MLT Study Guide #1

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Hematology
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the study of blood
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Average adult has how much blood?
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About 5-6 liters (8-12 pints)
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When blood is centrifuges what happens?
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It seperates into two distinct portions plasma & cells
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About 45% is cellular or formed elements called?
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RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
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RBCs
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Contain hemoglobin which carries oxygen to tissues
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WBCs
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defend against foreign infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.
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Platelets (Plt)
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aid in the stoppage of bleeding
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The remaining 55% is plasma which contains what?
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Straw/yellow fluid which is 90% water and 10% proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, enzymes, lipids, salts, etc.
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Transmission of microorganisms from person to person resulting in infection is called?
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Chain of infection
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What is blood-borne pathogens?
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Organisms that can be transmitted through contact with human blood or other potentially infectious fluids or specimens that come from humans. HIV, HCV, and HBV are the viruses that are of major concern.
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Universal Precautions
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(UP) a method of infection control in which all human blood and other body fluids containing visible blood are treated as if infectious.
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Standard Precautions
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a set of comprehensive safety guidelines designed to protect patients and healthcare workers by requiring that all patients and all body fluids, body substances, organs, and unfixed tissues be regarded as potentially infectious. (Combines UP &BI)
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BSI
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Body Substance Isolation
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PPE
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Personal Protective Equipment should be worn when handling or collecting blood or body fluids contaminated with blood. (gloves, goggles, face shield, etc)
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Work areas should be cleaned with what?
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10% solution of bleach (1:10 dilution- 1 part bleach mixed with 9 parts water) Active ingredient in household bleach is hypochlorite and a 10% solution equals 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
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What is the clear yellow colored portion called in a centrifuged blood specimen that was colllected in a vacuum tube without anticoagulant?
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Serum (it does not contain fibrinogen)
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What is the clear yellow portion called in a blood specimen with anticoagulant?
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Plasma (it contains fibrinogen)
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What is the correct order of draw?
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(1) Blood culture tubes (2) sodium citrate -coagulation tubes- LIGHT BLUE TOP (3) Serum tubes with or without clot activators- RED, GOLD, OR SPECKLED TOP (4) -eparin tubes with or without gel-GREEN TOP (5) EDTA tubes-LAVENDER TOP (6) Sodium fluoride (glycolytic inhibitor)-GRAY TOP
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Order of Draw
Order of Draw
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What is an anticoagulant?
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Substances that prevent the clotting (coagulation) of blood.
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Oxalate, Citrate, and EDTA
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These work by removing calcium from the coagulation process.
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Disodium or dipotassium (K3) salt of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid or EDTA
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EDTA prevents coagulation by chelating (binding) ionized calcium in the blood into an insoluble salt which is a necessary component in the coagulation process.
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EDTA
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It is the best anticoagulant to make blood smears/films for differentials because it causes less distortion of blood cells and less artifacts on the slide. Good for hematology procedures because it prevents platelet aggregation which yields more reliable platelet counts and makes them look more natural on prepared slides. (lavender top)
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Blood smears/slides
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Must be made within 2-3 hours after collection from the patient or distortion and artifacts will increase with time.
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Excessive EDTA
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causes RBCs to shrink causing crenation
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Sodium Citrate
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the anticoagulant of choice for coagulation studies. It prevents coagulation by precipitating calcium in an unusable form. Tubes must be filled properly (full) because coagulation tests can be affected if the proper 1 part 0.109 (3.2%) sodium citrate to 9 parts whole blood is not met. Also good at maintaining the stability of factors V, VIII and platelet functions. (light blue top)
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Heparin
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coagulation is prevented by enhancing antithrombin III which in turn neutralizes factor II (thrombin) & X. It is not a good choice for preparing differential sides since WBCs and Platelets will clump in addition to the stain being to blue. For special hematology test. (green top)
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Isolation
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Purpose is to protect ones self from infections and to protect infection prone patients from getting infections.
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Strict isolation
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gown, mask, and gloves
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enteric & wound isolation
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gown and gloves
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respiratory isolation
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mask
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Protective (reverse) isolation
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designed to protect the patient: gown, mask, gloves, and sometimes shoe covers
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Microscope
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Usually use low power objective (10x) to find the image. Then switch to a higher objective to focus on the image.
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resolving power
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This is the ability of the microscope to produce fine detail of an image that is both clear and distortion free.
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Spherical aberrations
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light waves out of synchronization as they are bent while passing through the same lenses-this will result in not being able to get the whole field of view to focus on the same plane
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Chromatic aberrations
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colors of objects are not true
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BOR
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Board of Registry (ASCP falls under this board)
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ASCP
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American Society of Clinical Pathology
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MLT
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Medical Laboratory Technician (2 year) requires C.E. to renew
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MLS
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Medical Laboratory Scientist (4 Year) requires C.E. to renew
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MT
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Medical Technologist (4 year) lifetime with no C.E. requirements
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AMT
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American Medical Technologist
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NCA
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National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel
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ASCLS
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American Society for Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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CAP
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College of American Pathologists Accredit laboratoris & proficiency testing
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CLIA
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Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act government enacted regulations designed to improve laboratory testing
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OSHA
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Occupations Safety & Health Association (government entity-worker safety)
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CLSI
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Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (set standards for lab equipment, supplies and procedures)
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JCAHO
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Joint Commision on Acceditation of Healthcare Organizations (Inspect and accredit hospitals, including the laboratory unless the labs are already CAP accredited)
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Safety signs
Safety signs
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A is for ordinary materials-wood, paper, cloth, trash B is for gasoline, grease, oil, paint (flammable liquids) C is for live electrical equipment

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