credited to GE’s CEO in the 1950’s
marketing concept
build a better mousetrap
product concept
customers may be persuaded to buy products
selling concept
a product may be de-marketed b/c it is harmful
societal marketing concept
the film presented in class contrasting for and GM illustrates two firms that clearly were practicing dramatically different business philosophies. the philosophy illustrated by ford was the marketing concept, while the philosophy illustrated by GM was the production concept.
a total system of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and distribute want-satisfying products to target markets to achieve organizational objectives is the text’s definition of
anything that provides a bundle of tangible or intangible characteristics or attributes geared toward satisfying customers’ wants and needs best defines
a product
a manufacturer sells its products to wholesalers. these wholesalers then resell the products to retailers in the geographic areas in which they operate. you and I then buy these products from the retailers. this link between producers on one end and consumers on the other is typically referred to as the
channel of distribution
when bread is baked, _________ utility is created.
although many activities are essential to a company’s growth, marketing is the only one that directly produces revenue.
probably the most critical premise of the marketing concept is
that the firm’s primary objective should be one of identifying and satisfying customers’ needs, i.e. the customer should be central to everything the firm does.
a product is distributed by mail. so far, no promotion other than word-of-mouth has been needed. for 4.75, you can buy a jar of mixture that you can use on every food. The preceding describes the ______________ for this company.
marketing mix
to which element of the marketing mix do branding and labeling decisions relate most closely?
to which element of the marketing mix do personal selling and advertising decisions relate most closely?
manufacturers in the ____________ stage typically focus on increasing output while assuming that customers will seek out and buy reasonably priced, well-made products.
production-orientation (production concept)
Management assumed that buyers choose its furniture due to its high quality and reasonable prices. This company is acting as if it’s in the __________ stage of marketing thought.
with relationship marketing, a company is hoping to establish a
feeling of goodwill with its customers, suppliers, employees, and competitors as well as a sense that the firm cares about more than making a sale.
the manufacturer has initiated a diaper recycling program in conjunction with a consumer education program to make consumers more aware of the potential environmental hazards associated with such products is an example of what marketing concept?
societal marketing concept
T or F
the farm owner assumed that customers would pick andover farms’ strawberries b/c the berries were good quality and reasonably priced. andover farms is acting as if it in the the product-orientation stage of marketing thought.
aggressive selling is required for success, and unethical sales tactics, such as selling features that customers don’t really need, are tolerated. nationwide is being operated as if it is at the ___________ stage of marketing thought.
air conditioning systems that are manufactured in december will be stored until customers are ready to buy them in the spring. the act of storing these systems creates _________ utility for the customers.
every morning pete buys a newspaper from the vending machine located just outside of his office building. the vending machine creates _____ and ______ utility.
form and time utility
firms that define their missions from a “product” as opposed to a “market” perspective are said to be engaging in
marketing myopia
T or F
the sample advertisement best illustrates benefit ‘positioning’ (tacobell)
innovative software traditionally defined its mission as developing innovative spread-sheet applications. consultants hired by innovative software argue that the firm is defining its mission too narrowly, from a ‘product perspective.’ to avoid falling into the trap of ‘marketing myopia,’ how would you recommend that innovative software redefine its mission?
focus on software solutions for meeting customer’s applications-related needs
firms engaged in a MOA are least likely to pursue a __________ opportunity if they wish to remain within the bounds of their firm’s current mission.
the NFL has expanded into various cities in western europe. now europeans can watch football just as it’s played in the US. according to the product-market growth matrix, the NFL is using a strategy of ________ development.
a product’s “position” is
the image it projects primarily in relation to competing products and the benefits the product delivers.
Haggar apparel has responded to the dress-down trend at work by adding jeans and relaxed suits. It anticipates that its current customers will be the primary consumers of the new line. according to the product-matrix, haggar apparel is pursuing an opportunity of
product development
T or F
a target market is anyone who buys the good or service being marketed.
the sample advertisement best illustrates which type of ‘positioning’ strategy? (gillette)
a product’s _______ is the image it projects in relation to competitive products as well as to other products marketed by the same company.
T or F
after a company establishes its goals and objectives, it might then develop a broad plan of action to reach the goals. this broad plan of action is called a policy.
FALSE (correct answer is ‘strategy’)
the process of subdividing larger, diverse product-markets into more homogeneous submarkets as part of the MOA best illustrates
market segmentation
in the below diagram of the marketing management process, the block to be filled in is
develop marketing mix
the sample advertisement best illustrates which type of positioning strategy? (alka seltzer that names comparative brands)
if the owner of a children’s day-care center were to answer the question, “what business are you in?” with the statement, “we nurture children and provide them with a homelike environment that keeps their separation anxieties to a minimum,” it would be an example of a
market-oriented mission statement.
____________ are new data gathered specifically for the project at hand. Such data are not available from other existing sources.
primary data
why would a marketing researcher use a survey rather than some other tool to gather research data?
it is a good way to gather information first-hand about people’s beliefs and attitudes.
the first step of the marketing research process is to
define the problem or question
one of the postal service’s first attempts at marketing research began with the public vote on which of the two versions of the Elvis stamp to produce. the postal service gathered 800,000 names and addresses of people who took an interest in their mail service. this collection of names and addresses is an example of
a database
if the owner of six flags over georgia wants to know where the amusement park’s patrons are coming from, they could send an employee out to collect the state names from the license plates of cars parked in the six flags’ parking lot. this is an example of the _________ method of gathering marketing research.
the most important characteristic of a sample that makes it possible to generalize the results of a research study to the population from which the sample was selected is that it is representative of that population. which is most likely to ensure the sample is truly representative?
the sample is selected at random from the population
with six other small business owners, scott was invited to a ____________ where the researcher asked the group questions about how they felt about income tax assistance software.
focus group
when asked for their buying decisions, it is reasonable to assume that the differences between the percentages of people in each group who intended to subscribe to the magazine are based on their preferences for the different designs. this is an example of the ___________ method of marketing research.
observations by the researchers of how customers select pesticides would be a source of ________ data in a marketing research study being done by a researcher for a manufacturer of pesticides.
the eli cutter test market discussed in class probably failed because
eli cutter was positioned too close to its likely major competitor – marlboro
one of the biggest mistakes in marketing research is to
collect primary data before exhausting the information available from secondary sources.
T or F
a safety report prepared by the FDA on the bacteria content of drinking water would be a source of secondary data in a marketing research study being done by a producer of bottled water.
the ad agency began its research by accompanying mail carriers as they made their daily deliveries to small businesses and watching how the small business-people and carriers interacted. as a result of the study, the post office adopted the slogan “we deliver” and features mail carriers in many of its ads. why did the ad agency use personal interviews rather than mail?
personal interviews are more flexible than mail
a mall intercept is an example of
the survey method of gathering data
___________ is a good example of a field experiment
test marketing
when ethnographers went to the small businesses and watched how the small business owners interacted with their mail carriers, they were gathering
primary data
T or F
one can always find highly specific and current secondary data that pertain to the research issue being investigated when conducting marketing research.
the observation method for gathering research data is most effective for
determining how people act while waiting in a bank line
if the manufacturer of rogaine wants to know how consumers feel about the hair growth product and also wants to reduce the potential for interviewer bias and guarantee the subject anonymity, the company should use
a mail survey
_________ is an ongoing, organized set of procedures and methods designed to generate, analyze, disseminate, store and retrieve information for use in marketing management decisions.
a marketing information system
a market researcher would not use ________ as a source when gathering primary data for a marketing research project.
government reports
which method of gathering primary data is most likely to make it possible for researchers to establish cause-effect relationships?
experiment conducted in a laboratory setting
“how would you characterize your attitude toward the ongoing slaughter of marine mammals? ()serious problem, and want to do s/t about it
()serious problem, but don’t want to do anything
()not a serious problem”
this is considered to be a _______________ b/c it tends to solicit the response from subjects desired by greenpeace for lobbying various governmental agencies.
leading question
b/c the data generally can be collected quickly and inexpensively, most research projects usually start by collecting ___________.
secondary data from existing sources
_________ is the internet portal that links to most websites available throughout the federal government.
gatorade staffers monitor social-media posts all day hoping what they see and learn will help the company more effectively promote its new products. their use of social media in this manner is best considered what form of research?
observation research
an extensive purchasing decision for products or brands is associated with
requires a substantial investment of time, entails the comparison of multiple product or brand alternatives, is likely to result in post-purchase cognitive dissonance, and often requires substantial information search
what is true about the buying decision process used by consumers?
some stages of the process may be skipped
madison is watching her weight. she felt post-purchase ____________ when she realized she could have ordered a cappuccino with only 70 calories instead of the iced mocha with 150 calories.
cognitive dissonance
what best suggests the major distinction between classical conditioning and iconic rote learning as applied to advertising?
classical conditioning is used to generate a direct affective response to the brand; iconic rote learning attempts to create top-of-mind awareness for the brand- and emotional response to the brand is not intended.
__________ is a state of anxiety that occurs in the post-purchase stage of the buying decision process.
cognitive dissonance
the process of receiving, organizing, and assigning meaning to information or stimuli detected by our five senses is called
what best reflects the relationship between self-concept and lifestyle from a marketing perspective?
people engage in lifestyle patterns that reflect elements of their actual and ideal self-concepts.
T or F
stimulus-response is a state of anxiety that occurs in the post-purchase stage of the buying decision process.
someone who alters the information he or she reads so that it will be consistent with their beliefs and attitudes is using
selective distortion
to reduce selective attention for the advertising of lower-involvement products, advertisers should avoid
TV ads that emphasize detailed information about products
in which stage of the buying decision would Tyler be if he was trying to figure out the difference between an iced mocha, cappuccino, and an espresso?
evaluation of alternatives
what characterizes the “routine decision” for products and brands?
tends to reflect lower levels of involvement, post-purchase evaluation will be limited, consumers tend to choose brands based on inertia, variety seeking, and/or simple brand familiarity, and the problem recognition step in the decision process is likely to occur in the store.
the ad below best illustrates the application of which consumer behavior (psychological) concepts to advertising? (magalimo)
use of “contrast”
he picked up the magazine and bought it without any prior planning. buying the magazine is an example of _____ buying.
marketers rely heavily on self-concept theory in the construction of promotional strategies and programs. what best illustrates the underlying assumption about how self-concept drives consumer purchase decisions?
consumers strive to achieve their ideal social and private self by engaging in behaviors that are consistent with that ideal.
the sample advertisement (marlboro) attempts to link the brand to an attractive lifestyle theme. the intention is to elicit a positive emotional response to the brand by virtue of the linkage. the advertiser probably is applying which learning theory?
classical conditioning
T or F
george purchased the honda accord b/c it seemed to combine the luxury of the lexus with the speed of the camaro. even after making his purchase, he wondered if he had missed something by not buying one of the other cars. george experienced cognitive dissonance.
Marketers rely heavily on self-concept theory in the construction of promotional strategies and programs. consumers strive to achieve their ideal social and private self by engaging in behaviors that are consistent with that ideal best illustrates the underlying assumption about how self-concept drives consumer purchase decisions.
Salem cigarettes used the jingle “you can take salem out of the country, but you can’t take the country out of salem.” in later ads they printed “you can take salem out of the country, but….” the psychological principle illustrated here is the consumer’s need for closure. the advertiser employed this technique to overcome selective attention.
T or F
“like the ad, like the product” is often used as the theoretical justification for using fear appeals in advertising.
when marketing managers attempt to identify the specific media viewed by customers in their target markets, they are explicitly recognizing the need to overcome which form of selective perception?
selective exposure
“how would you characterize your attitude toward the ongoing slaughter of marine mammals? ()serious problem, and want to do s/t about it
()serious problem, but don’t want to do anything
()not a serious problem”
this is considered to be a _______________ b/c it tends to solicit the response from subjects desired by greenpeace for lobbying various governmental agencies.
leading question

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