NCLEX Style Practice Questions – MedSurg DIABETES

question

The nurse is educating a pregnant client who has gestational diabetes. Which of the following statements should the nurse make to the client? Select all that apply. a. Cakes, candies, cookies, and regular soft drinks should be avoided. b. Gestational diabetes increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later in life. c. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the baby is born. d. Insulin injections may be necessary. e. The baby will likely be born with diabetes f. The mother should strive to gain no more weight during the pregnancy.
answer

ANS: A, B, C, D Gestational diabetes can occur between the 16th and 28th week of pregnancy. If not responsive to diet and exercise, insulin injections may be necessary. Concentrated sugars should be avoided. Weight gain should continue, but not in excessive amounts. Usually, gestational diabetes disappears after the infant is born. However, diabetes can develop 5 to 10 years after the pregnancy.
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he goal for pre-prandial blood glucose for those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus is: a. <80 mg/dl b. < 130 mg/dl c. <180 mg/dl d. <6%
answer

b. < 130 mg/dl
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The guidelines for Carbohydrate Counting as medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. Flexibility in types and amounts of foods consumed b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol c. Including adequate servings of fruits, vegetables and the dairy group d. Applicable to with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus
answer

b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol
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The nurse working in the physician’s office is reviewing lab results on the clients seen that day. One of the clients who has classic diabetic symptoms had an eight-hour fasting plasma glucose test done. The nurse realizes that diagnostic criteria developed by the American Diabetes Association for diabetes include classic diabetic symptoms plus which of the following fasting plasma glucose levels? a. Greater than 106 mg/dl b. Greater than 126 mg/dl c. Higher than 140 mg/dl d. Higher than 160 mg/dl
answer

d. Higher than 160 mg/dl
question

When taking a health history, the nurse screens for manifestations suggestive of diabetes type I. Which of the following manifestations are considered the primary manifestations of diabetes type I and would be most suggestive of diabetes type I and require follow-up investigation? a. Excessive intake of calories, rapid weight gain, and difficulty losing weight b. Poor circulation, wound healing, and leg ulcers, c. Lack of energy, weight gain, and depression d. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger
answer

D. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger The primary manifestations of diabetes type I are polyuria (increased urine output), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger).
question

The nurse is working with an overweight client who has a high-stress job and smokes. This client has just received a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes and has just been started on an oral hypoglycemic agent. Which of the following goals for the client which if met, would be most likely to lead to an improvement in insulin efficiency to the point the client would no longer require oral hypoglycemic agents? a. Comply with medication regimen 100% for 6 months b. Quit the use of any tobacco products by the end of three months c. Lose a pound a week until weight is in normal range for height and exercise 30 minutes daily d. Practice relaxation techniques for at least five minutes five times a day for at least five months
answer

C. Lose a pound a week until weight is in normal range for height and exercise 30 minutes daily When type II diabetics lose weight through diet and exercise they sometimes have an improvement in insulin efficiency sufficient to the degree they no longer require oral hypoglycemic agents.
question

When working in the community, the nurse will recommend routine screening for diabetes when the person has one or more of seven risk criteria. Which of the following persons that the nurse comes in contact with most needs to be screened for diabetes based on the seven risk criteria? a. A woman who is at 90% of standard body weight after delivering an eight-pound baby b. A middle-aged Caucasian male c. An older client who is hypotensive d. A client with an HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg/dl and a triglyceride level of 300 mg/dl
answer

d. A client with an HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg/dl and a triglyceride level of 300 mg/dl The seven risk criteria include: greater than 120% of standard body weight, Certain races but not including Caucasian, delivery of a baby weighing more than 9 pounds or a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, hypertensive, HDL greater than 35 mg/dl or triglyceride level greater than 250 or a triglyceride level of greater than 250 mg/dl, and, lastly, impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose on prior testing.
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The nurse assisting in the admission of a client with diabetic ketoacidosis will anticipate the physician ordering which of the following types of intravenous solution if the client cannot take fluids orally? a. 0.45% normal saline solution b. Lactated Ringer’s solution c. 0.9 normal saline solution d. 5% dextrose in water (D5W)
answer

a. 0.45% normal saline solution
question

You are doing some teaching with a client who is starting on a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent. The client mentions that he usually has a couple of beers each night and takes an aspirin each day to prevent heart attack and/or strokes. Which of the following responses would be best on the part of the nurse? a. As long as you only drink two beers and take one aspirin, this should not be a problem b. The aspirin is alright but you need to give up drinking any alcoholic beverages c. Aspirin and alcohol will cause the stomach to bleed more when on a sulfonylurea drug d. Taking alcohol and/or aspirin with a sulfonylurea drug can cause development of hypoglycemia
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D. Taking alcohol and/or aspirin with a sulfonylurea drug can cause development of hypoglycemia Alcohol and/or aspirin taken with a sulfonylurea can cause development of hypoglycemia.
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Which of the following things must the nurse working with diabetic clients keep in mind about Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)? A. This syndrome occurs mainly in people with Type I Diabetes B. It has a higher mortality rate than Diabetic Ketoacidosis C. The client with HHNS is in a state of overhydration D. This condition develops very rapidly
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B. It has a higher mortality rate than Diabetic Ketoacidosis HHNS occurs only in people with Type II Diabetes. It is a medical emergency and has a higher mortality rate than Diabetic Ketoacidosis. This condition develops very slowly over hours or days.
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Which one of the following methods/techniques will the nurse use when giving insulin to a thin person? [Hint] A. Pinch the skin up and use a 90 degree angle B. Use a 45 degree angle with the skin pinched up C. Massage the area of injection after injecting the insulin D. Warm the skin with a warmed towel or washcloth prior to the injection
answer

a. Pinch the skin up and use a 90 degree angle The best angle for a thin person is 90 degrees with the skin pinched up. The area is not massaged and it is not necessary to warm it.
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The nurse is performing discharge teaching for a patient with Addison’s disease. It is MOST important for the nurse to instruct the patient about: a. signs and symptoms of infection b. fluid and electrolyte balance c. seizure precautions d. steroid replacement
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d. steroid replacement steroid replacement is the most important information the client needs to know.
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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include all of the following except: a. Advanced age b. Obesity c. Smoking d. Physical inactivity
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C: smoking Additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes are a family history of diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, history of gestational diabetes, and race/ethnicity. African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are at greater risk of developing diabetes than whites.
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Prediabetes is associated with all of the following except: a. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes b. Impaired glucose tolerance c. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke d. Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes
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D: Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes Persons with elevated glucose levels that do not yet meet the criteria for diabetes are considered to have prediabetes and are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Weight loss and increasing physical activity can help people with prediabetes prevent or postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes.
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Blood sugar is well controlled when Hemoglobin A1C is: a. Below 7% b. Between 12%-15% c. Less than 180 mg/dL d. Between 90 and 130 mg/dL
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a. Below 7% A1c measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is glycated and determines average blood glucose during the 2 to 3 months prior to testing. Used as a diagnostic tool, A1C levels of 6.5% or higher on two tests indicate diabetes. A1C of 6% to 6.5% is considered prediabetes.
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Proliferative retinopathy is often treated using: a. Tonometry b. Fluorescein angiogram c. Antibiotics d. Laser surgery
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d. Laser surgery Scatter laser treatment is used to shrink abnormal blood vessels in an effort to preserve vision. When there is significant bleeding in the eye, it is removed in a procedure known as vitrectomy. Tonometry is a diagnostic test that measures pressure inside the eye. A fluorescein angiogram is a diagnostic test that traces the flow of dye through the blood vessels in the retina; it is used to detect macular edema.
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Which of the following diabetes drugs acts by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver? a. Sulfonylureas b. Meglitinides c. Biguanides d. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
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c. Biguanides Biguanides, such as metformin, lower blood glucose by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to produce more insulin. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors block the breakdown of starches and some sugars, which helps to reduce blood glucose levels
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Physician’s orders for a client with acute pancreatitis include the following: strict NPO, NG tube to low intermittent suction. The nurse recognizes that these interventions will: a. Reduce the secretion of pancreatic enzymes b. Decrease the client’s need for insulin c. Prevent secretion of gastric acid d. Eliminate the need for analgesia
answer

a. Reduce the secretion of pancreatic enzymes
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The nurse is planning dietary changes for a client following an episode of pancreatitis. Which diet is suitable for the client? a. Low calorie, low carbohydrate b. High calorie, low fat c. High protein, high fat d. Low protein, high carbohydrate
answer

b. High calorie, low fat
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A patient is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. A nurse checking the patient’s lab results would expect which of the following changes in laboratory findings? A. Elevated serum calcium. B. Low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). C. Elevated serum vitamin D. D. Low urine calcium.
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Answer: A The parathyroid glands regulate the calcium level in the blood. In hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium level will be elevated. Parathyroid hormone levels may be high or normal but not low. The body will lower the level of vitamin D in an attempt to lower calcium. Urine calcium may be elevated, with calcium spilling over from elevated serum levels. This may cause renal stones.
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The nurse is caring for the client diagnosed with ascites from hepatic cirrhosis. What information should the nurse report to the health-care provider? a. A decrease in the client’s daily weight of one (1) pound. b. An increase in urine output after administration of a diuretic. c. An increase in abdominal girth of two (2) inches. d. A decrease in the serum direct bilirubin to 0.6 mg/dL.
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c. An increase in abdominal girth of two (2) inches. Rationale: An increase in abdominal girth would indicate that the ascites is increasing, meaning that the client’s condition is becoming more serious and should be reported to the health-care provider.
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The nurse is caring for a client with cirrhosis of the liver. The client has developed ascites and requires a paracentesis. Which of the following symptoms is associated with ascites and should be relieved by the paracentesis? A. Pruritus. B. Dyspnea. C. Jaundice. D. Peripheral neuropathy.
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Correct answer: B Ascites (fluid buildup in the abdomen) puts pressure on the diaphragm, resulting in difficulty breathing and dyspnea. Paracentesis (surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to aspirate fluid) is done to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity and thus reduce pressure on the diaphragm in order to relieve the dyspnea. Pruritus, jaundice, and peripheral neuropathy are signs of cirrhosis that aren’t relieved or treated by paracentesis.
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A client is admitted to the medical-surgical floor with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. His blood pressure is 136/76 mm Hg, pulse 96 beats/minute, respirations 22 breaths/minute, temperature 99°F (38.3°C), and he has been experiencing severe vomiting for 24 hours. His past medical history reveals hyperlipidemia and alcohol abuse. The physician prescribes a nasogastric (NG) tube for the client. Which of the following is the primary purpose for insertion of the NG tube? A. Empty the stomach of fluids and gas to relieve vomiting. B. Prevent spasms at the sphincter of Oddi. C. Prevent air from forming in the small and large intestines. D. Remove bile from the gallbladder.
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Correct answer: A An NG tube is no longer routinely inserted to treat pancreatitis, but if the client has protracted vomiting, the NG tube is inserted to drain fluids and gas and relieve vomiting. An NG tube doesn’t prevent spasms at the sphincter of Oddi (a valve in the duodenum that controls the flow of digestive enzymes) or prevent air from forming in the small and large intestine. The common bile duct connects to the pancreas and the gall bladder, and a T tube rather than an NG tube would be used to collect bile drainage from the common bile duct.
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A 37-year-old forklift operator presents with shakiness, sweating, anxiety, and palpitations and tells the nurse he has type 1 diabetes mellitus. Which of the follow actions should the nurse do first? A. Inject 1 mg of glucagon subcutaneously. B. Administer 50 mL of 50% glucose I.V. C. Give 4 to 6 oz (118 to 177 mL) of orange juice. D. Give the client four to six glucose tablets.
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Correct answer: C Because the client is awake and complaining of symptoms, the nurse should first give him 15 grams of carbohydrate to treat hypoglycemia. This could be 4 to 6 oz of fruit juice, five to six hard candies such as Lifesavers, or 1 tablespoon of sugar. When a client has worsening symptoms of hypoglycemia or is unconscious, treatment includes 1 mg of glucagon subcutaneously or intramuscularly, or 50 mL of 50% glucose I.V. The nurse may also give two to three glucose tablets for a hypoglycemic reaction.
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A client with cirrhosis of the liver develops ascites. Which of the following orders would the nurse expect? A. Restrict fluid to 1000 mL per day. B. Ambulate 100 ft. three times per day. C. High-sodium diet. D. Maalox 30 ml P.O. BID.
answer

Correct answer: A Fluid restriction is a primary treatment for ascites. Restricting fluids decreases the amount of fluid present in the body, thereby decreasing the fluid that accumulates in the peritoneal space. A high sodium diet would increase fluid retention. Physical activities are usually restricted until ascites is relieved. Loop diuretics (such as furosemide) are usually ordered, and MaaloxÂź (a bismuth subsalicylate) may interfere with the action of the diuretics.
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A client who recently underwent cranial surgery develops syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Which of the following symptoms should the nurse anticipate? A. Edema and weight gain. B. Excessive urinary output. C. Fluid loss and dehydration. D. Low urine specific gravity.
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Correct answer: A Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) results in an abnormally high release of antidiuretic hormone, which causes water retention as serum sodium levels fall, leading to edema and weight gain. Because of fluid retention, urine output is low. Fluid is restricted to prevent fluid overload rather than replaced. As the urine becomes more concentrated, the specific gravity increases. Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, seizures, altered mentation, and coma. SIADH is most common with diseases of the hypothalamus but can also occur with heart failure, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, head trauma, or brain tumors. It may also be triggered by medications.
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The nurse is doing teaching with the family of a client with liver failure. Which of the following foods should the nurse advise them to limit in the client’s diet? A. Meats and beans. B. Butter and gravies. C. Potatoes and pasta. D. Cakes and pastries.
answer

Correct answer: A Meats and beans are high-protein foods and are restricted with liver failure. In liver failure, the liver is unable to metabolize protein adequately, causing protein by-products to build up in the body rather than be excreted. This causes problems such as hepatic encephalopathy (neurologic syndrome that develops as a result of rising blood ammonia levels). Although other nutrients, such as fat and carbohydrates, may be regulated, it’s most important to limit protein in the diet of the client with liver failure.
question

Colon cancer is most closely associated with which of the following conditions? a. appendicitis b. hemorroids c. hiatal hernia d. ulcerative colitis
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d. ulcerative colitis Chronic ulcerative colitis, granulomas, and familial polyps seem to increase a person’s chance of developing colon cancer. The other conditions listed have no known effect on the colon cancer risk.
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Which of the following diets is most commonly associated with colon cancer? a. low fiber, high fat b. low fat high fiber c. low protein, high carb d. low carb, high protein
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a. a. low fiber, high fat low fiber, high fat diet reduced motility and increases the chance of constipation. The metabolic end products of this type of diet are carcinogenic. A LOW FAT HIGH FIBER diet is recommended to help avoid colon cancer. Carbohydrates and protein aren’t necessarily associated with colon cancer.
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Which of the following diagnostic tests should be performed annually over age 50 to screen for colon cancer? a. Abdominal CT scan b. Abdominal x-ray c. Colonoscopy d. Fecal occult blood test
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d. Fecal occult blood test Surface blood vessels of polyps and cancers are fragile and often bleed with the passage of stools. Abdominal x-ray and CT scan can help establish tumor size and metastasis. A colonoscopy can help locate a tumor as well as polyps, which can be removed before they become malignant.
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Radiation therapy is used to treat colon cancer before surgery for which of the following reasons? a. Reducing the size of the tumor b. Eliminating the malignant cells c. Curing the cancer d. Helping the bowel heal after surgery
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a. Reducing the size of the tumor Radiation therapy is used to treat colon cancer before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor, making it easier to be resected. Radiation therapy isn’t curative, can’t eliminate the malignant cells (though it helps define tumor margins), can could slow postoperative healing.
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Which of the following symptoms is a client with colon cancer most likely to exhibit? a. A change in appetite b. A change in bowel habits c. An increase in body weight d. An increase in body temperature
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b. A change in bowel habits The most common complaint of the client with colon cancer is a change in bowel habits. The client may have anorexia, secondary abdominal distention, or weight loss. Fever isn’t associated with colon cancer.
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A client has just had surgery for colon cancer. Which of the following disorders might the client develop? a. Peritonitis b. Diverticulosis c. Partial bowel obstruction d. Complete bowel obstruction
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a. Peritonitis Bowel spillage could occur during surgery, resulting in peritonitis. Complete or partial bowel obstruction may occur before bowel resection. Diverticulosis doesn’t result from surgery or colon cancer.
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A 60 year old patient has an abrupt onset of anorexia, nausea and vomiting, hepatomegaly, and abnormal liver function studies. Serologic testing is negative for viral causes of hepatitis. During assessment of the patient, it is most important for the nurse to question the patient regarding A. any prior exposure to people with jaundice B. the use of all prescription and OTC (over the counter) medications C. treatment of chronic diseases with corticosteriods D. exposure to children recently immunized for hepatitis B
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A and D assess for exposure to hepatitis. Hepatitis was ruled out this is inappropriate. C is incorrect because corticosteroids do not commonly cause liver disease B is correct because overdose of medications can cause liver disease.
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A patient with cirrhosis is being treated with spironolactone (Aldactone) tid and furosemide (Lasix) bid. The patient’s most recent laboratory results indicate a serum sodium of 134 mEq/L (134 mmol/L) and a serum potassium of 3.2 mEq/L (3.2 mmol/L). Before notifying the physician, the nurse should A. administer only the furosemide B. administer both drugs as ordered C. administer only the spironolactone D. Withhold the furosemide and spironolactone
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C. administer only the spironolactone The potassium level is dangerously low. Lasix is potassium depleting, while spironolactone is potassium sparing. You would hold the Lasix and call the physician. This is a good NCLEX question that integrates this course with pharmacology.
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When obtaining a health history from a patient with acute pancreatitis, the nurse asks the patient specifically about a history of A. smoking B. alcohol use C. diabetes mellitus D. high-fat dietary intake
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Answer: B pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism
question

After having a transverse colostomy constructed for colon cancer, discharge planning for home care would include teaching about the ostomy appliance. Information appropriate for this intervention would include: a. Instructing the client to report redness, swelling, fever, or pain at the site to the physician for evaluation of infection b. Nothing can be done about the concerns of odor with the appliance. c. Ordering appliances through the client’s health care provider d. The appliance will not be needed when traveling.
answer

a. Instructing the client to report redness, swelling, fever, or pain at the site to the physician for evaluation of infection Signs and symptoms for monitoring infection at the ostomy site are a priority evaluation for clients with new ostomies. The remaining actions are not appropriate. There are supplies avaliable for clients to help control odor that may be incurred because of the ostomy. Although a prescription for ostomy supplies is needed, you can order the supplies from any medical supplier. Dependent on the location and trainability of the ostomy, appliances are almost always worn throughout the day and when traveling
question

An external insulin pump is prescribed for a client with diabetes mellitus and the client asks the nurse about the functioning of the pump. The nurse bases the response on the information that the pump: a) is timed to release programmed doses of regular or NPH insulin into the bloodstream at specific intervals b) continuously infuses small amounts of NPH insulin into the bloodstream while regularly monitoring blood glucose levels c) is surgically attached to the pancreas and infuses regular insulin into the pancreas, which in turn releases the insulin into the bloodstream d) gives a small continuously dose of regular insulin subcutaneously, and the client can self-administer a bolus with an additional dose form the pump before each meal
answer

D.) gives a small continuously dose of regular insulin subcutaneously, and the client can self-administer a bolus with an additional dose form the pump before each meal An insulin pump provides a small continuous dose of regular insulin subcutaneously throughout the day and night, and the client can self-administer a bolus with an additional dose from the pump before each meal as needed. Regular insulin is used in an insulin pump. An external pump is not attached surgically to the pancreas.
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A client is brought to the emergency room in an unresponsive state, and a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is made. The nurse would immediately prepare to initiate which of the following anticipated physician’s orders? a) endotracheal intubation b) 100 units of NPH insulin c) intravenous infusion of normal saline d) intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate
answer

c) intravenous infusion of normal saline The primary goal of treatment in hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is to rehydrate the client to restore fluid volume and to correct electrolyte deficiency. Intravenous fluid replacement is similar to that administered in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and begins with IV infusion of normal saline. Regular insulin, not NPH insulin, would be administered. The use of sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis is avoided because it can precipitate a further drop in serum potassium levels. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are not required to treat HHNS.
question

client newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has been stabilized with daily insulin injections. A nurse prepares a discharge teaching plan regarding the insulin and plans to reinforce which of the following concepts? a) always keep insulin vials refrigerated b) ketones in the urine signify a need for less insulin c) increase the amount of insulin before unusual exercise d) systematically rotate insulin injections within one anatomic site
answer

d) systematically rotate insulin injections within one anatomic site Insulin doses should not be adjusted nor increased before unusual exercise. If ketones are found in the urine, it possibly may indicate the need for additional insulin. To minimize the discomfort associated with insulin injections, insulin should be administered at room temperature. Injection sites should be rotated systematically within one anatomic site.
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Which of the following persons would most likely be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus? A 44-year-old: a. Caucasian woman. b. Asian woman. c. African-American woman. d. Hispanic male.
answer

c. African-American woman. Age-specific prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) is higher for African-Americans and Hispanics than for Caucasians. Among those younger than 75, black women had the highest incidence.
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Which of the following factors are risks for the development of diabetes mellitus? (Select all that apply.) a. Age over 45 years b. Overweight with a waist/hip ratio >1 c. Having a consistent HDL level above 40 mg/dl d. Maintaining a sedentary lifestyle
answer

a. Age over 45 years b. Overweight with a waist/hip ratio >1 d. Maintaining a sedentary lifestyle Aging results in reduced ability of beta cells to respond with insulin effectively. Overweight with waist/hip ratio increase is part of the metabolic syndrome of DM II. There is an increase in atherosclerosis with DM due to the metabolic syndrome and sedentary lifestyle.
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Which laboratory test should a nurse anticipate a physician would order when an older person is identified as high-risk for diabetes mellitus? (Select all that apply.) a. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) b. Two-hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) c. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) d. Finger stick glucose three times daily
answer

a. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) b. Two-hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) When an older person is identified as high-risk for diabetes, appropriate testing would include FPG and OGTT. A FPG greater than 140 mg/dL usually indicates diabetes. The OGTT is to determine how the body responds to the ingestion of carbohydrates in a meal. HbA1C evaluates long-term glucose control. A finger stick glucose three times daily spot-checks blood glucose levels.
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Of which of the following symptoms might an older woman with diabetes mellitus complain? a. Anorexia b. Pain intolerance c. Weight loss d. Perineal itching
answer

d. Perineal itching
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A thirty five year old male has been an insulin-dependent diabetic for five years and now is unable to urinate. Which of the following would you most likely suspect? A: Atherosclerosis B: Diabetic nephropathy C: Autonomic neuropathy D: Somatic neuropathy
answer

C: Autonomic neuropathy
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Which of the following is accurate pertaining to physical exercise and type 1 diabetes mellitus? a. Physical exercise can slow the progression of diabetes mellitus. b. Strenuous exercise is beneficial when the blood glucose is high. c. Patients who take insulin and engage in strenuous physical exercise might experience hyperglycemia. d. Adjusting insulin regimen allows for safe participation in all forms of exercise.
answer

a. Physical exercise can slow the progression of diabetes mellitus. Physical exercise slows the progression of diabetes mellitus, because exercise has beneficial effects on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Strenuous exercise can cause retinal damage, and can cause hypoglycemia. Insulin and foods both must be adjusted to allow safe participation in exercise.
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One of the benefits of Glargine (Lantus) insulin is its ability to: a. Release insulin rapidly throughout the day to help control basal glucose. b. Release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels. c. Simplify the dosing and better control blood glucose levels during the day. d. Cause hypoglycemia with other manifestation of other adverse reactions.
answer

b. Release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels. Glargine (Lantus) insulin is designed to release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels.
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A frail elderly patient with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been ill with pneumonia. The client’s intake has been very poor, and she is admitted to the hospital for observation and management as needed. What is the most likely problem with this patient? a. Insulin resistance has developed. b. Diabetic ketoacidosis is occurring. c. Hypoglycemia unawareness is developing. d. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma
answer

d. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma Illness, especially with the frail elderly patient whose appetite is poor, can result in dehydration and HHNC. Insulin resistance usually is indicated by a daily insulin requirement of 200 units or more. Diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute metabolic condition, usually is caused by absent or markedly decreased amounts of insulin.
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The nurse is caring for a patient with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Which nursing diagnosis should the nurse most seriously consider when analyzing the needs of the patient? a. High risk for aspiration related to severe vomiting b. Diarrhea related to increased peristalsis c. Hypothermia related to slowed metabolic rate d. Oral mucous membrane, altered related to disease process
answer

c. Hypothermia related to slowed metabolic rate Thyroid hormone deficiency results in reduction in the metabolic rate, resulting in hypothermia, and does predispose the older adult to a host of other health-related issues. One quarter of affected elderly experience constipation.
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A patient received 6 units of REGULAR INSULIN 3 hours ago. The nurse would be MOST concerned if which of the following was observed? a. kussmaul respirations and diaphoresis b. anorexia and lethargy c. diaphoresis and trembling d. headache and polyuria
answer

c. diaphoresis and trembling indicates hypoglycemia
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The nurse is caring for patients in the student health center. A patient confides to the nurse that the patient’s boyfriend informed her that he tested positive for Hepatitis B. Which of the following responses by the nurse is BEST? a. “That must have been a real shock to you” b. “You should be tested for Hepatitis B” c. “You’ll receive the Hepatitis B immune globulin HBIG d. “Have you had unprotected sex with your boyfriend”
answer

D. Hepatitis B is transmitted through parenteral drug abuse and sexual contact. Determine exposure before implementing.
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A patient newly diagnosed with Type I DM is being seen by the home health nurse. The doctors orders include: 1200 calorie ADA diet, 15 units NPH insulin before breakfast, and check blood sugar qid. When the nurse visits the patient at 5 pm, the nurse observes the man performing blood sugar analysis. The result is 50 mg/dL. The nurse would expect the patient to be a. confused with cold, clammy skin an pulse of 110 b. lethargic with hot dry dkin and rapid deep respirations c. alert and cooperative with BP of 130/80 and respirations of 12 d. short of breath, with distended neck veins and bounding pulse of 96.
answer

a. confused with cold, clammy skin an pulse of 110 hypoglycemia
question

Liver biopsy:
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Right side position post procedure to prevent patient from bleeding.
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Thyroidectomy:
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Semi Fowler and avoid hyperflexion and hyperextension of the neck
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While preparing the client for a colonoscopy, the nurse’s responsibilities include: a. Explaining the risks and benefits of the exam b. Instructing the client about the bowel preparation prior to the test c, Instructing the client about medication that will be used to sedate the client d. Explaining the results of the exam
answer

b. Instructing the client about the bowel preparation prior to the test The nurse is responsible for instructing the client about the bowel preparation prior to the test. Answers 1, 3, 4 are the physician’s responsibility.
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The nurse is having difficulty obtaining a capillary blood sample from a client’s finger to measure blood glucose using a blood glucose monitor. Which procedure will increase the blood flow to the area to ensure an adequate specimen? a. Raise the hand on a pillow to increase venous flow. b. Pierce the skin with the lancet in the middle of the finger pad. c. Wrap the finger in a warm cloth for 30-60 seconds. d. Pierce the skin at a 45-degree angle.
answer

c. Wrap the finger in a warm cloth for 30-60 seconds. The hand is lowered to increase venous flow. The finger is pierced lateral to the middle of the pad perpendicular to the skin surface.
question

A nurse cares for a client following a liver biopsy. Which nursing care plan reflects proper care? a. Position in a dorsal recumbent position, with one pillow under the head b. Bed rest for 24 hours, with a pressure dressing over the biopsy site c. Position to a right side-lying position, with a pillow under the biopsy site d. Neurological checks of lower extremities every hour
answer

c. Position to a right side-lying position, with a pillow under the biopsy site Positioning the client in a right side-lying position with a pillow under the biopsy site reflects proper care. Answer 1 does not permit the necessary pressure applied to the biopsy site. B ed rest is only required for several hours. There is no reason to do neurological checks.
question

Mr. L. has a seven-year history of hepatic cirrhosis. He was brought to the emergency room because he began vomiting large amounts of dark-red blood. An Esophageal Balloon Tamponade tube was inserted to tamponade the bleeding esophageal varices. While the balloon tamponade is in place, the nurse caring for Mr. L. gives the highest priority to a. assessing his stools for occult blood. b. evaluating capillary refill in extremities. c. auscultating breath sounds. d. performing frequent mouth care.
answer

c. auscultating breath sounds. Rationale: Airway obstruction and aspiration of gastric contents are potential serious complications of balloon tamponade. Frequent assessment of the client’s respiratory status is the priority.
question

A newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patient likes to run 3 miles several mornings a week. Which teaching will the nurse implement about exercise for this patient? a. “You should not take the morning NPH insulin before you run.” b. “Plan to eat breakfast about an hour before your run.” c. “Afternoon running is less likely to cause hypoglycemia.” d. “You may want to run a little farther if your glucose is very high.”
answer

B Rationale: Blood sugar increases after meals, so this will be the best time to exercise. NPH insulin will not peak until mid-afternoon and is safe to take before a morning run. Running can be done in either the morning or afternoon. If the glucose is very elevated, the patient should postpone the run.
question

A patient with type 1 diabetes has received diet instruction as part of the treatment plan. The nurse determines a need for additional instruction when the patient says, a. “I may have an occasional alcoholic drink if I include it in my meal plan.” b. “I will need a bedtime snack because I take an evening dose of NPH insulin.” c. “I will eat meals as scheduled, even if I am not hungry, to prevent hypoglycemia.” d. “I may eat whatever I want, as long as I use enough insulin to cover the calories.”
answer

D Rationale: Most patients with type 1 diabetes need to plan diet choices very carefully. Patients who are using intensified insulin therapy have considerable flexibility in diet choices but still should restrict dietary intake of items such as fat, protein, and alcohol. The other patient statements are correct and indicate good understanding of the diet instruction.
question

Intramuscular glucagon is administered to an unresponsive patient for treatment of hypoglycemia. Which action should the nurse take after the patient regains consciousness? a. Give the patient a snack of cheese and crackers. b. Have the patient drink a glass of orange juice or nonfat milk. c. Administer a continuous infusion of 5% dextrose for 24 hours. d. Assess the patient for symptoms of hyperglycemia.
answer

A Rationale: Rebound hypoglycemia can occur after glucagon administration, but having a meal containing complex carbohydrates plus protein and fat will help prevent hypoglycemia. Orange juice and nonfat milk will elevate blood sugar rapidly, but the cheese and crackers will stabilize blood sugar. Administration of glucose intravenously might be used in patients who were unable to take in nutrition orally. The patient should be assessed for symptoms of hypoglycemia after glucagon administration.
question

Which of these laboratory values noted by the nurse when reviewing the chart of a diabetic patient indicates the need for further assessment of the patient? a. Fasting blood glucose of 130 mg/dl b. Noon blood glucose of 52 mg/dl c. Glycosylated hemoglobin of 6.9% d. Hemoglobin A1C of 5.8%
answer

b. Noon blood glucose of 52 mg/dl The nurse should assess the patient with a blood glucose level of 52 mg/dl for symptoms of hypoglycemia, and give the patient some carbohydrate-containing beverage such as orange juice. The other values are within an acceptable range for a diabetic patient.
question

A 63-year-old patient is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. When developing an education plan, the nurse’s first action should be to a. assess the patient’s perception of what it means to have type 2 diabetes. b. demonstrate how to check glucose using capillary blood glucose monitoring. c. ask the patient’s family to participate in the diabetes education program. d. discuss the need for the patient to actively participate in diabetes management.
answer

A Rationale: Before planning education, the nurse should assess the patient’s interest in and ability to self-manage the diabetes. After assessing the patient, the other nursing actions may be appropriate, but planning needs to be individualized to each patient.
question

A patient recovering from DKA asks the nurse how acidosis occurs. The best response by the nurse is that a. insufficient insulin leads to cellular starvation, and as cells rupture they release organic acids into the blood. b. when an insulin deficit causes hyperglycemia, then proteins are deaminated by the liver, causing acidic by-products. c. excess glucose in the blood is metabolized by the liver into acetone, which is acidic. d. an insulin deficit promotes metabolism of fat stores, which produces large amounts of acidic ketones.
answer

D Rationale: Ketoacidosis is caused by the breakdown of fat stores when glucose is not available for intracellular metabolism. The other responses are inaccurate.
question

A patient using a split mixed-dose insulin regimen asks the nurse about the use of intensive insulin therapy to achieve tighter glucose control. The nurse should teach the patient that a. intensive insulin therapy requires three or more injections a day in addition to an injection of a basal long-acting insulin. b. intensive insulin therapy is indicated only for newly diagnosed type 1 diabetics who have never experienced ketoacidosis. c. studies have shown that intensive insulin therapy is most effective in preventing the macrovascular complications characteristic of type 2 diabetes. d. an insulin pump provides the best glucose control and requires about the same amount of attention as intensive insulin therapy.
answer

A Rationale: Patients using intensive insulin therapy must check their glucose level four to six times daily and administer insulin accordingly. A previous episode of ketoacidosis is not a contraindication for intensive insulin therapy. Intensive insulin therapy is not confined to type 2 diabetics and would prevent microvascular changes as well as macrovascular changes. Intensive insulin therapy and an insulin pump are comparable in glucose control.
question

A college student who has type 1 diabetes normally walks each evening as part of an exercise regimen. The student now plans to take a swimming class every day at 1:00 PM. The clinic nurse teaches the patient to a. delay eating the noon meal until after the swimming class. b. increase the morning dose of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin on days of the swimming class. c. time the morning insulin injection so that the peak occurs while swimming. d. check glucose level before, during, and after swimming.
answer

d. check glucose level before, during, and after swimming. Rationale: The change in exercise will affect blood glucose, and the patient will need to monitor glucose carefully to determine the need for changes in diet and insulin administration. Because exercise tends to decrease blood glucose, patients are advised to eat before exercising. Increasing the morning NPH or timing the insulin to peak during exercise may lead to hypoglycemia, especially with the increased exercise.
question

A patient with type 1 diabetes who uses glargine (Lantus) and lispro (Humalog) insulin develops a sore throat, cough, and fever. When the patient calls the clinic to report the symptoms and a blood glucose level of 210 mg/dl, the nurse advises the patient to a. use only the lispro insulin until the symptoms of infection are resolved. b. monitor blood glucose every 4 hours and notify the clinic if it continues to rise. c. decrease intake of carbohydrates until glycosylated hemoglobin is less than 7%. d. limit intake to non-calorie-containing liquids until the glucose is within the usual range.
answer

B Rationale: Infection and other stressors increase blood glucose levels and the patient will need to test blood glucose frequently, treat elevations appropriately with insulin, and call the health care provider if glucose levels continue to be elevated. Discontinuing the glargine will contribute to hyperglycemia and may lead to DKA. Decreasing carbohydrate or caloric intake is not appropriate as the patient will need more calories when ill. Glycosylated hemoglobins are not used to test for short-term alterations in blood glucose.
question

Amitriptyline (Elavil) is prescribed for a diabetic patient with peripheral neuropathy who has burning foot pain occurring mostly at night. Which information should the nurse include when teaching the patient about the new medication? a. Amitriptyline will help prevent the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. b. Amitriptyline will improve sleep and make you less aware of nighttime pain. c. Amitriptyline will decrease the depression caused by the pain. d. Amitriptyline will correct some of the blood vessel changes that cause pain.
answer

A Rationale: Tricyclic antidepressants decrease the transmission of pain impulses to the spinal cord and brain. Tricyclics also improve sleep quality and are used for depression, but that is not the major purpose for their use in diabetic neuropathy. The blood vessel changes that contribute to neuropathy are not affected by tricyclics.
question

A patient who has just been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is 5 ft 4 in (160 cm) tall and weighs 182 pounds (82 kg). A nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements is developed. Which patient outcome is most important for this patient? a. The patient will have a diet and exercise plan that results in weight loss. b. The patient will state the reasons for eliminating simple sugars in the diet. c. The patient will have a glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7%. d. The patient will choose a diet that distributes calories throughout the day.
answer

C Rationale: The complications of diabetes are related to elevated blood glucose, and the most important patient outcome is the reduction of glucose to near-normal levels. The other outcomes are also appropriate but are not as high in priority.
question

A 1200-calorie diet and exercise are prescribed for a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The patient tells the nurse, “I hate to exercise! Can’t I just follow the diet to keep my glucose under control?” The nurse teaches the patient that the major purpose of exercise for diabetics is to a. increase energy and sense of well-being, which will help with body image. b. facilitate weight loss, which will decrease peripheral insulin resistance. c. improve cardiovascular endurance, which is important for diabetics. d. set a successful pattern, which will help in making other needed changes.
answer

b. facilitate weight loss, which will decrease peripheral insulin resistance. Rationale: Exercise is essential to decrease insulin resistance and improve blood glucose control. Increased energy, improved cardiovascular endurance, and setting a pattern of success are secondary benefits of exercise, but they are not the major reason.
question

The nurse teaches the diabetic patient who rides a bicycle to work every day to administer morning insulin into the a. thigh. b. buttock. c. arm. d. abdomen.
answer

D Rationale: Patients should be taught not to administer insulin into a site that will be exercised because exercise will increase the rate of absorption. The thigh, buttock, and arm are all exercised by riding a bicycle.
question

A patient with type 1 diabetes has been using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) as part of diabetes management. During evaluation of the patient’s technique of SMBG, the nurse identifies a need for additional teaching when the patient a. chooses a puncture site in the center of the finger pad. b. washes the puncture site using soap and water. c. says the result of 130 mg indicates good blood sugar control. d. hangs the arm down for a minute before puncturing the site.
answer

A Rationale: The patient is taught to choose a puncture site at the side of the finger pad. The other patient actions indicate that teaching has been effective.
question

A diabetic patient is admitted with ketoacidosis and the health care provider writes all of the following orders. Which order should the nurse implement first? a. Start an infusion of regular insulin at 50 U/hr. b. Give sodium bicarbonate 50 mEq IV push. c. Infuse 1 liter of normal saline per hour. d. Administer regular IV insulin 30 U.
answer

C Rationale: The most urgent patient problem is the hypovolemia associated with DKA, and the priority is to infuse IV fluids. The other actions can be accomplished after the infusion of normal saline is initiated.
question

A diabetic patient is started on intensive insulin therapy. The nurse will plan to teach the patient about mealtime coverage using _____ insulin. a. NPH b. lispro c. detemir d. glargine
answer

B Rationale: Rapid or short acting insulin is used for mealtime coverage for patients receiving intensive insulin therapy. NPH, glargine, or detemir will be used as the basal insulin.
question

A patient with type 2 diabetes is scheduled for an outpatient coronary arteriogram. Which information obtained by the nurse when admitting the patient indicates a need for a change in the patient’s regimen? a. The patient’s most recent hemoglobin A1C was 6%. b. The patient takes metformin (Glucophage) every morning. c. The patient uses captopril (Capoten) for hypertension. d. The patient’s admission blood glucose is 128 mg/dl.
answer

B Rationale: To avoid lactic acidosis, metformin should not be used for 48 hours after IV contrast media are administered. The other patient data indicate that the patient is managing the diabetes appropriately.
question

Cardiac monitoring is initiated for a patient in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nurse recognizes that this measure is important to identify a. electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and dysrhythmias related to hypokalemia. b. fluid overload resulting from aggressive fluid replacement. c. the presence of hypovolemic shock related to osmotic diuresis. d. cardiovascular collapse resulting from the effects of hyperglycemia.
answer

A Rationale: The hypokalemia associated with metabolic acidosis can lead to potentially fatal dysrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, which would be detected with ECG monitoring. Fluid overload, hypovolemia, and cardiovascular collapse are possible complications of DKA, but cardiac monitoring would not detect theses.
question

A patient with type 2 diabetes that is controlled with diet and metformin (Glucophage) also has severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). During an acute exacerbation of the patient’s arthritis, the health care provider prescribes prednisone (Deltasone) to control inflammation. The nurse will anticipate that the patient may a. require administration of insulin while taking prednisone. b. develop acute hypoglycemia during the RA exacerbation. c. have rashes caused by metformin-prednisone interactions. d. need a diet higher in calories while receiving prednisone.
answer

A Rationale: Glucose levels increase when patients are taking CORTICOsteroids, and insulin may be required to control blood glucose. Hypoglycemia is not a complication of RA exacerbation or prednisone use. Rashes are not an adverse effect caused by taking metformin and prednisone simultaneously. The patient is likely to have an increased appetite when taking prednisone, but it will be important to avoid weight gain for the patient with RA.
question

A program of weight loss and exercise is recommended for a patient with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). When teaching the patient about the reason for these lifestyle changes, the nurse will tell the patient that a. the high insulin levels associated with this syndrome damage the lining of blood vessels, leading to vascular disease. b. although the fasting plasma glucose levels do not currently indicate diabetes, the glycosylated hemoglobin will be elevated. c. the liver is producing excessive glucose, which will eventually exhaust the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, and exercise will normalize glucose production. d. the onset of diabetes and the associated cardiovascular risks can be delayed or prevented by weight loss and exercise.
answer

D Rationale: The patient with IFG is at risk for developing type 2 diabetes, but this risk can be decreased with lifestyle changes. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels will not be elevated in IFG and the Hb A1C test is not included in prediabetes testing. Elevated insulin levels do not cause the damage to blood vessels that can occur with IFG. The liver does not produce increased levels of glucose in IFG
question

A patient screened for diabetes at a clinic has a fasting plasma glucose level of 120 mg/dl (6.7 mmol/L). The nurse will plan to teach the patient about a. use of low doses of regular insulin. b. self-monitoring of blood glucose. c. oral hypoglycemic medications. d. maintenance of a healthy weight.
answer

D Rationale: The patient’s impaired fasting glucose indicates pre-diabetes and the patient should be counseled about LIFESTYLE CHANGES to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. The patient with prediabetes does not require insulin or the oral hypoglycemics for glucose control and does not need to self-monitor blood glucose.
question

A hospitalized diabetic patient receives 12 U of regular insulin mixed with 34 U of NPH insulin at 7:00 AM. The patient is away from the nursing unit for diagnostic testing at noon, when lunch trays are distributed. The most appropriate action by the nurse is to a. save the lunch tray to be provided upon the patient’s return to the unit. b. call the diagnostic testing area and ask that a 5% dextrose IV be started. c. ensure that the patient drinks a glass of milk or orange juice at noon in the diagnostic testing area. d. request that the patient be returned to the unit to eat lunch if testing will not be completed promptly.
answer

D Rationale: Consistency for mealtimes assists with regulation of blood glucose, so the best option is for the patient to have lunch at the usual time. Waiting to eat until after the procedure is likely to cause hypoglycemia. Administration of an IV solution is unnecessarily invasive for the patient. A glass of milk or juice will keep the patient from becoming hypoglycemic but will cause a rapid rise in blood glucose because of the rapid absorption of the simple carbohydrate in these items.
question

When assessing the patient experiencing the onset of symptoms of type 1 diabetes, which question should the nurse ask? a. “Have you lost any weight lately?” b. “Do you crave fluids containing sugar?” c. “How long have you felt anorexic?” d. “Is your urine unusually dark-colored?”
answer

A Rationale: Weight loss occurs because the body is no longer able to absorb glucose and starts to break down protein and fat for energy. The patient is thirsty but does not necessarily crave sugar- containing fluids. Increased appetite is a classic symptom of type 1 diabetes. With the classic symptom of polyuria, urine will be very dilute.
question

While hospitalized and recovering from an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, the patient calls the nurse and reports feeling anxious, nervous, and sweaty. Based on the patient’s report, the nurse should a. obtain a glucose reading using a finger stick. b. administer 1 mg glucagon subcutaneously. c. have the patient eat a candy bar. d. have the patient drink 4 ounces of orange juice.
answer

A Rationale: The patient’s clinical manifestations are consistent with hypoglycemia and the initial action should be to check the patient’s glucose with a finger stick or order a stat blood glucose. If the glucose is low, the patient should ingest a rapid-acting carbohydrate, such as orange juice. Glucagon might be given if the patient’s symptoms become worse or if the patient is unconscious. Candy bars contain fat, which would slow down the absorption of sugar and delay the response to treatment.
question

A patient with type 2 diabetes has sensory neuropathy of the feet and legs and peripheral vascular disease evidenced by decreased peripheral pulses and dependent rubor. The nurse teaches the patient that a. the feet should be soaked in warm water on a daily basis. b. flat-soled leather shoes are the best choice to protect the feet from injury. c. heating pads should always be set at a very low temperature. d. over-the-counter (OTC) callus remover may be used to remove callus and prevent pressure.
answer

B Rationale: The patient is taught to avoid high heels and that leather shoes are preferred. The feet should be washed, but not soaked, in warm water daily. Heating pad use should be avoided. Commercial callus and corn removers should be avoided; the patient should see a specialist to treat these problems.
question

A diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNC) is made for a patient with type 2 diabetes who is brought to the emergency department in an unresponsive state. The nurse will anticipate the need to a. administer glargine (Lantus) insulin. b. initiate oxygen by nasal cannula. c. insert a large-bore IV catheter. d. give 50% dextrose as a bolus.
answer

C Rationale: HHNC is initially treated with large volumes of IV fluids to correct hypovolemia. Regular insulin is administered, not a long-acting insulin. There is no indication that the patient requires oxygen. Dextrose solutions will increase the patient’s blood glucose and would be contraindicated.
question

After the home health nurse has taught a patient and family about how to use glargine and regular insulin safely, which action by the patient indicates that the teaching has been successful? a. The patient disposes of the open insulin vials after 4 weeks. b. The patient draws up the regular insulin in the syringe and then draws up the glargine. c. The patient stores extra vials of both types of insulin in the freezer until needed. d. The patient’s family prefills the syringes weekly and stores them in the refrigerator.
answer

A Rationale: Insulin can be stored at room temperature for 4 weeks. Glargine should not be mixed with other insulins or prefilled and stored. Freezing alters the insulin molecule and should not be done.
question

A type 1 diabetic patient who was admitted with severe hypoglycemia and treated tells the nurse, “I did not have any of the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia.” Which question by the nurse will help identify a possible reason for the patient’s hypoglycemic unawareness? a. “Do you use any calcium-channel blocking drugs for blood pressure?” b. “Have you observed any recent skin changes?” c. “Do you notice any bloating feeling after eating?” d. “Have you noticed any painful new ulcerations or sores on your feet?”
answer

C Rationale: Hypoglycemic unawareness is caused by autonomic neuropathy, which would also cause delayed gastric emptying. Calcium-channel blockers are not associated with hypoglycemic unawareness, although -adrenergic blockers can prevent patients from having symptoms of hypoglycemia. Skin changes can occur with diabetes, but these are not associated with autonomic neuropathy. If the patient can feel painful areas on the feet, neuropathy has not occurred.
question

A health care provider who has not been immunized for hepatitis B is exposed to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) through a needle stick from an infected patient. The infection control nurse informs the individual that treatment for the exposure should include a. baseline hepatitis B antibody testing now and in 2 months. b. active immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. c. hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) injection. d. both the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG injection.
answer

D Rationale: The recommended treatment for exposure to hepatitis B in unvaccinated individuals is to receive both HBIG and the hepatitis B vaccine, which would provide temporary passive immunity and promote active immunity. Antibody testing may also be done, but this would not provide protection from the exposure.
question

A patient in the outpatient clinic has positive serologic testing for anti-HCV. Which action by the nurse is appropriate? a. Schedule the patient for HCV genotype testing. b. Teach the patient that the HCV will resolve in 2 to 4 months. c. Administer immune globulin and the HCV vaccine. d. Instruct the patient on self-administration of -interferon.
answer

A Rationale: Genotyping of HCV has an important role in managing treatment and is done before drug therapy with -interferon or other medications is started. HCV has a high percentage of conversion to the chronic state so the nurse should not teach the patient that the HCV will resolve in 2 to 4 months. Immune globulin or vaccine is not available for HCV.
question

A homeless patient with severe anorexia, fatigue, jaundice, and hepatomegaly is diagnosed with viral hepatitis and has just been admitted to the hospital. In planning care for the patient, the nurse assigns the highest priority to the patient outcome of a. maintaining adequate nutrition. b. establishing a stable home environment. c. increasing activity level. d. identifying the source of exposure to hepatitis.
answer

A Rationale: The highest priority outcome is to maintain nutrition because adequate nutrition is needed for hepatocyte regeneration. Finding a home for the patient and identifying the source of the infection would be appropriate activities, but they do not have as high a priority as having adequate nutrition. Although the patient’s activity level will be gradually increased, rest is indicated during the acute phase of hepatitis.
question

A patient is admitted with an abrupt onset of jaundice, nausea and vomiting, hepatomegaly, and abnormal liver function studies. Serologic testing is negative for viral causes of hepatitis. Which question by the nurse is most appropriate? a. “Have you been around anyone with jaundice?” b. “Do you use any prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs?” c. “Are you taking corticosteroids for any reason?” d. “Is there any history of IV drug use?”
answer

B Rationale: The patient’s symptoms, lack of antibodies for hepatitis, and the ABRUPT onset of symptoms suggest toxic hepatitis, which can be caused by commonly used OTC drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol). Exposure to a jaundiced individual and a history of IV drug use are risk factors for VIRAL hepatitis. Corticosteroid use does not cause the symptoms listed.
question

A patient with cirrhosis has 4+ pitting edema of the feet and legs and massive ascites. The data indicate that it is most important for the nurse to monitor the patient’s a. temperature. b. albumin level. c. hemoglobin. d. activity level.
answer

B Rationale: The low oncotic pressure caused by hypoalbuminemia is a major pathophysiologic factor in the development of ascites and edema. The other parameters should also be monitored, but they are not contributing factors to the patient’s current symptoms.
question

A 32-year-old patient has early alcoholic cirrhosis diagnosed by a liver biopsy. When planning patient teaching, the priority information for the nurse to include is the need for a. vitamin B supplements. b. abstinence from alcohol. c. maintenance of a nutritious diet. d. long-term, low-dose corticosteroids.
answer

B Rationale: The disease progression can be stopped or reversed by alcohol abstinence. The other interventions may be used when cirrhosis becomes more severe to decrease symptoms or complications, but the priority for this patient is to stop the progression of the disease.
question

. A patient with cirrhosis who is being treated with spironolactone (Aldactone) and furosemide (Lasix) has a serum sodium level of 135 mEq/L (135 mmol/L) and serum potassium 3.2 mEq/L (3.2 mmol/L). Before notifying the health care provider, the nurse should a. administer the furosemide and withhold the spironolactone. b. give both drugs as scheduled. c. administer the spironolactone. d. withhold both drugs until talking with the health care provider.
answer

C Rationale: Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic and will help to increase the patient’s potassium level. The nurse does not need to talk with the doctor before giving the spironolactone, although the health care provider should be notified about the low potassium value. The furosemide will further decrease the patient’s potassium level and should be held until the nurse talks with the health care provider.
question

When assessing the neurologic status of a patient with a diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy, the nurse asks the patient to a. stand on one foot. b. ambulate with the eyes closed. c. extend both arms. d. perform the Valsalva maneuver.
answer

C Rationale: Extending the arms allows the nurse to check for asterixis, a classic sign of hepatic encephalopathy. The other tests might also be done as part of the neurologic assessment but would not be diagnostic for hepatic encephalopathy.
question

When lactulose (Cephulac) 30 ml QID is ordered for a patient with advanced cirrhosis, the patient complains that it causes diarrhea. The nurse explains to the patient that it is still important to take the drug because the lactulose will a. promote fluid loss. b. prevent constipation. c. prevent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. d. improve nervous system function.
answer

d. improve nervous system function. Rationale: The purpose for lactulose in the patient with cirrhosis is to lower ammonia levels and prevent encephalopathy. Although the medication may promote fluid loss through the stool, prevent constipation, and prevent bearing down during bowel movements (which could lead to esophageal bleeding), the medication is not ordered for these purposes for this patient.
question

A patient who is admitted with acute hepatic encephalopathy and ascites receives instructions about appropriate diet. The nurse determines that the teaching has been effective when the patient’s choice of foods from the menu includes a. an omelet with cheese and mushrooms and milk. b. pancakes with butter and honey and orange juice. c. baked beans with ham, cornbread, potatoes, and coffee. d. baked chicken with french-fries, low-fiber bread, and tea.
answer

b. pancakes with butter and honey and orange juice. B Rationale: The patient with acute hepatic encephalopathy is placed on a LOW-protein diet to decrease ammonia levels. The other choices are all higher in protein and would not be as appropriate for this patient. In addition, the patient’s ascites indicate that a low-sodium diet is needed and the other choices are all high in sodium.
question

A patient with cirrhosis has a massive hemorrhage from esophageal varices. In planning care for the patient, the nurse gives the highest priority to the goal of a. controlling bleeding. b. maintenance of the airway. c. maintenance of fluid volume. d. relieving the patient’s anxiety.
answer

B Rationale: Maintaining gas exchange has the highest priority because oxygenation is essential for life. The airway is compromised by the bleeding in the esophagus and aspiration easily occurs. The other goals would also be important for this patient, but they are not as high a priority as airway maintenance.
question

During treatment of a patient with a Minnesota balloon tamponade for bleeding esophageal varices, which nursing action will be included in the plan of care? a. Encourage the patient to cough and deep breathe. b. Insert the tube and verify its position q4hr. c. Monitor the patient for shortness of breath. d. Deflate the gastric balloon q8-12hr.
answer

c. Monitor the patient for shortness of breath. Rationale: The most common complication of balloon tamponade is aspiration pneumonia. In addition, if the gastric balloon ruptures, the esophageal balloon may slip upward and occlude the airway. Coughing increases the pressure on the varices and increases the risk for bleeding. The health care provider inserts the tube and verifies the position. The esophageal balloon is deflated every 8 to 12 hours to avoid necrosis, but if the gastric balloon is deflated, the esophageal balloon may occlude the airway.
question

A patient with severe cirrhosis has an episode of bleeding esophageal varices. To detect possible complications of the bleeding episode, it is most important for the nurse to monitor a. prothrombin time. b. bilirubin levels. c. ammonia levels. d. potassium levels.
answer

C Rationale: The blood in the GI tract will be absorbed as protein and may result in an increase in ammonia level since the liver cannot metabolize protein well. The prothrombin time, bilirubin, and potassium levels should also be monitored, but these will not be affected by the bleeding episode.
question

The nurse identifies a nursing diagnosis of risk for impaired skin integrity for a patient with cirrhosis who has ascites and 4+ pitting edema of the feet and legs. An appropriate nursing intervention for this problem is to a. restrict dietary protein intake. b. arrange for a pressure-relieving mattress. c. perform passive range of motion QID. d. turn the patient every 4 hours.
answer

B Rationale: The pressure-relieving mattress will decrease the risk for skin breakdown for this patient. Dietary protein intake may be increased in patients with ascites to improve oncotic pressure. Turning the patient every 4 hours will not be adequate to maintain skin integrity. Passive range of motion will not take pressure off areas like the sacrum that are vulnerable to breakdown.
question

A patient with cancer of the liver has severe ascites, and the health care provider plans a paracentesis to relieve the fluid pressure on the diaphragm. To prepare the patient for the procedure, the nurse a. asks the patient to empty the bladder. b. positions the patient on the right side. c. obtains informed consent for the procedure. d. assists the patient to lie flat in bed.
answer

A Rationale: The patient should empty the bladder to decrease the risk of bladder perforation during the procedure. The patient would be positioned in Fowler’s position and would not be able to lie flat without compromising breathing. The health care provider is responsible for obtaining informed consent.
question

A patient hospitalized with possible acute pancreatitis has severe abdominal pain and nausea and vomiting. The nurse would expect the diagnosis to be confirmed with laboratory testing that reveals elevated serum a. calcium. b. bilirubin. c. amylase. d. potassium.
answer

C Rationale: Amylase is elevated early in acute pancreatitis. Changes in bilirubin, calcium, and potassium levels are not diagnostic for pancreatitis.
question

A patient with acute pancreatitis has a nasogastric (NG) tube to suction and is NPO. The nurse explains to the patient that the major purpose of this treatment is a. control of fluid and electrolyte imbalance. b. relief from nausea and vomiting. c. reduction of pancreatic enzymes. d. removal of the precipitating irritants.
answer

c. reduction of pancreatic enzymes. Rationale: Pancreatic enzymes are released when the patient eats. NG suction and NPO status decrease the release of these enzymes. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances will be caused by NG suction and require that the patient receive IV fluids to prevent this. The patient’s nausea and vomiting may decrease, but this is not the major reason for these treatments. The pancreatic enzymes that precipitate the pancreatitis are not removed by NG suction.
question

The nurse identifies the collaborative problem of potential complication: electrolyte imbalance for a patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Assessment findings that alert the nurse to electrolyte imbalances associated with acute pancreatitis include a. muscle twitching and finger numbness. b. paralytic ileus and abdominal distention. c. hypotension. d. hyperglycemia.
answer

A Rationale: Muscle twitching and finger numbness indicate hypocalcemia, a potential complication of acute pancreatitis. The other data indicate other complications of acute pancreatitis but are not indicators of electrolyte imbalance.
question

When obtaining a health history from a patient with acute pancreatitis, the nurse asks the patient specifically about a history of a. cigarette smoking. b. alcohol use. c. diabetes mellitus. d. high-protein diet.
answer

B Rationale: Alcohol use is one of the most common risk factors for pancreatitis in the United States. Cigarette smoking, diabetes, and high-protein diets are not risk factors.
question

A client has recently been diagnosed with Type I diabetes and asks the nurse for help formulating a nutrition plan. Which of the following recommendations would the nurse make to help the client increase calorie consumption to offset absorption problems? a. Eating small meals with two or three snacks may be more helpful in maintaining blood glucose levels than three large meals. b. Eat small meals with two or three snacks throughout the day to keep blood glucose levels steady c. Increase consumption of simple carbohydrates d. Skip meals to help lose weight
answer

A Eating small meals with two or three snacks may be more helpful in maintaining blood glucose levels than three large meals.
question

When a client learned that the symptoms of diabetes were caused by high levels of blood glucose the client decided to stop eating carbohydrates. In this instance, the nurse would be concerned that the client would develop what complication? a. acidosis b. atherosclerosis c. glycosuria d. retinopathy
answer

A When a client’s carbohydrate consumption is inadequate ketones are produced from the breakdown of fat. These ketones lower the pH of the blood, potentially causing acidosis that can lead to a diabetic coma.
question

The doctor is interested in how well a client has controlled their blood glucose since their last visit. What lab values could the nurse evaluate to determine how well the client has controlled their blood glucose over the past three months?
answer

C HbgA1c is a blood test used to determine how well blood glucose has been controlled for the last three months.
question

The client tells the nurse that the client really misses having sugar with tea in the morning. What is an alternative that the nurse could advise them to help sweeten their drink. a. Oatrim c. sucralose b. Olestra d. tannin
answer

C Aspartame is the generic name for a sweetener composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. Olestra and Oatrim are fat replacers and tannin is an acid found in some foods such as tea.
question

During a teaching session, the nurse tells the client that 50% to 60% of daily calories should come from carbohydrates. What should the nurse say about the types of carbohydrates that can be eaten? a. Simple carbohydrates are absorbed more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. b. Simple sugars cause a rapid spike in glucose levels and should be avoided c. Simple sugars should never be consumed by someone with diabetes. d. Try to limit simple sugars to between 10% and 20% of daily calories.
answer

D It is recommended that carbohydrates provide 50% to 60% of the daily calories. Approximately 40% to 50% should be from complex carbohydrates. The remaining 10% to 20% of carbohydrates could be from simple sugars. Research provides no evidence that carbohydrates from simple sugars are digested and absorbed more rapidly than are complex carbohydrates, and they do not appear to affect blood sugar control.

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