Mollusca

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What is the Texas state shell?
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Lightning Whelk, Busycon perverseum pulleyi,
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What does mollusk mean?
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soft bodied
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What are the three main parts of mollusk?
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head-mouth tentacles eyes (may or may not be present) foot- locomotion visceral hump- heart gills digestive and other organs
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Where is the mantle at?
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folds outward from the dorsal body wall, covers the mollusk but leaves a cavity between itself and the body
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What is the mantle used for?
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location of the gills and serves as an outlet for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems.
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What is the shell produced by the mantle composed of?
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calcium carbonate
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What is the coating over the shell?
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proteinaceous layer called the periostracum. Prevents other organisms such as barnacles and hydroids from growing on or boring into the shell
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Who produces pearls the most and how are they produced?
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oysters. when a grain of sand or some other irritant gets into the shell. The mantle surrounds the object with nacre
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What kind of digestive tract do mollusk have?
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complete, with a mouth and an anus
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What is the mouth called?
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toothy structure called radula
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where does respiration occur?
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gills, thin membranes through which oxygen and carbon dioxide may be exchanged between the water and the circulatory system
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nervous system in mollusks
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vision nonexistent- pysters light sensitive eyespots- scallops vision approaching the acuity- squid swimming and littoral species have the best sight carnivourous also have good sense of sight, smell and taste
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What is the circulatory of most mollusks?
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open- pumped but sloches through body cavities clear or blue blood
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Who has closed circulatory system?
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cepbalopods- pumped by a simple heart past the gills and then supplies body organs with oxygen and removes waste.
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How is reproduction?
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always sexual- external produce alot internal small
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what are trochophores
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fertilzen eggs that laid in egg cases which then become beliger larvae(foot shell and mantle)
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some have separate sexes but some are hermaphroditic
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do not fertilizer their own eggs, some change sex during a lifetime
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What are Gastropoda?
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sprial univalve shell protecting the visceral hump, whelks, conchs, and moon shells
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What are gastropoda able to do with their shell?
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withdraw into their shell a nd close off the apature with a plate called the operculum which is attached to the foot.
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What gastropods lack an operculum?
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abbalones, limpets and cowries
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What has the possesion of a shell done to gastropod?
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torsion- twisting of the body to allow both ends of the digestive tract access to the one opening to the shell
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What gastropods have no shell?
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nudibranchs(naked gills) or seas slugs
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What gastropods have warning coloration
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nudibranchs
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what does gastropod mean?
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stomach foot
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What is the radula used for in gastropods?
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herbivores (limpets and abalone)- scraping algae off the rocks Carnivourus( moon and olive snails) drill into shells of prey
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What group of gastropods has modified the radula into toxin tipped spear?
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cone snails Conus geographus
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What gastropod is a good example of spine protection adaptation?
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Murex
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What does the Bivalvia or Pelecypoda consist of?
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two shells or valves such as Calms, oysters scallops and mussels
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What holds the two shells twoger in Bicalvia?
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adductor muscles and a hinge
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What is the foot of the bivalve be used for?
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burrowing however not all do this
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What bivalvia live at the surface
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oyster and mussels settle
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YOung oysters are called what
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spat
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mussels attach to solid substrates with byssal threads called
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proteinaceous
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how do bivalves feed?
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filter feeders. Water is taken in through and passed to the stomach. The water leaves through the excurrent siphon.
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what are the siphons essential for bivlavia
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respiration. the length of the it determines the depth to which the organism may burrow
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What is the giant bivalvia
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Tridacna clams of the Indo-Pacific. These clams may reach 1.5 meters (about 5 feet) in length
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shipworm
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bivalve uses shell to chip through woods Columbus abonded 2 of 4 ships bcuz of them
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What is class polyplacophor or Amphineura made up of?
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primitive mollusks called chitons
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Where are chitons found and what are they overrall characertistcs?
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found in littoral zones atttached tightly to the rocks by a strong gripping foot. The radual is uses to scrape alage. 8 overlapping plates allows for mobility (to roll up)
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What is class scaphopoda
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benthic tusk shells cone shaped shells
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how do tusk shells burrow
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which burrow into the sedimentwith the larger end of the tuck downward. Move water in and out through narrow end for respiration foot and tentacles protrude from the alrge end of the tusk. burrow for protists and oragnic debris
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What is the most advanced group of mollusks?
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Cephalopoda Octopi squid and the nautilus
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What is the foot of cephalopod modified into?
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foot- tentacles which are use for catching and manipulating food mantle- very muscular and is used for swimming
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What is used for swimming in cephalopod?
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manetle- very muscular cavity takes in water and is expelled through a singular siphon creating locomotion by just propulsion the bust of water sends backwards in jerky motion siphon can be moved to control direction
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What cephalopod locomote forward with lateral fins?
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squid
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What is pretty cool about cephalopoda eye sight?
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have been used in studies of human eyes
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Food and eating patterns of cephalopods?
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carnivotes have a beak radula rips off chucks of flesh from the prey
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what cephalopod has toxic saliva which subdues the prey?
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blue ringed octotpus of Australia can kill human
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What special cells do cephlopods have and what do they do?
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chromatophoes. Elastic sca filled with pigmant. rapidly produce colors as muscle fibers connect to the nervous system expand and contract the sac of pigment
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what is an iridiphores?
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produce iridescent colors. used for hiding from predators, and aggressive threats and courtship signals
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What can cephalopd emit
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ink glands that emit a clod of ink (melanin) which can startle a pursure and could the escape path ink in deep sea forms can be bioluminsicent
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Cepholopods mating
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internal fertilzation The male courts the female. He then inserts a packet of sperm into her mantle cavity using an arm (the hectocotylis) A protective coating is added to fertilized eggs by a special gland. The eggs are either deposited and left or they are cared for by the female.
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Octopi and there structure
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no skeleton.Houdini of the molluck world 8 arms and suckers They can solve simple problems and can be trained to respond to reward or punishment stimuli
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female octopi and eggs
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The female octopus is, instinctively, a protective mother. After hanging her eggs in a secluded location, she guards them to the best of her ability. Unfortunately, due to a hormonal fluke, the female dies soon after her eggs hatch. The hormones associated with reproduction also diminish her appetite and the mother octopus starves to death.
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What cephalopods has an internal remnant of a shell called a pen?
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squid and cuttlefish
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Sqid and cuttlefish structure
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8 arms and two long tenacles used for grabbing food suckers Deep sea Giant squid (Architeuthis dux) 60 feet The Collosal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni) has the record for the largest eye, 11 inches across.
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What is the most ancient cephalopod?
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chambered nautilus
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Nautiulus structure
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external shell and 60 to 90 tentacles without suckers sequintal chambers the chambers are conneted by apertures allowing gas in and out buoyancy regulaot and allos maintain its postion in water
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paper nautilus or argonut octopus
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4 to 8 in female which secretes a fragile shell of parchment material in which she tends her eggs male only hald to one 1in
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paper nautilus
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Argonauts had been found and many were found to be \”infected\” with what was believed to be a parasitic worm creeping through their tissues. The worm was even given a genus and species name. Later, this parasite was found to be the mating arm of the small male which detaches from his body and crawls to find the eggs!

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