Module 14: alterations of the reproductive system

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The inner epithelial lining of the uterus is the: A) myometrium. B) perimetrium. C) endometrium. D) epimetrium.
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C) endometrium.
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Which female organ produces and releases the ovum? A) Ovary B) Uterus C) Fornix D) Vestibule
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A) Ovary
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The duct that carries the ovum to the uterus is called the: A) ductus deferens. B) fundus. C) endocervical canal. D) fallopian tube.
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D) fallopian tube.
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The portion of the uterus that descends into the vagina is the: A) fundus. B) cervix. C) fornix. D) isthmus.
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B) cervix.
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The release of a matured ovum from the follicle is a process called: A) reproduction. B) ejaculation. C) menarche. D) ovulation.
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D) ovulation.
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The most potent and abundant of the estrogens is: A) estriol. B) estradiol. C) estrone. D) estrase.
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B) estradiol.
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Estrogen and progesterone are primarily produced and secreted by the: A) ovaries. B) uterus. C) anterior pituitary. D) posterior pituitary.
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A) ovaries.
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Which of the following are functions of progesterone? A) Development of secondary sex characteristics B) Stimulating uterine smooth muscle contraction C) Maintaining the endometrium during pregnancy D) All of the above
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C) Maintaining the endometrium during pregnancy
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The first ovarian phase of the menstrual cycle is the: A) lunar phase. B) follicular phase. C) adrenarche phase. D) luteal phase.
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B) follicular phase.
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Ovulation occurs immediately after which of the following uterine phases in the endometrial cycle? A) Ischemic B) Secretory C) Proliferative D) Menstrual
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C) Proliferative
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Which of the following structures transports sperm from the tubules in the testes to the vas deferens? A) Rete testis B) Epididymis C) Seminiferous tubules D) Tunica vaginalis
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B) Epididymis
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Which of the following structures is not a component of the penis? A) Scrotum B) Glans C) Corpus spongiosum D) Prepuce
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B) Glans
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Male sex hormones are collectively known as: A) gonadotropins. B) catabolic steroids. C) estrogens. D) androgens.
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D) androgens.
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Which structure is situated just below the urinary bladder in the male? A) Seminal vesicle B) Cowper gland C) Prostate gland D) Montgomery gland
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C) Prostate gland
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Into which lymph nodes does lymph from the breast tissue drain? A) Axillary B) Cervical C) Mediastinal D) Inguinal
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A) Axillary
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Causes of secondary amenorrhea other than pregnancy and menopause include which of the following? A) Pituitary tumors B) Thyroid disorders C) Extreme weight loss D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome usually causes: A) dysmenorrhea. B) infertility. C) heavy periods. D) ovarian cancer.
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B) infertility.
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Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the cyclic recurrence of what type of changes? A) Behavioral B) Physical C) Psychological D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by: A) elevated estrogen. B) sexually transmitted infections. C) ectopic pregnancy. D) cervical tumors.
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B) sexually transmitted infections.
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Which of the following sexually transmitted infections are associated with cervicitis and can result in pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and the presence of purulent cervical discharge? A) Chlamydia B) Trichomoniasis C) Gonorrhea D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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The protrusion of the uterus into the vaginal canal and possibly outside of the vagina is a condition known as uterine: A) rectocele. B) relaxation. C) prolapse. D) vulvitis.
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C) prolapse.
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Dermoid cysts are tumors that contain elements of skin, hair, glands, muscle, cartilage, and bone that can eventually develop into: A) ovarian cancer. B) uterine fibroids. C) benign breast tumors. D) follicular cysts.
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A) ovarian cancer.
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Pain in the abdomen or pelvis occurring with dysmenorrhea, dyschezia, dyspareunia, vaginal bleeding, infertility, adhesions, and scarring anywhere in the abdomen and pelvis is generally caused by a condition called: A) endometriosis. B) leiomyomas. C) endometrial polyps. D) adenomyosis.
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A) endometriosis.
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Which of the following statements about ovarian cancer is false? A) In the early stages, ovarian cancer is usually asymptomatic. B) Women 45 years and younger are at the greatest risk of developing ovarian cancer. C) Ovarian cancer results in ascites caused by seeding of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity. D) Ovarian cancer accounts for the most deaths of all cancers of the female reproductive tract.
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B) Women 45 years and younger are at the greatest risk of developing ovarian cancer.
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Urethritis is a common disorder of the male urethra and is most commonly caused by: A) mechanical trauma. B) urethral scarring. C) sexually transmitted infection. D) poor hygiene.
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C) sexually transmitted infection.
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Penile cancer is associated with which of the following risk factors? A) Human papilloma virus infection B) Smoking C) Black race D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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An abnormal dilation of a vein within the spermatic cord is known as a (an): A) angiocele. B) spermatocele. C) varicocele. D) hydrocele.
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C) varicocele.
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The condition in which one or both testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum in early childhood development is called: A) cryptorchidism. B) testicular torsion. C) orchitis. D) Peyronie disease.
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A) cryptorchidism.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results in: A) infertility. B) urethral obstruction. C) prolapsed bladder. D) testicular cancer.
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B) urethral obstruction.
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The most important risk factor related to the development of cervical cancer is: A) infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). B) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). C) cigarette smoking. D) overuse of antibiotics.
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A) infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).
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Excessive uterine contractions and endometrial shedding resulting in painful menstruation is a result of: A) excessive prostaglandin levels. B) excessive estrogen levels. C) prostaglandin-blocking medications. D) estrogen-blocking medications.
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A) excessive prostaglandin levels.
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To prevent prostate cancer, men should be encouraged to consume a diet low in: A) salt. B) fiber. C) fat. D) calcium.
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C) fat.
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The pathophysiology of prostate cancer involves all of the following factors except: A) increased insulin-like growth factor. B) increased dihydrotestosterone (DHT). C) increased estradiol production. D) genetic predisposition.
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B) increased dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
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Which of the following statements concerning benign breast disease is true? A) Most benign breast lesions are solid tumors. B) Benign breast lumps can be differentiated from malignant tumor by palpation alone. C) Some benign fibrocysts are associated with the development of breast cancer. D) Risk factors for benign breast disease include exposure to carcinogens.
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C) Some benign fibrocysts are associated with the development of breast cancer.
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Which of the following hormonal abnormalities is associated with the development of breast cancer? A) Elevated cortisol B) Decreased insulin C) Decreased progesterone D) Elevated estrogen
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D) Elevated estrogen
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Failure to menstruate and develop secondary sex characteristics by age 14 is a condition called: A) dysmenorrhea. B) dysfunctional menarche. C) primary amenorrhea. D) secondary amenorrhea.
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C) primary amenorrhea.
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Irregular menstrual cycles, heavy bleeding, and passage of large clots are symptoms of: A) dysfunctional uterine bleeding. B) polycystic ovarian syndrome. C) primary dysmenorrhea. D) premenstrual syndrome.
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A) dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
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Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease include all of the following except: A) abdominal pain. B) dyspareunia. C) dyschezia. D) dyspnea.
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D) dyspnea.
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Vaginitis caused by infection is often related to: A) antibiotic use. B) hypothyroidism. C) autoimmune disease. D) irregular menstrual cycles.
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A) antibiotic use.
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A cystocele commonly results in: A) stress incontinence. B) significant problems while defecating. C) the descent of the uterus into the vaginal canal. D) infertility.
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A) stress incontinence.
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In a person with endometriosis, where can endometrial implants be found? A) Abdominal cavity B) Ovaries C) Lungs D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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The Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) is used for routine screening of which gynecological cancer? A) Ovarian B) Endometrial C) Cervical D) Vaginal
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C) Cervical
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In stage _____ cervical cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs such as the bladder or rectum. A) I B) II C) III D) IV
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D) IV
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Risk factors for the development of endometrial cancer include: A) obesity, early menarche, and infertility. B) oral contraceptive use, low-fat diet, and smoking. C) having multiple children, age 40 years or younger, and chronic vaginitis. D) black race, lower socioeconomic status, and late menarche.
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A) obesity, early menarche, and infertility.
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Which of the following disorders of the male reproductive system is a surgical emergency? A) Testicular torsion B) Cryptorchidism C) Orchitis D) Peyronie disease
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A) Testicular torsion
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In premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder refers to which of the following symptoms? A) Uterine cramping B) Fatigue C) Depression D) Fluid retention
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C) Depression
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The major endocrine abnormality associated with the development of polycystic ovarian syndrome is: A) depressed estradiol levels. B) hyperinsulinemia. C) hypocortisolism. D) low androgen production.
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B) hyperinsulinemia.
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Which of the following symptoms suggests that a woman should be carefully evaluated for breast cancer? A) Dimpling of the skin on the breast B) Enlarged axillary lymph nodes C) Abnormal discharge from the nipple D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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Sexual maturation occurring before age 6 in girls or age 9 in boys is a condition known as: A) delayed puberty. B) congenital hypopituitarism. C) precocious puberty. D) Klinefelter syndrome.
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C) precocious puberty.
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The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for which prostate problem? A) Bacterial prostatitis B) Nonbacterial prostatitis C) Prostatodynia D) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
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D) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
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The risk of testicular cancer is greater for men who have a history of: A) priapism. B) cryptorchidism. C) phimosis. D) varicocele.
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B) cryptorchidism.
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Symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to: A) urinary tract infection. B) epididymitis. C) benign prostatic hyperplasia. D) prostatitis.
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C) benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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Which of the following is the most important risk factor in the development of prostate cancer? A) Older age B) Vasectomy C) Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) D) Family history
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A) Older age
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Galactorrhea is a disorder of the: A) prostate. B) ovary. C) breast. D) cervix.
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C) breast.
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One factor that offers a protective effect against the development of breast cancer is: A) regular exercise. B) birth control pills. C) not having children. D) moderate alcohol use.
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A) regular exercise.
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Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males is a condition known as: A) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). B) fibrocystic disease. C) mammography. D) gynecomastia.
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D) gynecomastia.

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