Mod 5 Test Questions – Flashcards

question
Why should EMTs study pharmacology?
answer
As an EMT, you will be trusted to administer medications in emergency situations; many of these may be lifesaving, but there is potential to do harm.
question
Which of the following is a complete list of the medications an EMT can assist the patient in taking or administer under the direction of the Medical Director?
answer
Aspirin, oral glucose, oxygen, prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors
question
Why do EMTs give aspirin to the patient on the ambulance?
answer
Aspirin reduces the blood's ability to clot and works to prevent clot formation in patients suffering chest pain.
question
What condition must be present before you give oral glucose?
answer
The patient must be conscious and able to swallow with an altered mental status and history of diabetes.
question
What medication is given when a patient suffers from a medical or traumatic condition called hypoxia?
answer
Oxygen
question
Which of the following statements is true concerning oxygen?
answer
Never withhold oxygen to any patient who needs it.
question
Nitroglycerin is indicated for which of the following chief complaints?
answer
Chest pain
question
Which of the following is a potential side effect of nitroglycerin?
answer
Decreased blood pressure
question
Which of the following is often prescribed for a patient with a heart condition?
answer
Nitroglycerin
question
Epinephrine delivered by auto-injector may be indicated for patients with which of the following conditions?
answer
Severe allergies to peanut, shellfish, penicillin, or bee stings
question
Which of the following is a desired action of epinephrine delivered by auto-injector?
answer
Constriction of blood vessels
question
Which of the following BEST describes a contraindication to a medication?
answer
A reason why you should avoid giving a medication to a patient
question
A drug's form refers to which of the following?
answer
Its physical state, such as powder, liquid, or gas
question
Which of the following describes the sublingual route of medication administration?
answer
The medication is placed under the tongue
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old woman with a history of emphysema. Per protocol, you have assisted the patient in using her medication inhaler. Which of the following must be documented?
answer
The patient's response to the medication
question
As a powder, which is premixed with water
answer
How is activated charcoal, which is carried by some EMS systems, supplied for use in emergency situations?
question
How is activated charcoal, which is carried by some EMS systems, supplied for use in emergency situations?
answer
As a powder, which is premixed with water
question
You have just administered nitroglycerin to a 68-year-old patient. Within a few minutes, she complains of feeling faint and lightheaded, but states that she is still having some chest pain. Which of the following would be the BEST sequence of actions?
answer
Lower the head of the stretcher and take the patient's blood pressure.
question
You respond to a medical call for a 59-year-old female complaining of tightness in her chest. You place her on a high concentration of oxygen and prepare for a short 5-minute transport to the hospital. The patient tells you she is on nitroglycerin, which she has not taken. Your partner tells you that you can give aspirin per protocol. Should you delay the patient transport to give the medication and why?
answer
Yes, the nitroglycerin will cause the blood vessels to dilate and restore some blood flow, and the aspirin will slow the clotting process.
question
Which of the following instructions should you give to a patient whom you are about to assist with administering epinephrine?
answer
I am going to inject medication into your thigh. .
question
Bronchodilator inhalers have several common side effects, which include:
answer
jitteriness and increased heart rate.
question
What is the first step in giving aerosol medications?
answer
Determine that the inhaler actually belongs to the patient.
question
Nitroglycerin (Nitro) is used for patients with recurrent chest pain or a history of heart attack. Nitro is supplied in what two ways?
answer
Pills and spray
question
What are the actions of nitroglycerin on the human body?
answer
It causes the dilation of coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle
question
A serious negative interaction for giving Nitrostat is a drug interaction with what medications?
answer
Viagra, Levitra, or medication for erectile dysfunction
question
Name the type of medical direction consisting of standing orders and protocols.
answer
Off-line
question
It will help constrict the patient's blood vessels and relax the airway passages.
answer
What is the indication for giving an epinephrine auto-injector in a life-threatening allergic reaction?
question
What are the names given to each medication listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia?
answer
Trade, chemical, and generic
question
The symptoms or circumstances for which a medication is given are called:
answer
indications.
question
When you give patients nitroglycerin, they sometimes develop a headache. This would be called a:
answer
untoward effect.
question
You are called to the school where a 16-year-old female has trouble breathing from a possible allergic reaction. You arrive and find the patient wheezing, with cool clammy skin, and holding an epinephrine auto-injector. After you assess the patient and contact medical control, you are advised to give the medication. When you give the patient the epinephrine auto-injector she develops symptoms of anxiety: dizziness, headache, nausea, nervousness, paleness, sweating, tremors, vomiting, and weakness. These symptoms are considered:
answer
side effects
question
The epinephrine auto-injector is given via the _______________ route.
answer
parenteral
question
Nitroglycerin is given via the _______________ route.
answer
sublingual
question
Which of the following BEST describes the five rights?
answer
Right patient, right medication, right time, right dose, right route
question
The study of the effects of medications on the body in relation to age and weight is called:
answer
pharmacodynamics
question
The EMT, after administering any medication, must do which of the following?
answer
Document the administration, reassess the patient, and report to the receiving facility.
question
Which of the following signs of inadequate breathing is more prominent in children than in adults?
answer
See-sawing of the chest and abdomen, Grunting respirations, Nasal flaring
question
Which of the following does NOT occur during inspiration?
answer
Diaphragm relaxes
question
Which of the following is TRUE concerning expiration?
answer
The diaphragm moves upward.
question
Which of the following respiratory rates is considered an abnormal respiratory rate for an adult?
answer
8 breaths/min
question
Which of the following respiratory rates should be cause for alarm in a 2-month-old child?
answer
16 breaths/min
question
Which of the following BEST defines inadequate breathing?
answer
Breathing that is insufficient to sustain life
question
You are first on the scene of a 61-year-old female in need of assistance with her respirations. You have a pocket mask with supplemental oxygen. How can you determine that your artificial ventilation is effective?
answer
You assure oxygen is being delivered at 15 liters per minute.
question
Your patient is a 24-year-old woman with asthma who is struggling to breathe and is very agitated. She has cyanosis of her lips and nail beds, and is cool and clammy to the touch. When you attempt to assist her ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device, she becomes combative and repeatedly pushes the mask away from her face. Which of the following is the BEST option?
answer
Begin transport immediately and contact medical control for advice.
question
Your patient is a 15-year-old male with a history of multiple prior hospitalizations for asthma. Upon your arrival the patient responds only to painful stimuli and is making very weak respiratory effort. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Assist the patient's ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen.
question
Which of the following is a sign of adequate artificial ventilations in a pediatric patient?
answer
Pulse rate increases.
question
When ventilating a child with inadequate respirations, which of the following is the maximum rate at which artificial respirations should be delivered?
answer
20 per minute
question
You are ventilating a 6-year-old child and note that his heart rate has decreased from 70 to 54. Which of the following is NOT appropriate?
answer
Notify medical control that the patient's condition has improved.
question
Your patient is a 6-year-old male who appears very anxious, is using increased effort during expiration, and has a fever. He is wheezing and has a respiratory rate of 34. The patient's skin is very warm and dry. He does not have any cyanosis. The child is drooling and his mother states that he complained of a sore throat and pain on swallowing earlier in the afternoon. Which of the following conditions is most likely causing the patient's distress?
answer
Epiglottitis
question
Which of the following is NOT a sign of difficulty breathing?
answer
Curling up in the fetal position
question
Your patient is a 30-year-old female who may have overdosed on antidepressant medications. On your arrival, she is lying supine on her bed with her head on a pillow. She is unresponsive to painful stimuli and is snoring. She appears to be pale and her skin is cool and clammy. What should you do first?
answer
Remove the patient's pillow.
question
Which of the following patients with difficulty breathing should NOT receive supplemental oxygen?
answer
None of these patients should have oxygen withheld
question
What is the primary effect on the body when an EMT assists a patient with a prescribed inhaler if the patient is short of breath?
answer
Relaxation of the bronchioles
question
Which of the following is proper when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
answer
Have the patient hold the inhaled medication in his lungs as long as possible
question
In which of the following circumstances is medical control necessary when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
answer
Medical control is necessary in all situations in which an EMT assists with a prescribed inhaler.
question
When you hear wheezes while auscultating your patient's breath sounds, which of the following is most likely the cause?
answer
The lower air passages in the lungs are narrowed.
question
Which of the following inhalers would NOT be used to reverse an asthma attack?
answer
Beclomethasone
question
Which of the following is the primary cause of COPD?
answer
Cigarette smoking
question
Which of the following is a possible side effect of a prescribed inhaler for respiratory problems?
answer
Tremors
question
Which of the following devices is used by patients with respiratory problems to assist with the delivery of medication from an inhaler to the lungs?
answer
An AeroChamber
question
Which of the following is a benefit of using small-volume nebulizers for the treatment of respiratory problems?
answer
They allow greater exposure of the patient's lungs to the medication.
question
A patient who has shallow, slow, irregular gasping breaths is said to have ________ respirations.
answer
agonal
question
Which of the following may be seen just prior to respiratory arrest?
answer
Agonal respirations
question
Which of the following observations indicate that your patient may have overused his prescription inhaler?
answer
Nervousness
question
Which of the following is a prescribed medication used in an inhaled form for the emergency treatment of respiratory problems?
answer
Albuterol
question
Which of the following sounds may be heard in lower respiratory obstruction?
answer
Wheezing
question
Which of the following is the most proper dose of inhaled medication the EMT can assist the patient with administering?
answer
The number of sprays directed by medical control
question
After the administration of a prescribed inhaler, which of the following should the EMT NOT reassess?
answer
Pupillary size and reaction
question
Which of the following medications is indicated in the treatment of a 52-year-old male with difficulty breathing and a history of emphysema?
answer
Proventil
question
When should the EMT most likely expect to hear wheezes in a patient complaining of shortness of breath secondary to an asthma attack?
answer
While breathing out
question
Which breath sound is the EMT most likely to hear when caring for an adult male with a partial airway obstruction that occurred while eating steak?
answer
Stridor
question
While assessing the airway of a pediatric patient, you will notice that it is different than that of an adult. Which of the following is one of those differences?
answer
The trachea is smaller, softer, and more flexible, allowing it to be more easily obstructed.
question
Contraindications for the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) include which of the following?
answer
History of pulmonary fibrosis
question
You are treating a 68-year-old female with difficulty breathing and you want to apply CPAP. How many centimeters of water would you start your treatment with?
answer
Follow local protocol
question
When the lung collapses without injury or any other cause, it is called which of the following?
answer
Spontaneous pneumothorax
question
Which of the following heart chambers pumps oxygenated blood to the body?
answer
Left ventricle
question
Which of the following would be the result of an obstruction in a branch of the pulmonary artery?
answer
Blood is not pumped to the lungs
question
Which of the following is the way in which the heart muscle receives oxygen?
answer
Blood from the aorta enters the coronary arteries.
question
Which of the following is the general term used to refer to a problem with the heart?
answer
Cardiac compromise
question
Which of the following BEST describes a fluttering sensation in the chest?
answer
Palpitations
question
Your patient is a 49-year-old male with a history of heart problems. Assuming he has a bottle of nitroglycerin tablets with him, under which of the following circumstances could you administer the nitroglycerin to the patient?
answer
The patient complains of chest pain and has a blood pressure of 132/90 mmHg
question
Assuming your protocol allows the administration of nitroglycerin when certain conditions exist, what is the maximum number of tablets to be administered in the prehospital setting?
answer
3 doses
question
In which of the following situations would the administration of aspirin to a cardiac patient be prohibited?
answer
The patient has a history of asthma.
question
Which of the following is the name of the condition in which fatty deposits form in the inner lining of the arteries?
answer
Coronary artery disease
question
A weakened area of an artery that balloons out and may rupture, causing catastrophic bleeding, is called
answer
aneurysm.
question
Which of the following cardiac dysrhythmias cannot produce a pulse?
answer
Ventricular fibrillation
question
Which of the following is the beneficial action of nitroglycerin in some cardiac emergencies?
answer
It dilates blood vessels throughout the body.
question
Which of the following is the result of a portion of the heart muscle dying due to a lack of oxygen?
answer
Myocardial infarction
question
Which of the following is the name given to the condition in which fluid accumulates in the lungs?
answer
Pulmonary edema
question
Which of the following statements concerning heart attacks and cardiac arrest is NOT true?
answer
The most common initial rhythm in sudden cardiac death is asystole.
question
Which of the following statements regarding the administration of nitroglycerin tablets is true?
answer
The patient may complain of a headache following administration
question
Which of the following statements regarding angina pectoris is true?
answer
It can be brought on by exertion or stress.
question
Which of the following is the beneficial action of a beta blocker medication?
answer
Slows the heart rate
question
Which of the following is NOT a typical indication of congestive heart failure?
answer
Low blood pressure
question
Your patient is a 44-year-old female who has collapsed while jogging. She has been unresponsive for 4 to 5 minutes by the time you arrive. Her husband appears to be performing high-quality CPR. Which of the following should be your first action?
answer
Apply the AED.
question
Your patient is a 60-year-old male who is complaining of severe chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is pale, sweaty, and pleads with you, "Don't let me die, I think I'm going to die." Which of the following measures is NOT part of your initial treatment of this patient?
answer
Applying the defibrillator pads to his chest
question
Which of the following BEST describes the EMT's intended role in the ideal provision of emergency cardiac care?
answer
Early defibrillation
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old man who has collapsed while working in the yard. He has been unresponsive for 4 to 5 minutes by the time you arrive. His neighbor is attempting CPR, but the quality is questionable. Which of the following should be your first action?
answer
Ask the neighbor to stop CPR so you can check the patient's pulse
question
Which of the following should NOT be done during defibrillation?
answer
Continued ventilation during the analysis phase to prevent hypoxia
question
Defibrillation is indicated for which of the following situations?
answer
Pulseless ventricular tachycardia
question
Which of the following is NOT a reason that an AED may indicate that there is "no shock advised"?
answer
The patient is in ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia
question
Which of the following is NOT a role of the EMT in providing emergency cardiac care?
answer
Administration of epinephrine
question
Which of the following patients should have an automated external defibrillator applied?
answer
A 19-year-old college athlete who collapsed during football practice and is pulseless and apneic
question
In which of the following ways does cardiac arrest in children differ from cardiac arrest in adults?
answer
Cardiac arrest in children is more likely to be due to respiratory failure
question
When using an AED, which of the following people is responsible for calling to "clear" the patient before delivering a shock?
answer
The EMT operating the defibrillator
question
Which of the following is the basis for applying an AED only to patients who are not breathing and who do NOT have a pulse?
answer
Defibrillators recognize ventricular tachycardia, which may be accompanied by a pulse.
question
Which of the following BEST describes an appropriate shock sequence for the patient in pulseless VT?
answer
Shock, 2 minutes of CPR, analyze, shock again
question
You are transporting a 50-year-old male patient whom you successfully defibrillated at the scene. You are 5 minutes away from the hospital when the patient goes back into cardiac arrest. Which of the following is the best course of action?
answer
Tell the driver to stop, analyze the cardiac rhythm, and deliver a shock as necessary.
question
You are the first on the scene of a 72-year-old patient in cardiac arrest. You have your medical supply kit, oxygen, and an AED. At least 4 to 5 minutes of high-quality CPR has been provided by the police officer who arrived before you. You have confirmed an open airway, apnea, and pulselessness. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Apply the defibrillator pads and shock as indicated.
question
Your patient is a 66-year-old female who has regained a pulse after a shock with an AED; however, she remains unresponsive and is not breathing adequately. Which of the following should be done next?
answer
Assist ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen and anticipate that the patient may go back into cardiac arrest.
question
Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of a continuous quality improvement program for AED?
answer
Improving patient outcomes in the community
question
Which of the following is an action of insulin?
answer
It increases the movement of sugar from the bloodstream to the cell.
question
For the reticular activating system to work correctly, what three substances are needed?
answer
Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, glucose to nourish brain tissue, and water to keep the brain hydrated
question
Which of the following may result in hypoglycemia in the diabetic patient?
answer
Vomiting after eating a meal
question
During your primary assessment you find your patient has an altered mental status. This could indicate which of the following?
answer
Failing respiratory system
question
Your patient is a 25-year-old female with a history of diabetes. She is confused, agitated, and verbally abusive to you, and she is very sweaty. Although she refuses to give a history of the present illness, you should suspect which of the following as the likely cause of the patient's presentation?
answer
Failure to intake sufficient sugar
question
Your patient is a 44-year-old male with a history of diabetes. He is lying on the living room floor, unresponsive to all stimuli. He has a respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute, heart rate of 112 beats per minute, and is pale and sweaty. Which of the following should you do to treat this patient?
answer
Place the patient in the recovery position, administer oxygen, and monitor his airway status.
question
Which of the following blood glucose levels is considered normal for an adult?
answer
80 mg/dL
question
A 14-year-old female is found unconscious in the bathroom just before lunch. Several girls say they saw her shoot up earlier in the day and the school resource officer has found a syringe in her backpack. The patient has cool and clammy skin, snoring respirations, and she vomited before she slumped to the floor. What might be the cause of her altered mental status?
answer
Hypoglycemia
question
What is epilepsy?
answer
A condition in which a person has multiple seizures usually controlled by medication.
question
There are two types of seizures; if your patient is having a seizure that affects only one body part and does not cause her to lose consciousness, it is called a:
answer
partial seizure.
question
Your patient is a 19-year-old female who is 7 months pregnant. She has just experienced a seizure, although she has no previous history of seizures other than hypertension associated with the pregnancy. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the seizure?
answer
Eclampsia
question
Your patient is waking up from a seizure; it was the patient's first seizure ever. When you ask what happened, the patient tells you she had the smell of fresh mown grass just before she seized. We call this sensation a(n):
answer
aura.
question
Which of the following is the LEAST important question in obtaining the history of a seizure patient in the prehospital setting?
answer
Does the patient have a family history of seizures?
question
You respond to a 32-year-old female who is having a seizure. You arrive on the scene to find the patient drowsy, confused, and complaining of a headache. This patient is demonstrating the
answer
postictal phase.
question
Your patient is a 21-year-old female with a history of epilepsy. She is having a convulsion upon your arrival. Which of the following should you do?
answer
Move furniture and other objects away from the patient to prevent injury
question
The death of brain tissue due to deprivation of oxygen because of a blocked or ruptured artery in the brain is known as which of the following?
answer
Stroke
question
Which of the following is the cause of most strokes?
answer
Blockage of an artery supplying part of the brain
question
Which of the following is one of the most common characteristics of a stroke?
answer
Weakness on one side of the body
question
Which of the following refers to difficulty in speaking or understanding speech as a result of a stroke?
answer
Aphasia
question
Your patient is a 70-year-old man whose wife called EMS because her husband began exhibiting unusual behavior. Upon your arrival you introduce yourself to the patient, who responds, "Not until nine o'clock." This phenomenon is BEST described as:
answer
receptive aphasia
question
You have arrived on the scene of a call for a possible stroke. On your arrival, the patient denies signs and symptoms, is alert and oriented, and moves all extremities well. Her husband states that before you arrived the patient could not move her right arm and the left side of her face seemed to be "slack." Which of the following has most likely occurred?
answer
The patient suffered a transient ischemic attack.
question
The signs and symptoms of a transient ischemic attack may last up to:
answer
24 hours.
question
Which of the following is NOT a common sign or symptom of stroke?
answer
Chest pain
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old female with a sudden onset of slurred speech and weakness on her right side. Which of the following measures is appropriate?
answer
Immediately transport the patient to a hospital with specialized treatment for stroke patients.
question
Your patient is an unresponsive 30-year-old male wearing a Medic-Alert bracelet indicating that he is a diabetic. The patient's coworkers came by his house to check on him when he did not show up for work and did not call in sick. Your assessment does not clearly indicate to you whether the patient may be hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic. As you are completing your assessment, the patient's sister arrives at the scene. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Apply oxygen and begin transport without taking further action.
question
Which of the following is the correct position of transport for a stroke patient with left-sided paralysis, a decreased level of consciousness, and an inability to maintain his or her airway?
answer
Lying on the left side
question
Which of the following is characteristic of a patient with hyperglycemia?
answer
Flushed, hot, dry skin and a "fruity" odor of the breath
question
For the EMT, which of the following is the most important question to ask of a diabetic patient or his family members?
answer
When was the last time you had something to eat?
question
Which of the following is within the EMT's scope of practice for the treatment of the diabetic patient?
answer
Administration of oral glucose
question
A patient who demonstrates any one of the three symptoms from the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale has a ______ percent chance of having an acute stroke.
answer
70
question
Which of the following is the most critical piece of equipment to have immediately available for the seizure patient who has just stopped convulsing?
answer
Suction
question
What are the three items that make up the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
answer
Ask the patient to smile, hold his arms straight out in front of him with his eyes closed, and ask him to say a sentence to see if it is clear.
question
With advances in clot-busting (thrombolytic) drugs, the patient has a window of _______ hours to receive treatment.
answer
3
question
The medical term for fainting is:
answer
syncope.
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question
Why should EMTs study pharmacology?
answer
As an EMT, you will be trusted to administer medications in emergency situations; many of these may be lifesaving, but there is potential to do harm.
question
Which of the following is a complete list of the medications an EMT can assist the patient in taking or administer under the direction of the Medical Director?
answer
Aspirin, oral glucose, oxygen, prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors
question
Why do EMTs give aspirin to the patient on the ambulance?
answer
Aspirin reduces the blood's ability to clot and works to prevent clot formation in patients suffering chest pain.
question
What condition must be present before you give oral glucose?
answer
The patient must be conscious and able to swallow with an altered mental status and history of diabetes.
question
What medication is given when a patient suffers from a medical or traumatic condition called hypoxia?
answer
Oxygen
question
Which of the following statements is true concerning oxygen?
answer
Never withhold oxygen to any patient who needs it.
question
Nitroglycerin is indicated for which of the following chief complaints?
answer
Chest pain
question
Which of the following is a potential side effect of nitroglycerin?
answer
Decreased blood pressure
question
Which of the following is often prescribed for a patient with a heart condition?
answer
Nitroglycerin
question
Epinephrine delivered by auto-injector may be indicated for patients with which of the following conditions?
answer
Severe allergies to peanut, shellfish, penicillin, or bee stings
question
Which of the following is a desired action of epinephrine delivered by auto-injector?
answer
Constriction of blood vessels
question
Which of the following BEST describes a contraindication to a medication?
answer
A reason why you should avoid giving a medication to a patient
question
A drug's form refers to which of the following?
answer
Its physical state, such as powder, liquid, or gas
question
Which of the following describes the sublingual route of medication administration?
answer
The medication is placed under the tongue
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old woman with a history of emphysema. Per protocol, you have assisted the patient in using her medication inhaler. Which of the following must be documented?
answer
The patient's response to the medication
question
As a powder, which is premixed with water
answer
How is activated charcoal, which is carried by some EMS systems, supplied for use in emergency situations?
question
How is activated charcoal, which is carried by some EMS systems, supplied for use in emergency situations?
answer
As a powder, which is premixed with water
question
You have just administered nitroglycerin to a 68-year-old patient. Within a few minutes, she complains of feeling faint and lightheaded, but states that she is still having some chest pain. Which of the following would be the BEST sequence of actions?
answer
Lower the head of the stretcher and take the patient's blood pressure.
question
You respond to a medical call for a 59-year-old female complaining of tightness in her chest. You place her on a high concentration of oxygen and prepare for a short 5-minute transport to the hospital. The patient tells you she is on nitroglycerin, which she has not taken. Your partner tells you that you can give aspirin per protocol. Should you delay the patient transport to give the medication and why?
answer
Yes, the nitroglycerin will cause the blood vessels to dilate and restore some blood flow, and the aspirin will slow the clotting process.
question
Which of the following instructions should you give to a patient whom you are about to assist with administering epinephrine?
answer
I am going to inject medication into your thigh. .
question
Bronchodilator inhalers have several common side effects, which include:
answer
jitteriness and increased heart rate.
question
What is the first step in giving aerosol medications?
answer
Determine that the inhaler actually belongs to the patient.
question
Nitroglycerin (Nitro) is used for patients with recurrent chest pain or a history of heart attack. Nitro is supplied in what two ways?
answer
Pills and spray
question
What are the actions of nitroglycerin on the human body?
answer
It causes the dilation of coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle
question
A serious negative interaction for giving Nitrostat is a drug interaction with what medications?
answer
Viagra, Levitra, or medication for erectile dysfunction
question
Name the type of medical direction consisting of standing orders and protocols.
answer
Off-line
question
It will help constrict the patient's blood vessels and relax the airway passages.
answer
What is the indication for giving an epinephrine auto-injector in a life-threatening allergic reaction?
question
What are the names given to each medication listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia?
answer
Trade, chemical, and generic
question
The symptoms or circumstances for which a medication is given are called:
answer
indications.
question
When you give patients nitroglycerin, they sometimes develop a headache. This would be called a:
answer
untoward effect.
question
You are called to the school where a 16-year-old female has trouble breathing from a possible allergic reaction. You arrive and find the patient wheezing, with cool clammy skin, and holding an epinephrine auto-injector. After you assess the patient and contact medical control, you are advised to give the medication. When you give the patient the epinephrine auto-injector she develops symptoms of anxiety: dizziness, headache, nausea, nervousness, paleness, sweating, tremors, vomiting, and weakness. These symptoms are considered:
answer
side effects
question
The epinephrine auto-injector is given via the _______________ route.
answer
parenteral
question
Nitroglycerin is given via the _______________ route.
answer
sublingual
question
Which of the following BEST describes the five rights?
answer
Right patient, right medication, right time, right dose, right route
question
The study of the effects of medications on the body in relation to age and weight is called:
answer
pharmacodynamics
question
The EMT, after administering any medication, must do which of the following?
answer
Document the administration, reassess the patient, and report to the receiving facility.
question
Which of the following signs of inadequate breathing is more prominent in children than in adults?
answer
See-sawing of the chest and abdomen, Grunting respirations, Nasal flaring
question
Which of the following does NOT occur during inspiration?
answer
Diaphragm relaxes
question
Which of the following is TRUE concerning expiration?
answer
The diaphragm moves upward.
question
Which of the following respiratory rates is considered an abnormal respiratory rate for an adult?
answer
8 breaths/min
question
Which of the following respiratory rates should be cause for alarm in a 2-month-old child?
answer
16 breaths/min
question
Which of the following BEST defines inadequate breathing?
answer
Breathing that is insufficient to sustain life
question
You are first on the scene of a 61-year-old female in need of assistance with her respirations. You have a pocket mask with supplemental oxygen. How can you determine that your artificial ventilation is effective?
answer
You assure oxygen is being delivered at 15 liters per minute.
question
Your patient is a 24-year-old woman with asthma who is struggling to breathe and is very agitated. She has cyanosis of her lips and nail beds, and is cool and clammy to the touch. When you attempt to assist her ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device, she becomes combative and repeatedly pushes the mask away from her face. Which of the following is the BEST option?
answer
Begin transport immediately and contact medical control for advice.
question
Your patient is a 15-year-old male with a history of multiple prior hospitalizations for asthma. Upon your arrival the patient responds only to painful stimuli and is making very weak respiratory effort. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Assist the patient's ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen.
question
Which of the following is a sign of adequate artificial ventilations in a pediatric patient?
answer
Pulse rate increases.
question
When ventilating a child with inadequate respirations, which of the following is the maximum rate at which artificial respirations should be delivered?
answer
20 per minute
question
You are ventilating a 6-year-old child and note that his heart rate has decreased from 70 to 54. Which of the following is NOT appropriate?
answer
Notify medical control that the patient's condition has improved.
question
Your patient is a 6-year-old male who appears very anxious, is using increased effort during expiration, and has a fever. He is wheezing and has a respiratory rate of 34. The patient's skin is very warm and dry. He does not have any cyanosis. The child is drooling and his mother states that he complained of a sore throat and pain on swallowing earlier in the afternoon. Which of the following conditions is most likely causing the patient's distress?
answer
Epiglottitis
question
Which of the following is NOT a sign of difficulty breathing?
answer
Curling up in the fetal position
question
Your patient is a 30-year-old female who may have overdosed on antidepressant medications. On your arrival, she is lying supine on her bed with her head on a pillow. She is unresponsive to painful stimuli and is snoring. She appears to be pale and her skin is cool and clammy. What should you do first?
answer
Remove the patient's pillow.
question
Which of the following patients with difficulty breathing should NOT receive supplemental oxygen?
answer
None of these patients should have oxygen withheld
question
What is the primary effect on the body when an EMT assists a patient with a prescribed inhaler if the patient is short of breath?
answer
Relaxation of the bronchioles
question
Which of the following is proper when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
answer
Have the patient hold the inhaled medication in his lungs as long as possible
question
In which of the following circumstances is medical control necessary when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
answer
Medical control is necessary in all situations in which an EMT assists with a prescribed inhaler.
question
When you hear wheezes while auscultating your patient's breath sounds, which of the following is most likely the cause?
answer
The lower air passages in the lungs are narrowed.
question
Which of the following inhalers would NOT be used to reverse an asthma attack?
answer
Beclomethasone
question
Which of the following is the primary cause of COPD?
answer
Cigarette smoking
question
Which of the following is a possible side effect of a prescribed inhaler for respiratory problems?
answer
Tremors
question
Which of the following devices is used by patients with respiratory problems to assist with the delivery of medication from an inhaler to the lungs?
answer
An AeroChamber
question
Which of the following is a benefit of using small-volume nebulizers for the treatment of respiratory problems?
answer
They allow greater exposure of the patient's lungs to the medication.
question
A patient who has shallow, slow, irregular gasping breaths is said to have ________ respirations.
answer
agonal
question
Which of the following may be seen just prior to respiratory arrest?
answer
Agonal respirations
question
Which of the following observations indicate that your patient may have overused his prescription inhaler?
answer
Nervousness
question
Which of the following is a prescribed medication used in an inhaled form for the emergency treatment of respiratory problems?
answer
Albuterol
question
Which of the following sounds may be heard in lower respiratory obstruction?
answer
Wheezing
question
Which of the following is the most proper dose of inhaled medication the EMT can assist the patient with administering?
answer
The number of sprays directed by medical control
question
After the administration of a prescribed inhaler, which of the following should the EMT NOT reassess?
answer
Pupillary size and reaction
question
Which of the following medications is indicated in the treatment of a 52-year-old male with difficulty breathing and a history of emphysema?
answer
Proventil
question
When should the EMT most likely expect to hear wheezes in a patient complaining of shortness of breath secondary to an asthma attack?
answer
While breathing out
question
Which breath sound is the EMT most likely to hear when caring for an adult male with a partial airway obstruction that occurred while eating steak?
answer
Stridor
question
While assessing the airway of a pediatric patient, you will notice that it is different than that of an adult. Which of the following is one of those differences?
answer
The trachea is smaller, softer, and more flexible, allowing it to be more easily obstructed.
question
Contraindications for the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) include which of the following?
answer
History of pulmonary fibrosis
question
You are treating a 68-year-old female with difficulty breathing and you want to apply CPAP. How many centimeters of water would you start your treatment with?
answer
Follow local protocol
question
When the lung collapses without injury or any other cause, it is called which of the following?
answer
Spontaneous pneumothorax
question
Which of the following heart chambers pumps oxygenated blood to the body?
answer
Left ventricle
question
Which of the following would be the result of an obstruction in a branch of the pulmonary artery?
answer
Blood is not pumped to the lungs
question
Which of the following is the way in which the heart muscle receives oxygen?
answer
Blood from the aorta enters the coronary arteries.
question
Which of the following is the general term used to refer to a problem with the heart?
answer
Cardiac compromise
question
Which of the following BEST describes a fluttering sensation in the chest?
answer
Palpitations
question
Your patient is a 49-year-old male with a history of heart problems. Assuming he has a bottle of nitroglycerin tablets with him, under which of the following circumstances could you administer the nitroglycerin to the patient?
answer
The patient complains of chest pain and has a blood pressure of 132/90 mmHg
question
Assuming your protocol allows the administration of nitroglycerin when certain conditions exist, what is the maximum number of tablets to be administered in the prehospital setting?
answer
3 doses
question
In which of the following situations would the administration of aspirin to a cardiac patient be prohibited?
answer
The patient has a history of asthma.
question
Which of the following is the name of the condition in which fatty deposits form in the inner lining of the arteries?
answer
Coronary artery disease
question
A weakened area of an artery that balloons out and may rupture, causing catastrophic bleeding, is called
answer
aneurysm.
question
Which of the following cardiac dysrhythmias cannot produce a pulse?
answer
Ventricular fibrillation
question
Which of the following is the beneficial action of nitroglycerin in some cardiac emergencies?
answer
It dilates blood vessels throughout the body.
question
Which of the following is the result of a portion of the heart muscle dying due to a lack of oxygen?
answer
Myocardial infarction
question
Which of the following is the name given to the condition in which fluid accumulates in the lungs?
answer
Pulmonary edema
question
Which of the following statements concerning heart attacks and cardiac arrest is NOT true?
answer
The most common initial rhythm in sudden cardiac death is asystole.
question
Which of the following statements regarding the administration of nitroglycerin tablets is true?
answer
The patient may complain of a headache following administration
question
Which of the following statements regarding angina pectoris is true?
answer
It can be brought on by exertion or stress.
question
Which of the following is the beneficial action of a beta blocker medication?
answer
Slows the heart rate
question
Which of the following is NOT a typical indication of congestive heart failure?
answer
Low blood pressure
question
Your patient is a 44-year-old female who has collapsed while jogging. She has been unresponsive for 4 to 5 minutes by the time you arrive. Her husband appears to be performing high-quality CPR. Which of the following should be your first action?
answer
Apply the AED.
question
Your patient is a 60-year-old male who is complaining of severe chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is pale, sweaty, and pleads with you, "Don't let me die, I think I'm going to die." Which of the following measures is NOT part of your initial treatment of this patient?
answer
Applying the defibrillator pads to his chest
question
Which of the following BEST describes the EMT's intended role in the ideal provision of emergency cardiac care?
answer
Early defibrillation
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old man who has collapsed while working in the yard. He has been unresponsive for 4 to 5 minutes by the time you arrive. His neighbor is attempting CPR, but the quality is questionable. Which of the following should be your first action?
answer
Ask the neighbor to stop CPR so you can check the patient's pulse
question
Which of the following should NOT be done during defibrillation?
answer
Continued ventilation during the analysis phase to prevent hypoxia
question
Defibrillation is indicated for which of the following situations?
answer
Pulseless ventricular tachycardia
question
Which of the following is NOT a reason that an AED may indicate that there is "no shock advised"?
answer
The patient is in ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia
question
Which of the following is NOT a role of the EMT in providing emergency cardiac care?
answer
Administration of epinephrine
question
Which of the following patients should have an automated external defibrillator applied?
answer
A 19-year-old college athlete who collapsed during football practice and is pulseless and apneic
question
In which of the following ways does cardiac arrest in children differ from cardiac arrest in adults?
answer
Cardiac arrest in children is more likely to be due to respiratory failure
question
When using an AED, which of the following people is responsible for calling to "clear" the patient before delivering a shock?
answer
The EMT operating the defibrillator
question
Which of the following is the basis for applying an AED only to patients who are not breathing and who do NOT have a pulse?
answer
Defibrillators recognize ventricular tachycardia, which may be accompanied by a pulse.
question
Which of the following BEST describes an appropriate shock sequence for the patient in pulseless VT?
answer
Shock, 2 minutes of CPR, analyze, shock again
question
You are transporting a 50-year-old male patient whom you successfully defibrillated at the scene. You are 5 minutes away from the hospital when the patient goes back into cardiac arrest. Which of the following is the best course of action?
answer
Tell the driver to stop, analyze the cardiac rhythm, and deliver a shock as necessary.
question
You are the first on the scene of a 72-year-old patient in cardiac arrest. You have your medical supply kit, oxygen, and an AED. At least 4 to 5 minutes of high-quality CPR has been provided by the police officer who arrived before you. You have confirmed an open airway, apnea, and pulselessness. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Apply the defibrillator pads and shock as indicated.
question
Your patient is a 66-year-old female who has regained a pulse after a shock with an AED; however, she remains unresponsive and is not breathing adequately. Which of the following should be done next?
answer
Assist ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen and anticipate that the patient may go back into cardiac arrest.
question
Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of a continuous quality improvement program for AED?
answer
Improving patient outcomes in the community
question
Which of the following is an action of insulin?
answer
It increases the movement of sugar from the bloodstream to the cell.
question
For the reticular activating system to work correctly, what three substances are needed?
answer
Oxygen to perfuse brain tissue, glucose to nourish brain tissue, and water to keep the brain hydrated
question
Which of the following may result in hypoglycemia in the diabetic patient?
answer
Vomiting after eating a meal
question
During your primary assessment you find your patient has an altered mental status. This could indicate which of the following?
answer
Failing respiratory system
question
Your patient is a 25-year-old female with a history of diabetes. She is confused, agitated, and verbally abusive to you, and she is very sweaty. Although she refuses to give a history of the present illness, you should suspect which of the following as the likely cause of the patient's presentation?
answer
Failure to intake sufficient sugar
question
Your patient is a 44-year-old male with a history of diabetes. He is lying on the living room floor, unresponsive to all stimuli. He has a respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute, heart rate of 112 beats per minute, and is pale and sweaty. Which of the following should you do to treat this patient?
answer
Place the patient in the recovery position, administer oxygen, and monitor his airway status.
question
Which of the following blood glucose levels is considered normal for an adult?
answer
80 mg/dL
question
A 14-year-old female is found unconscious in the bathroom just before lunch. Several girls say they saw her shoot up earlier in the day and the school resource officer has found a syringe in her backpack. The patient has cool and clammy skin, snoring respirations, and she vomited before she slumped to the floor. What might be the cause of her altered mental status?
answer
Hypoglycemia
question
What is epilepsy?
answer
A condition in which a person has multiple seizures usually controlled by medication.
question
There are two types of seizures; if your patient is having a seizure that affects only one body part and does not cause her to lose consciousness, it is called a:
answer
partial seizure.
question
Your patient is a 19-year-old female who is 7 months pregnant. She has just experienced a seizure, although she has no previous history of seizures other than hypertension associated with the pregnancy. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the seizure?
answer
Eclampsia
question
Your patient is waking up from a seizure; it was the patient's first seizure ever. When you ask what happened, the patient tells you she had the smell of fresh mown grass just before she seized. We call this sensation a(n):
answer
aura.
question
Which of the following is the LEAST important question in obtaining the history of a seizure patient in the prehospital setting?
answer
Does the patient have a family history of seizures?
question
You respond to a 32-year-old female who is having a seizure. You arrive on the scene to find the patient drowsy, confused, and complaining of a headache. This patient is demonstrating the
answer
postictal phase.
question
Your patient is a 21-year-old female with a history of epilepsy. She is having a convulsion upon your arrival. Which of the following should you do?
answer
Move furniture and other objects away from the patient to prevent injury
question
The death of brain tissue due to deprivation of oxygen because of a blocked or ruptured artery in the brain is known as which of the following?
answer
Stroke
question
Which of the following is the cause of most strokes?
answer
Blockage of an artery supplying part of the brain
question
Which of the following is one of the most common characteristics of a stroke?
answer
Weakness on one side of the body
question
Which of the following refers to difficulty in speaking or understanding speech as a result of a stroke?
answer
Aphasia
question
Your patient is a 70-year-old man whose wife called EMS because her husband began exhibiting unusual behavior. Upon your arrival you introduce yourself to the patient, who responds, "Not until nine o'clock." This phenomenon is BEST described as:
answer
receptive aphasia
question
You have arrived on the scene of a call for a possible stroke. On your arrival, the patient denies signs and symptoms, is alert and oriented, and moves all extremities well. Her husband states that before you arrived the patient could not move her right arm and the left side of her face seemed to be "slack." Which of the following has most likely occurred?
answer
The patient suffered a transient ischemic attack.
question
The signs and symptoms of a transient ischemic attack may last up to:
answer
24 hours.
question
Which of the following is NOT a common sign or symptom of stroke?
answer
Chest pain
question
Your patient is a 59-year-old female with a sudden onset of slurred speech and weakness on her right side. Which of the following measures is appropriate?
answer
Immediately transport the patient to a hospital with specialized treatment for stroke patients.
question
Your patient is an unresponsive 30-year-old male wearing a Medic-Alert bracelet indicating that he is a diabetic. The patient's coworkers came by his house to check on him when he did not show up for work and did not call in sick. Your assessment does not clearly indicate to you whether the patient may be hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic. As you are completing your assessment, the patient's sister arrives at the scene. Which of the following should you do next?
answer
Apply oxygen and begin transport without taking further action.
question
Which of the following is the correct position of transport for a stroke patient with left-sided paralysis, a decreased level of consciousness, and an inability to maintain his or her airway?
answer
Lying on the left side
question
Which of the following is characteristic of a patient with hyperglycemia?
answer
Flushed, hot, dry skin and a "fruity" odor of the breath
question
For the EMT, which of the following is the most important question to ask of a diabetic patient or his family members?
answer
When was the last time you had something to eat?
question
Which of the following is within the EMT's scope of practice for the treatment of the diabetic patient?
answer
Administration of oral glucose
question
A patient who demonstrates any one of the three symptoms from the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale has a ______ percent chance of having an acute stroke.
answer
70
question
Which of the following is the most critical piece of equipment to have immediately available for the seizure patient who has just stopped convulsing?
answer
Suction
question
What are the three items that make up the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
answer
Ask the patient to smile, hold his arms straight out in front of him with his eyes closed, and ask him to say a sentence to see if it is clear.
question
With advances in clot-busting (thrombolytic) drugs, the patient has a window of _______ hours to receive treatment.
answer
3
question
The medical term for fainting is:
answer
syncope.