Module 11 Study Guide

What three things make up the human superstructure?
muscle, skeleton, skin

What are the two main differences between smooth muscles and skelatal muscles?
appearance and whether they operate voluntarily or involuntarily

Where is the cardiac muscle found? Is it involuntary muscle or a voluntary one?
It is found in the heart and it is involuntary

What is produced in the bone marrow?
blood cells

What is keratinization? What is it used for?
Keratinization is the process that hardens living cells. It is used to make the outer layer of the epidermis as well as hair and nails. Keratinization kills cells.

What two principal substances make up bone? What qualities do they each provide to the bone?
Collagen, which makes the bones flexible and minerals which make the bones hard and strong.

What is the difference between compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue?
The main difference is that compact bone tissue is packed together tightly while spongy bone tissue has a lot of space between its fibers (giving it a spongy look but still quite hard). Spongy bone tissue is lighter than compact bone tissue.

Are bones alive?
Yes, they have blood cells embedded in their tissue.

What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate? Is it possible to be neither?
Vertebrates have backbones, invertebrates don’t have backbones. It is possible to be neither if it is from any kingdom other than animalia.

Are your arms part of the appendicular skeleton or the axial skeleton? What about your neck?
Arms are part of the appendicular skeleton. Neck is part of axial skeleton.

What is the difference between an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton? What do we call organisms with exoskeletons?
An endosketon is a support structure that exists on the outside of an organism, while an endoskeleton is on the inside of the organism. Creatures with exoskeletons are called arthropods.

Order the following joints in terms of increasing range of motion: ball-and-socket; hinge; saddle
hinge, saddle, ball-and-socket

Order the following joints in terms of increasing stability: ball-and-socket; hinge; saddle
ball-and-socket, saddle, hinge

What purpose do ligaments serve in the joints?
Ligaments tend to hold the bones of joints together.

What purpose does cartilage serve in the joints?
Cartilage acts as a cushion, keeping the bones from rubbing together.

How do skeletal muscles attach to the skeleton?
Skelatal muscles end in tendons, and the tendons attach to the skeleton.

Describe how the biceps and triceps work together to move the forearm.
In order to raise the forearm, the biceps contract while the triceps relax. To extend the forearm, the biceps relax while the triceps contract.

Is the stomach composed of smooth muscle or skeletal muscle?
The stomach is made of a smooth muscle. You know this because you don’t have to think about the stomach muscle in order for it to do its job.

A sunflower will actually turn throughout the day so that it follows the sun across the sky. What is the term we use to describe this?

What are the two main functions of hair?
To insulate and provide sensation

What are the two main functions of sweat?
Sweat cools a body down and provides food for beneficial bacteria and fungi which live on your skin.

Why do your skin cells constantly fall off your body?
Because the cells on the outer layer are dead.

What do the sebaceous glands produce, and what are the substance’s two main purposes?
Sebaceous glands produce oil. This oil softens the skin and hair and also makes it hard for bacteria to attach themselves to your skin.

Classify: the animal has hair

Classify: the animal breathes through its skin

Classify: the animal has scales

Classify: the animal has feathers

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