Music Appreciation Study Guide #4

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Billings
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an American choral composer, and is widely regarded as the father of American choral music. David’s Lamentation
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Lowell Mason
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carried on the tradition of the \”singing school\”, taught many Americans to read the basics of reading music and developed a appreciation for music
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Foster
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United States songwriter whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the American Civil War (1826-1864)
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New England
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an American rock band that was mainly active from 1978-1982. The group was best known for the song, \”Don’t Ever Wanna Lose Ya\”, which received heavy radio exposure
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Ives
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(1874-1954) American modernist composer; experimented with polytonality, ployrhythm, tone clusters, and quarter tones; Father of the modernist movement
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Gershwin
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United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies (1898-1937)
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Copland
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(1900-1990) Modern composer. Wished to create a sound that was uniquely American. Uses folk and popular elements to soften the dissonant harmonies and disjunct melodies of European modernism. Keeps sections of orchestra mostly separate. Composed Appalachian Spring.
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Musical Comedy
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a type of musical characterized by lighthearted, fast moving comic story, whose dialogue is interspersed with popular music
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Theater
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the art of writing and producing plays
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Bernstein
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America. Best known for musicals, used motivic consistency, introduced operatic elements to theatre
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Serialism
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The technique of composing with a series, a fixed arrangement of pitches or rhythms held throughout a serial composition. Generally a twelve-tone series.
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Aleatory Music
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is an approach to creating music which provided very few controls and relied on chance and improvisation
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Minimalist Music
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Music characterized by steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns; its dynamic level, texture, and harmony tend to stay constant for fairly long stretches of time, creating a trancelike or hypnotic effect; developed in the 1960s.
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Musical Quotation
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taking ideas from an old era and putting them into modern music *concerto Gross
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Electronic Music
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Refers to music that emphasizes the use of electronic musical instruments or electronic music technology as a central aspect of the sound of the music.
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Musique Concrete
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Music made up of natural sounds and sound effects that are recorded and then manipulated electronically.
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Synthesizer
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instrument which puts sounds together like real musical instruments
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Mixed Media
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A work of art for which more than one type of art material is used to create the finished piece.
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\”Oklahoma\”
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A musical comedy by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. It began a new era of sophistication in musical comedy and was the first of several very successful Rodgers and Hammerstein shows.
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\”Phantom of the opera\”
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is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the French novel Le FantĂŽme de l’OpĂ©ra by Gaston Leroux.
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Jazz
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a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
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Dixieland
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A kind of jazz originating in New Orleans, Louisiana, in the early twentieth century. The rhythms of it are usually rapid, and it generally includes many improvised sections for individual instruments.
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Swing
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a style of jazz played by big bands popular in the 1930s
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Bebop
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a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. It was developed in the early and mid-1940s. It first surfaced in musicians’ argot some time during the first two years of the Second World War.
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African Music
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oral traditions, western African, jail people, music has practical use ( to pass the time, communicate, or pass oral tradition), African music has been commoditized for entertainment, many percussion instruments.
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Indian Music
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singing – monophonic, vocables, \”descending terraced patterns\”, improvisational
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Raga
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Tone, color, tint. Specific sounds in Indian music designed to bring emotion to the listener.
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Tala
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Metric cycle in Indian music. Begins and ends on same (1st and last). Certain number of beats (matras). Organized in vibhags (larger units, groups). Vibhags demonstrated with claps (strongest) waves and finger counts.
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Sitar
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North Indian plucked chordophone instrument; one of the main melodic instruments in Hindustani music; principal instrument of Ravi Shankar; iconic symbol of \”Indian music\” internationally.
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Arabic Music
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Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system. Maqams can be realized with either vocal or instrumental music, and do not include a rhythmic component.
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Darabuka
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Arabic goblet-shaped, single-headed drum
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Cantor
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a relgious singer who assists the clergy; assists the Rabbi in the Jewish faith; assists the Priest in the Eastern Orthodox faith
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Sheng
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multiple pipe instrument like the paixiao but with single reeds and an air chamber
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Peking Opera
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a Chinese musical art form that combines instruments, speaking, singing, acrobatics, martial arts, and pantomime
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Koto
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Japanese stringed instrument that resembles a zither
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Shamisen
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a Japanese stringed instrument resembling a banjo with a long neck and three strings and a fretted fingerboard and a rectangular soundbox
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Shakuhachi
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Japanese vertical flute, traditionally made of bamboo; associated with spirituality & meditation, pentatonic scale
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Gagaku
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\”elegant music\” The principal musical style of japanese court music; it was traditionally administered through an official music bureau
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Fine Arts
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drawings, paintings and sculptures that are admired for their beauty and have no practical use
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Functional Music
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music that is intended to be danced to; tends to have a clear beat and steady tempo
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Art Music
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Music intended for careful attention to its sounds and expressive qualities
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Music Appreciation
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The listening and appreciation of the parts of Music.
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Listening Skills
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trying to understand the message that is being communicated

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