Please enter something

Midterm Exam Review: Speech 1315

question

Intrapersonal communication
answer

when one person is talking to him or herself the kind of communication we do most often.
question

Interpersonal communication
answer

second most common; between two people
question

small group communication
answer

ex. conventions; church meetings
question

organizational communication
answer

ex. heirarchys
question

mass communication
answer

when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people at one time through a medium
question

public communication
answer

when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people all at the same time directly
question

Shannon-Weaver Model
answer

speaker is sending a message to the listener the listener is responding with feedback (words, mumbling, non-verbal), all of this communication is happening through channels. There are four channels used to communicate…hearing,visual,touch,and smell. interference interferes with your four channels. last component of the model is the situation which is for ex. face to face, hot or cold room, in or outside…it is also the relationship between speaker and listeners.
question

Interference
answer

anything that blocks or hinders the accurate communication of a message. there are three types.
question

external interference
answer

arises outside the listener: someone coughing, a baby crying, people talking loudly in the hall, or an air-conditioning break down that leaves the listeners hot and sticky and preoccupied with their discomfort.
question

internal interference
answer

comes from within the listener. some listeners might be daydreaming or worrying about a personal problem. some might be too tired to expend mental energy on listening. as a speaker, you can help listeners overcome internal distractions by making your speech so lively and interesting that the audience feels compelled to listen to you.
question

speaker-generated interference
answer

occurs when the speaker uses words that are unfamiliar to the audience, or that are interpreted in a way that the speaker did not intend. if the speaker wears bizarre clothing, some listeners might scrutinize the attire instead of concentrating on the speech.
question

feedback
answer

verbal and nonverbal responses that the listeners give the speaker.
question

verbal feedback
answer

when a listener asks questions or makes comments during a lecture.
question

nonverbal feedback
answer

ex. smiling, nodding, frowning, yawning etc.
question

reasons for nervousness
answer

fear of being stared at fear of failure fear of rejection fear of the unknown
question

adrenaline
answer

a hormone, triggered by stress, that stimulates hear, lungs, and muscles and prepares the body for “fright, flight, or fight”
question

positive nervousness
answer

converting your anxiety into constructive energy; useful energy
question

hearing
answer

the process by which sound waves are received by the ear
question

listening
answer

the act of interpreting and evaluating what is being said
question

Listening Rate/Reading Rate
answer

at or over 500 words a minute
question

Speaking Rate
answer

at about 150 words a minute
question

Kinds of Questions
answer

-Yes/No -Scale -Multiple Choice -Checklist -Open-ended -Ranking -Fill in the blank
question

Jargon
answer

the technical language of a group or profession; “interface” or “virtual reality” ex. bite the bullet if must use explain or illustrate each term.
question

General Purpose
answer

the broad objective of a speech; what is the point of your speech there are only three choices, to inform, persuade, or entertain.
question

To inform
answer

giving new information to your listeners. define a concept or explain a situation, or demonstrate a process.
question

To persuade
answer

convince listeners to come over to your side, to adopt you point of view. To change then in one or both of these ways: change their minds or change their behavior.
question

To entertain
answer

aimed at amusing your audience. it is light, fun and relaxing.
question

Specific Purpose
answer

a sentence that needs to inform, persuade, or entertain; the precise goal that a speaker wants to achieve ex. at the end of my speech my audience will…be able to make a cake.
question

infinitive
answer

a verb form beginning with “to”
question

Central Idea
answer

a thesis statement, its the entire speech summarized in one sentence; the key concept of a speech.
question

Audience
answer

the most important part of the public speaking situation
question

demographics
answer

facts about people, race, ethinicity, gender, sex, education, etc. things that you can record about people
question

psychographics
answer

audiences knowledge and opinions; things we can record about their minds, knowledge and opinions.
question

Principle of Efficiency
answer

Use a visual aid if and only if it is more efficient than words alone.
question

Verbal Aid vs. Visual Aid
answer

Verbal aids primary focus is words and a visual aids primary focus is visual.
question

Verbal Aid
answer

Primary focus is words
question

Visual Aid
answer

Primary focus is visual
question

Rules for Visual Aid Use
answer

-big -bold -simple
question

Organizational patterns
answer

What is going to go 1st, 2nd, 3rd… -Chronological -Spatial (how things are organized in space physically) -Topical
question

Transitions
answer

an expression that links ideas and shows the relationship between them; words, phrases, or sentences that show logical connections between ideas or thoughts. types: bridges, internal summaries, signposts, and spotlights.
question

Bridges
answer

connect the previous information with the next information; a transitional device that links what went before with the next part of a speech.
question

internal summaries
answer

when you finish an important section in a speech you may want to summarize the key ideas you talked about; a concise review of material covered during the body of a speech.
question

Sign Posts
answer

ex. first, second, last, etc..; tells listeners where they are or where they are headed; an explicit statement of the place that a speaker has reached.
question

Spotlights
answer

transitional devices, they emphasize important information; a device that alerts listeners to important points; ex. what im telling you know will help you understand the rest of the speech.
question

Kinds of Attention Devices
answer

Something that grabs our attention; hypothetical illustration, rhetorical question, overt-response question, make a provocative statement, cite a quotation, arouse curiosity.
question

Hypothetical illustration
answer

an imaginary scenario that illuminates a point.
question

Rhetorical question
answer

A question asked solely to stimulate interest and not to elicit a reply.
question

Overt-response question
answer

a question asked to elicit a direct, immediate reply.
question

Introductions
answer

-Attention Device -Orientation -To Speaker -To Topic -Preview
question

Conclusions
answer

-Summary -Wrap Up -signal the end -repeat importance -Clincher
question

intro and conclusion relationship
answer

An intro is just a conclusion in reverse and the other way around.
question

Orientation
answer

Component of intro; get the audience ready to listen orient them to the speaker so why should they listen and to the topic why should they care about the topic
question

Preview
answer

Component of intro; a list of main points; the central idea and preview are the same thing.
question

Summary
answer

Component of conclusion; exactly what the preview is but change the verb tense from present to past ex. today you will learn today you have learned.
question

Clincher
answer

Component of conclusion; the final statement in a speech that drives home the key concept of the speech
question

What may be on your notecards
answer

ONLY: -keywords -phrases -symbols
question

Analyze
answer

interview, surveys, find out exactly who the listeners are and what they know; collecting information about audience characteristics.
question

Adapt
answer

make the speech to the listeners’ knowledge level and to their needs and outlooks; adjusting one’s material and delivery to meet listeners’ needs.
question

Occasion
answer

ex. hot or cold, in or outside; relationship to audience.
question

Developing your Speech/Focus
answer

start broad then to something very specific pyramid: -topic -general purpose -specific purpose -central idea
question

Topic
answer

Broad idea
question

Main Points
answer

-3-5 points -one idea each -parallel language
question

What part of the Speech to write first
answer

You write the body of the speech before the intro and conclusion.
question

appearance
answer

dress one level more than your audience
question

denotation
answer

dictionary definition
question

connotation
answer

applied definition; what implied meaning does the word have
question

four methods (modes) of speaking
answer

-impromptu -memorized -manuscript -extemporaneous
question

impromptu
answer

means winging it; no prep
question

extemporaneous
answer

you plan out every idea but not every word and deliver it from cue cards (brief notes)
question

memorized
answer

every word is planned out; the script is memorized
question

manuscript
answer

every word is planned out; and read from a script
question

intonation
answer

variation in pitch
question

pauses
answer

illustrate a point as long as they are intentional and purposeful
question

disfluencies
answer

um and uh. when you are talking and you don’t know whats coming next so instead of pausing you fill it in with um, uh, like etc…
question

elements of the voice
answer

-projection -articulation -pronunciation -pitch -intonation -volume -rate -pauses -disfluencies
question

Physical delivery
answer

-eye contact -gestures -movement -appearance