins B group
Entero and hemosorption
Inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes
2. Vertebrogenic pathology
6. Metabolic disorders
7. Tumours (rarely)
1. Classical or sporadic ALS
2. Familial ALS [inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive one],associated with:
· Extrapyramidal disorders.
· Extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders.
· Extrapyramidal and sensory disorders.
· Peripheral neuropathy.
Familial ALS usually begins at the age of 45 – 48.
3. Complex – ALS – Parkinson disease – Dementia
i. spastic tetraparesis
ii. Pseudobulbar syndrome.
iii. Extrapyramidal nervous system (the signs of Parkinson disease) and
iv. Cortex of frontal lobe (the signs of Dementia) is involved.
2. Bulbar[Bulbar palsy refers to impairment of function of the cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII, which occurs due to a lower motor neuron lesion either at nuclear or fascicular level in the medulla oblongata or from lesions of the lower cranial nerves outside the brainstem.]
i. lesion of cranial nerves of IX, X, XI, XII CN’s that leads to the classic bulbar syndrome
3. Cervical – thoracic
i. Weakness of proximal muscles and later distal parts of the upper extremities.
ii. well – expressed hypotrophy,
iii. increased muscle tone according to the spastic type
v. Pathologic signs.
4. Lumbar – sacral
2. Infectious—viral infection
3. Autoimmune—peri-infectious, post infectious, or vaccinal myelitis
4. Multiple sclerosis
5. Neoplastic—paraneoplastic necrosis
6. Toxic—secondary to heroin injections
7. Vascular—vascular insufficiency—arteritis, dissecting aneurysm, aorta resection, aortic aneurysm
2. Pain is of sudden onset, usually severe and corresponding to the level of the cord involvement. Consequently, the pain is often in the interscapular region.
3. Progressive lower limb weakness is noted, often presenting with “stumbling or weakness of one leg.”
4. Urinary retention occasionally occurs as the initial complaint and is usually followed by lower limb weakness in a short period of time.
2. Electromyography performed after 2 weeks will demonstrate motor axonopathy in keeping with anterior horn cell involvement.
3. Lumbar puncture. The CSF is abnormal with a pleocytosis, The cells are predominantly monocytic. Protein content is elevated.