Milady’s Esthetics Chapter 12 Skin Analysis

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Why Study Skin Analysis?
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To understand each client’s skin type and provide the best treatment regimen possible for each individual’s skin type and condition.
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Contraindications
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Factors that prohibit a treatment due to a condition; treatments could cause harmful or negative side effects to those who have specific medical and skin conditions
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Contraindication
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Term that indicates that a treatment is prohibited for a particular client.
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Skin Types
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Classifications that describe a person’s genetic skin type and is determined by genetics and ethnicity. Can be indicated by the size of the pores in the T-zone and throughout the face.
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Skin Types are Genetically Determined
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People are born with their skin type, which is determined by their genetics and ethnicity. Skin changes over time: skin becomes drier, our cellular metabolism and oil/lipid production slow down as we age. Skin type is based primarily on how much oil is produced in the follicles from the sebaceous glands and on the amount of lipids found between the cells.
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T-zone
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The center area of the face, corresponding to the \”T\” shape formed by the forehead, nose, and chin. How large the follicles are in the T-zone and throughout the face can help determine the skin type.
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Dry Skin
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Skin that lacks lipids (oil). It is sensitive and the skin texture is slightly rough and feels tight. Follicle size is small and the sebum is minimal. Absorbs product quikly due to loss of lipids and for this reason dry skin needs extra care because it does not produce enough oil for protection on the skins surface. Needs extra care. Texture can be rough and tight. Stimulating oil production and protecting surface are imperative.
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Alipidic Skin
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Skin that lacks oil or ”lack of lipids”. Skin that does not produce enough sebum, indicated by absence of visible pores.
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Occlusive Products
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Occlusive: blocking. Thick products and lay on top of the skin to reduce transepidermal water loss, (TEWL) helps hold moisture, and protects the skin’s top barrier layer.
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Dehydrated Skin (dry skin versus)
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Skin that lacks water. A condition that can be seen on all skin types. Skin type is in need of moisture therefore it tends to absorb product quickly. Dehydrated skin looks crepey/papery, like crepe paper. Causes: Internal/external factors – Medications, coffee, alcohol, sun, over-exfoliation and harsh products. Helps: Drinking plenty of water, hydrating the skin with moisturizers and humectants.
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Combination Skin
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Skin type is both oily and dry or both oily and normal at the same time. T-zone through the middle of the face on the forehead, nose, and chin is oilier. Foliicle size is more obvious and looks medium to larger outside the T-zone on the cheeks. Water based products work best on this skin type. Avoid harsh products, excessive cleansing and rough exfoliation.
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Oily Skin
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(lipidic skin) Is a characteristic of Seborrhea, which is excess sebum (oil) production. Follicle size is larger and visible over most of the face and contains more oil. Prone to blemishes because pores get clogged with oil. It is also associated with with the treatment goals of extra cleansing and exfoliation, oil free products are best for this skin type. This skin type ages more slowly.
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Sensitive Skin
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Very common skin type. A condition but it is also genetically predisposed. It is characterized by fragile, thin skin and redness. Avoid irritating products and procedures such as excessive heat, rubbing (massage), exfoliation, and extractions. It needs to be treated very gently with non-irratating, calming products. The primary goals for this skin type is to soothe, calm and protect.
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Couperose Skin
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(Telangiectasia) Condition which appear as red, distended capillaries from weakening of capillary walls, are noticeable on sensitive skin. Fragile/thin skin can be a result of medications.
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Fitzpatrick scale
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Scale used to measure the skin type’s ability to tolerate sun exposure. Developed by Dr. Thomas Fitzpatrick.
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Intrinsic factors
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are factors related to our bodies internal health, examples include; genetics, stress, lifestyle, dehydration, improper nutrition, lack of excersise and sleep, smoking.
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Extrinsic factors
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are factors related to our bodies external health, sun damage is the main external cause of aging, environmental exposure, pollution, air quality, and humidity are also examples.
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Sun Damage
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is the main extrinsic cause of aging
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Actinic Aging
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is damage or condition caused from sun exposure
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Keratosis
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refers to a abnormally thick build up of cells
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before performing service
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is when you should analyze a clients skin
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Type I
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is characterized by very fair skin, blond or red hair; light-colored eyes; freckles are common. The reaction to UV sun exposure is characterized as always burns, never tans; high risk of skin cancer, vascular damage
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Type II
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is characterized by fair-skin; light eyes; light hair. The UV sun exposure is characterized as burns easily, tans with difficulty, high risk for skin cancer, vascular damage.
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Type III
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is very common and characterized by fair skin. Eye and hair color vary. The reaction to UV sun exposure is characterized as sometimes burns, gradually tans, risk of hyper/hypopigmentation, moderate risk of skin cancer and vascular damage
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Type IV
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is characterized by mediterranean caucasian skin, dark brown hair, medium to heavy pigmentation. Reaction to UV sun exposure includes, rarely burns, tans easily, high rick of hyper/hyperpigmentation,. Moderate risk of vascular damage. High risk of scaring
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Type V
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is characterized by Middle eastern skin, dark and black hair; brown eyes; rarely sun sensitive. Reactions to UV sun exposure include; Skin darkens, may never burn. High risk of hyper/hypopigmentation. High risk of scarring form treatments and trauma. Moderate risk for vascular damage. Lower risk for solar-pigmented conditions and actinic aging (from sun exposure)
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Type VI
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is the skin type on the Fitzpatrick scale that is characterized by Black skin and brown eyes; rarely sun sensitive. UV sun exposure reactions includes tans easily; may never burn. Very high risk of hypo/hyperpigmentation. Very high risk of scarring from treatments and trauma. Moderate risk for vascular damage. Lower risk for solar-pigmented conditions and actinic againg
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Glogau Scale
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evaluates photodamage (sun) based on wrinkling categorized by age
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Greater amounts of Melanin
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is what makes one person’s skin darker than another persons
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Actinic Keratosis
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a rough area resulting from sun exposure, sometimes with a layered scale or scab that sometimes falls off. Can be precancerous
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Erythema
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is redness caused by inflammation
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All skin types
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require proper cleansing, exfoliation, and hydration
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Barrier Function
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should try to be balanced for all skin types

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