Modern World History Midterm Review

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Mallory
Ptolemy
greatest astronomer of antiquity A. D. 100s
Geocentric
earth-centered
Copernicus
1473-1543; mathematician; cleric from Poland
Heliocentric
sun-centered
Kepler
1571-1630; German mathematician
Galileo
1564-1642; Italian scientist; first to make regular observations using a telescope
Issac Newton
1642-1727; professor of mathematics; greatest work of the scientific revolution
Universal Law of Gravitation
every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by gravity
Rene Descartes
began by considering the doubt and uncertainty that seemed to be everywhere; father of rationalism
Rationalism
the belief that reason is the chief of knowledge
Francis Bacon
English philosopher; should not use the ancient philosophies; instead use observations and experimentation to learn about nature
Scientific Method
systematic procedure for collecting and analysing evidence
Enlightenment
result of intellectuals applying the scientific method to the physical world to examine all realms of life
Philosophe
french word for philosopher
John Locke
believed in Tabula Rasa
Tabula Rasa
the belief that people are born with blank minds
Montesquieu
studied government
Separation of Powers
form of government in which the executive, legislative, judicial branches limit and control each other in a system of checks and balances
Voltaire
criticized Christianity, challenged the actions of the Church, strong belief in religious toleration
Denis Diderot
wrote the Encyclopedia
Adam Smith
founder of economics, believed in laissez-faire, developed capitalism
Laissez-faire
to let people do what they want
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
came up with the idea of a social government
Social Contract
an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
General Will
the collective desire of a group
Mary Wollstonecraft
founder of the modern European & American movements for women’s rights
Enlightened Absolutism
rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining royal powers
Bureaucracy
large group of people who run the government but are not elected
Diplomatic Recognition
foreign governments recognize each others right to exercise their athourity
Federal System
national government and state government share powers
Estates
3 classes in which French society was divided
Taille
France’s main tax
Relics of Feudalism
aristocratic privileges
Louis XVI
King during the French Revolution
Marie Antoinette
Queen during the French Revolution
Sans-culottes
members of the Paris Commune \” Without Breeches\”
Maximilian Robespierre
at the top of the Committee of Public Safety
Napoleon Bonaparte
leader of the coup d’etat
Coup d’etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
Nationalism
the unique identity of a people based on common language, religion and national symbols
Conservatism
political philosophy based on traditionand social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
Liberalism
people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Capital
money available for investment
Cottage Industry
individuals doing tasks in rural cottages
Urbanization
the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more and more people began working in central areas
Capitalism
free market system
Socialism
economic system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns and controls the means of production
Means of Production
the factories and resources used for producing goods
Mixed Economy
socialist and capitalist ideas
Mass Production
production of goods in quantity usually by machinery
Standard of Living
the necessities, comforts and luxuries enjoyed or aspired to an individual or group
Karl Marx
wrote the Commonist Manifesto
Bourgeoisie
the middle class oppressors
Proletariat
the working class oppressedt
Union
an organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests
Feminism
the movement for women’s rights
Suffrage
the right to vote
Universal Education
education for all people

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