Mr. Pfriem’s Chemistry Vocab

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Electrons
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Subatomic waves that have negative electrical charges
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Protons
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Subatomic particle that has a positive electrical charge
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Neutrons
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Subatomic particle that has no charge
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Nucleus
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Central location of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
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Matter
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Anything that has mass and volume
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Inference
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Assumption/conclusion derived from an observation
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Heterogeneous Mixture
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Physical blend in which substances are not distributed evenly
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Homogeneous Mixture
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Physical blend in which substances are distributed evenly
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Control Group
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Part of the experiment that doesn’t contain the cause.
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Condensation Point
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Temperature at which gas becomes a liquid
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Melting Point
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Temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.
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Metric System
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Group of measurements all based on the number 10
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Boyle’s Law
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At constant temperature, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
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Kinetic Molecular Theory
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Explanation of how gas particles behave.
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Element
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Pure substances made up of only 1 type of atom.
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Atom
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An uncharged particle that weights the R.O.A.M.
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Isotope
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Particles that don’t weigh the R.O.A.M.
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Heavy Isotope
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Particles weighing more than the R.O.A.M.
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Light Isotope
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Particles weighing less than the R.O.A.M.
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Atomic Number
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Amount of protons in the nucleus of that element.
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Atomic Symbol
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Abbreviation of an element
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Charge Number
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Electrical intensity of a particle
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Periodic Table
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Chart listing all known elements
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LCM (Law of Conservation of Matter)
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Matter can neither be created nor destroyed under normal circumstances.
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Electron Cloud
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General space where electrons travel
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Coefficcient
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Total number of particles
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Molar Mass
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Weight of 6.02 x 10^23 particles
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Mass Number
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Specific weight of an individual particle
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Metalloid
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Element that has properties of both metals and non-metals
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Metal
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Element on left side of PT
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Ion
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Electrically charged particle
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Non-metal
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Elements on right side of PT
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Oxidation number
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Electrical charge that an atom would like to have in order to become stable
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Valence Configuration
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Mathematical description of the outermost electrons in a particle
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Stability
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Tendency not to react
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Compound
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Pure substances made up of only one type of molecule
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Observation
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Information gained directly from one or more of the five senses.
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Physical reaction
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Change in which NO new substances form
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Gram
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Standard unit of mass in metric system
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Science
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Study of the unknown
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Mole
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6.02 X 10^23
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Experimental group
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Part of experiment that contains the cause
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Experiment
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Test of hypothesis
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Chemical reaction
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Change in which one or more new substances form
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Data
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Objective info gathered from experiment
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Hypothesis
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Proposed solution to a scientific problem
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Chemistry
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Study of structures, properties and compositions of matter, and changes in that matter.
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Anion
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Negatively charged particle
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Cation
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Positively charged particle
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Density
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Physical property describing thickness of a substance
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Subscript
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Number of atoms in a molecule
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Molecule
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Smallest unit of compound and still have all the properties of that compound
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Mixture
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Blend of two or more substances physically combined in a variable ratio
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Catalyst
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Anything that makes a chemical reaction go faster without being used up.
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Water displacement
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Method for finding volume of an irregular shaped object
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Mass
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Amount of matter in an object
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Volume
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Amount of space an object takes up
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Length
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Distance from one point to another
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Liter
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Standard unit of volume in metric system
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Meter
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Standard unit of length in the metric system
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Energy level
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Amount of energy an electron has which is based on its distance from the nucleus
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Theory
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Explanation of an unknown phenomenon based on all the knowledge known to man
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Sublevel
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Group of similar oribitals within the same energy level
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Pressure
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Force applied per unit area from molecular collisions
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Scientific Method
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Series of steps to solve the unknown
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Transition Metals
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B column elements, D block elements
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Atomic Mass
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Average weight of all isotopes of an element
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Representative elements
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A column elements, s + p block elements
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Model
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Physical representation designed to make a difficult concept easier to understand
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Freezing point
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Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid
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Heat
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Total kinetic energy of a system
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Boiling point
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Temperature in which liquid becomes a gas
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Temperature
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Average kinetic energy of a system
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Endothermic reaction
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Change in which heat is absorbed.
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Exothermic Reaction
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Change in which heat is released
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Guy-Lussac’s Law
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At constant volume the pressure of a gas is directly proportional tot he temperature of that gas
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Charles Law
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At constant pressure the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of that gas.
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Crystal Lattice (crystal)
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Solid that repeats its structure over and over. (regular repeating structure)
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Hydrate
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Ionic compound with a fixed number of water molecules in its structure
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Anhydrous compounds
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Do not take in any water
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Ionic Compound
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Group of two or more ions bonded ionically
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Molecules
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Group of two or more atoms bonded covalently
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Nomenclature
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study of naming things
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Monoatomic Ion
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Charged particle that came from one atom i.e. K2
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Polyatomic Ion
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Charged particle that came from more than one atom i.e. NaCl
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Ionic bonds
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Attraction between Ions caused by opposite electrical charges. (nothing shared)
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Covalent bonds
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Attraction between atoms caused by sharing of valence electrons
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Electronegativity
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Tendency of a particle to pull valence electrons from another particle
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Electronegativity Difference
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Difference between ability to take electrons
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Diatomic Molecules
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Covalent compound made up of two of the same types of atoms
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Polar Covalent Bond
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Attraction between two atoms in which valence electrons are UNEVENLY shared
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Non-Polar Covalent Bond
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Attraction between two atoms in which valence electrons are EVENLY shared.
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Hydrophobic Molecule
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Covalent compound that will not dissolve in water. Made by non-polar covalent bonds.
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Hydrophilic
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Covalent compound that will dissolve in water. Made by polar covalent bond.
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Empirical
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Formula in simplest state
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Single/double/triple covalent bonds
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attraction between 2 atoms in which 1/2/3 pairs of valence electrons are shared.
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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
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Free electron pairs take up more space than bonded electron pairs

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