Module 1 Quiz

In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The first step in the scientific method is ___________.
forming a testable hypothesis
Dr. Harmon responds to radio listeners by using mostly her own common sense, beliefs and values rather than scientific research. This is__________ .
pseudopsychology
The nature versus nurture controversy is a debate about the effects of ____________.
biology and environment
A student is placed in a gifted program based on their IQ score. This is an example of which goal in psychology?
prediction
The__________ perspective in psychology would seek to understand eating disorders in terms of cultural messages that emphasis the attractiveness of celebrities and unrealistically thin fashion models.
sociocultural perspective
Cognitive psychology focuses on ____.
mental processes, language, and perception
The idea that depression is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.
biopsychosocial
Observing the activities of 3 year olds from a hidden location within their daycare would be an example of the ___________ type of research method.
naturalistic obervation
The best definition of an experiment is _____.
a carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a casual effect on the other variables
The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.
receive the independent variable or treatment
A social psychologist thinks that people are more likely to conform to a large crowd than to a single person. To test this hypothesis, the social psychologist had either one volunteer or five volunteers stand on a busy walking path on campus and look up. The psychologist stood nearby and counted the number of people passing by who also looked up. __________ is/are the independent variable in this study, and __________ is the dependent variable.
a number of volunteers looking up; number of people passing who looked up
Which of the following statements is true about correlational studies?
they are useful in predicting the association of variables
What is the basic function of the neuron?
to transmit information throughout the nervous system
An impulse travels through the structures of the neuron in the following order:
dendrites and the cell body, axon, terminal buttons
Neurotransmitters are _____.
chemicals that cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptors on another neuron
Tonia breaks a board with her hand during a Karate test. Which division of the nervous system was responsible for her hand breaking the board?
somatic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is responsible for _____.
maintaining homeostasis, the functioning of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, regulation of the heart muscle, smooth muscles, and other involuntary functions
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding a person’s experiences and neuronal (brain) development?
stimulation and experience affects the development of neurons and neuron connectivity.
As compared to a non-myelinated axon, an axon with myelin
can transmit electrical messages faster
Communication within neurons is ______ whereas communication between neurons is ________.
electrical; chemical
In most people which hemisphere is primarily responsible for language and analytical thinking?
left hemisphere
If our parietal lobes were damaged, we would
be unable to hear the words when someone is speaking to us
Split brain research demonstrates
lateralization, that the left and right hemispheres have distinct characteristics
Poor working conditions or a bad marriage are classified in your text as ___________.
chronic stressors
Research suggests that this Type A characteristic is MOST associated with heart disease.
time urgency
Coping is an attempt to manage stress effectively. Which of the following demonstrates problem-focused coping strategies?
dealing directly with the stressor to decrease or eliminate the cause of the stress such as studying for the exam
People who interpret stress as challenging and interesting rather than threatening or frustrating are exhibiting _____.
hardiness
After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may occur in the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
exhaustion
Believing you are the “master of your own destiny” is an important resource for effective coping. People with a(n) ___________________feel powerless to change their circumstances and are less likely to make healthy changes, follow treatment programs, or positively cope with a situation.
internal locus of control
Cortisol, the stress hormone, is responsible for suppressing
the fight or flight response thus lowering response time
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, we respond to stress by using _____ which are unconscious strategies we use to distort reality and relieve anxiety or guilt.
defense mechanisms
Heart disease is the primary cause of death for both men and women. Which of the following is/are controllable factor(s) to heart disease?
a and b – obesity and smoking
Since there is a correlation between cancer and stress, which of the following is true?
knowing a person’s stress level can predict their likelihood of cancer
Since positive beliefs are considered a resource for coping, they are most closely related to the concept of________.
emotion-focused coping
When awakened from ___________________ sleep, people almost always report dreaming.
rapid-eye-movement (REM)
_____ theory states that dreams are by-products of random stimulation of brain cells, whereas the _____ view suggests dreams serve an information processing function and help us sift through our everyday experiences and thoughts.
activation-synthesis; cognitive
Recent research suggests that REM sleep _____.
is important for consolidating new memories and learning
People with sleep apnea:
all of the above – may fail to breathe for a minute or longer, tend to snore, could be at higher risk for heart attacks
When repeated drug use causes changes in the body that require continued drug use to prevent withdrawal symptoms, a state of _____ has been reached.
physical dependence
Opiates relieve pain and can induce euphoria by mimicking the brains own natural painkilling substance(s) called:
endorphins
Most psychoactive drugs produce their mood-, energy-, and perception-altering effects by changing the brain’s supply of__________.
neurotransmitters
After having Valium prescribed to help you cope with job-related anxiety, you find a less stressful job and are anxiety-free, but you keep taking Valium because you like its effects. If you haven’t increased the dosage and haven’t experienced withdrawal symptoms when you have forgotten to take the Valium, then it is most likely that you are ________________.
psychologically dependent on Valium
According to the U.S. Public Health Service, this is the single most preventable cause of death and disease in the United States.
smoking
Sam finds that he has to drink several more beers to get the same buzz he used to get with one or two. It is likely that Sam has developed _____.
a tolerance to alcohol

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