Mussolini’s Social Policies

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Women
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Equal, just had a different role in society. Agreed with the Catholic Church. Banned contraception. Encouraged women to have a domestic role.
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Schools
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Emphasised traditional gender roles. Tried to discourage women from higher education.
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Private Companies
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Only promoted married men.
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1915
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State railway sacked all women who had been appointed since…
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1933
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Quota system to limit women to 10% of the workforce.
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1938
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Extended quota system to include large and medium industries.
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1936
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Women made up 33% of the workforce.
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1914-1938
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Women at university increased from 6% to 15%.
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Battle of the Births
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Launched in 1927. Aimed to increase Italy’s population from 40 million to 60 million by 1950.
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12
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Amount of children in each family.
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Taxation
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For families with lots of children this was lowered. Married men with 6 kids exempt from this.
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1939
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230 million lire raised from raising taxes on bachelors.
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Until1936
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Birth rate declined.
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Increased
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Average age of marriage…
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1911
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147 live births per 1000 women.
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1936
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102 live births per 1000 women.
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47.5 million
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In 1936 the population rose to…
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Government Grants
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Loyal journalists were offered this to keep faithful people of their side.
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Teachers
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Had to join Fascist Teacher’s Association to keep job.
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Musicians
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Had to join Fascist Union of Musicians.
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Party Membership
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Often needed for promotions.
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King
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Still had institutional power over Mussolini.
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Twice
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Mussolini met with the King … a week, but never asked the King for advice and only heard what Mussolini wanted him to hear.
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Ministers
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Mussolini was not prepared to share power with them. Had no joint discussions with them regarding government policy. Role was to follow his instructions.
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Cabinet Government
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There wasn’t really one of these.
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Cult of Youth
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Promoted using music, film and literature.
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Gender roles and National Identity
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These were very prominent in the Italian youth – school.
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Youth
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Joined to undermine the authority of parents, school and the church. Owed allegiance to the state.
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Catholic Youth Groups
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These were stopped to stop them giving young people opposing militaristic views.
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Public
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Mussolini wanted them to aggressive, athletic and obedient.
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1925
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Set up Dopolavro to provide leisure activities. Italians liked it – free holidays. Didn’t like the way it wanted to change Italian way of life.
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1930
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Dopolavro controlled all football clubs, 1350 theatres, 2000 drama societies, 3000 brass bands and 8000 libraries.
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1926
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Dopolavro had 300,000 members.
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1939
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Dopolavro had 2.4 million members.
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Church
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Still controlled social life of the majority.

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