Test Questions on MIcrobiology Exam 2 – Flashcards with Answers

question

Which bacterial identification method relies upon antibodies to identify bacterium?
answer

Serology methods
question

What is the point of a phage typing test?
answer

To determine which phages (bacterial viruses) a bacteria is susceptible to
question

What is the principle behind a G+C base composition bacterial identification method?
answer

Overall % of G and C content compared to A and T content in DNA
question

True or False:

PCR is one method used to identify bacteria

answer

True
question

True or False

rRNA sequencing is NOT a method used to identify bacteria

answer

False
question

True or False:

Spirochetes are associated with the use of axial filaments

answer

True
question

Which of the following is considered a spirochete:

Neisseria, treponema, Pseudomonas, H. pylori

answer

Treponema
question

What are the 3 spirochetes discussed during lecture?
answer

treponema, borrelia, leptospira
question

Describe the gram reaction and morphology of Campylobacter jejuni.
answer

Gram negative curved/spiral rod
question

Describe the gram reaction and morphology of Helicobacter pylori.
answer

Gram negative curved rod
question

True or False:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-positive faculative anaerobe cocci.

answer

False

P. aeruginosa is a gram negative aerobe rod

question

Where is pseudomonas aeruginosa likely to be found?
answer

In the soil
question

True or False:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an innate antibiotic resistance

answer

true
question

Describe the gram reaction and morphology of all Neisseria species.
answer

Gram negative diplococcus
question

What environment does an Enterobacteriaceae thrive in? What is its gram reaction and morphology?
answer

Faculative anaerobe

Gram negative rod

question

E. coli, salmonella, and shigella are all part of which bacterial family?
answer

Enterobacteriaceae
question

Which group of bacteria is associated with fermenting glucose and various other carbohydrates?
answer

Enterobacteriaceae
question

True or False:

Vibrio cholerae is a faculative anaerobic gram-negative rod

answer

True
question

What are the two requirements for culturing haemophilus?
answer

Must have blood in the culture medium

Requires hemin

question

Describe the gram reaction and morphology of haemophilus. What environment does it thrive in?
answer

Gram negative rod

Faculative anaerobe

question

What environment do bacteroides species thrive in and what is their gram reaction and morphology?
answer

Anaerobic gram-negative rods
question

What are the 3 likely locations one would find Bacteroides species?
answer

Oral cavity, genital tract, respiratory tract
question

True or False:

Bacteroides species are known for producing spores.

answer

False

They are nonspore-forming

question

What bacteria is associated with causing periodontitis?
answer

Bacteroides species
question

Describe the motility of bacteroides species?
answer

Non-motile
question

How does one acquire Rickettsia?
answer

arthropod vector (louse, tick, mosquito)
question

What two groups of bacteria are known as “obligate intracellular gram-negative coccobacillus?”
answer

Rickettsia and Chlamydia trachomatis
question

What are two common diseases associated with Rickettsia bacterial infections?
answer

Typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
question

True or False:

Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with blindness

answer

true
question

Walking pneumonia (primary atypical pneumonia) is caused by what bacterial species?
answer

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
question

What is significant about the cell walls of Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
answer

They DONT have cell walls
question

What bacteria is associated with causing wound infections, toxic shock syndrome, and food poisoning?
answer

Staphylococcus aureus
question

Strep throat is caused by which specific species of Streptococcus?
answer

Streptococcus pyogenes
question

What is the major pathogenic species of the Staphylococcus family?
answer

Staphylococcus aureus
question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Bacillus anthracis? What disease is associated with this species?
answer

Gram-positive rod

anthrax

question

True or False:

Bacillus anthracis can survive extreme conditions

answer

True

Since it is endospore forming

question

True or False:

Bacillus anthracis thrives in an anerobic environment

answer

False

B. anthracis is an aerobic species

question

What two diseases are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
answer

food poisoning and gas gangrene
question

Clostridium species thrive in what environment? Describe their gram reaction and morphology.
answer

Anaerobic

Gram-positive rods

question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
answer

gram positive rod

Pleomorphic morphology (irregular)

question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Listeria monocytogenes?
answer

gram positive rods
question

True or False:

Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endospore forming bacteria.

answer

False

Nonspore-forming gram positive rods

question

Which bacteria is likely to cause stillbirth in pregnant women?
answer

Listeria monocytogenes
question

What type of person is likely to acquire Listeria monocytogenes?
answer

Immunocomprimised
question

Which genus of bacteria is associated with leprosy and tuberculosis?
answer

Mycobacterium
question

What is significant about the cell walls of Mycobacterium species?
answer

Mycolic acid in cell walls
question

What the the gram reaction and morphology of all Mycobacterium species?
answer

Trick question, Mycobacterium do not stain via gram staining because their cell walls contain mycolic acid. Thus, they stain via acid fast staining. However, their morphology is rod-shaped
question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Bacillus anthracis? What disease is associated with this species?
answer

Gram-positive rod

anthrax

question

True or False:

Bacillus anthracis can survive extreme conditions

answer

True

Since it is endospore forming

question

True or False:

Bacillus anthracis thrives in an anerobic environment

answer

False

B. anthracis is an aerobic species

question

What two diseases are associated with Clostridium perfringens?
answer

food poisoning and gas gangrene
question

Clostridium species thrive in what environment? Describe their gram reaction and morphology.
answer

Anaerobic

Gram-positive rods

question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
answer

gram positive rod

Pleomorphic morphology (irregular)

question

What is the gram reaction and morphology of Listeria monocytogenes?
answer

gram positive rods
question

True or False:

Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endospore forming bacteria.

answer

False

Nonspore-forming gram positive rods

question

Which bacteria is likely to cause stillbirth in pregnant women?
answer

Listeria monocytogenes
question

What type of person is likely to acquire Listeria monocytogenes?
answer

Immunocomprimised
question

Which genus of bacteria is associated with leprosy and tuberculosis?
answer

Mycobacterium
question

What is significant about the cell walls of Mycobacterium species?
answer

Mycolic acid in cell walls
question

What the the gram reaction and morphology of all Mycobacterium species?
answer

Trick question, Mycobacterium do not stain via gram staining because their cell walls contain mycolic acid. Thus, they stain via acid fast staining. However, their morphology is rod-shaped
question

Whats the function of vegetative mycelium and aerial mycelium?
answer

vegetative – nutrients

aerial – reproduction

question

What does the term coenocytic mean?
answer

No septae
question

What term refers to fungal filaments?
answer

Hyphae
question

What does the term thallus mean?
answer

fungal body of a filamentous fungi
question

What makes this statement false:

Yeasts are filamentous multicellular fungi which have a spherical morphology and reproduce via binary fission.

answer

Yeasts are NONFILAMENTOUS UNICELLULAR fungi which have spherical morphology and reproduce via BUDDING
question

Describe a dimorphic fungi.
answer

Fungi which exhibits two forms of growth at different temperatures

37 deg C = grows as a yeast
25 deg C = grows as a filament

question

True or False

Asexual reproducing fungi do not exhibit genetic diversity.

answer

True
question

What three structures are associated with asexually reproducing fungi?
answer

Sporangiospore (in a sac)
Sporangium (sac containing spores)
Conidia (spores not enclosed in sac)
question

What pH do fungi need to be near for survival?
answer

5.0
question

True or False:

Molds are aerobic fungi while yeasts are faculative anaerobes

answer

True
question

Which of the following is false:

Fungi grow in a low sugar or salt environment and require high amounts of moisture to survive

Fungi require less nitrogen to survive than many other species

Fungi metabolize complex carbohydrates

Fungi grow in a pH relatively near 5.0

answer

Fungi grow in a low sugar or salt environment and require high amounts of moisture to survive

Typically, fungi grow in high surgar or salt environements and do not need very much moisture. This is why they require less nitrogen than many other species

question

A mycosis is a …
answer

fungal infection
question

What are the 5 categories of fungal infections (based off of degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry into body)
answer

Systemic
Subcutaneous
Cutaneous
Superficial
Opportunistic
question

This type of fungi causes systemic mycoses? How does it enter the body?
answer

Saprophytic fungi living in the soil

They enter the body via inhalation of endospores

question

What are the two systemic mycoses discussed during lecture?
answer

Histoplasmosis

Coccidioidomycosis

question

A subcutaneous mycoses is one that is ______________________. It is caused by __________ fungi which lives in _______________. Its route of transmission is ________________
answer

A subcutaneous mycoses is one that is BENEATH THE SKIN. It is caused by SAPROPHYTIC fungi which lives in SOIL/VEGETATION. Its route of transmission is DIRECT IMPLANTATION OF SPORES IN PUNCTURE OR WOUND.
question

What type of mycoses is Sporothrix schenckii associated with?
answer

Subcutaneous mycoses
question

Dermatophytes cause _____________ mycoses. They secrete ___________. The route of transmission for this mycoses is _________________________.
answer

Dermatophytes cause CUTANEOUS mycoses. The secrete KERATINASE. Their route of transmission is DIRECT CONTACT WITH INFECTED HUMAN
question

Trichophyton, epidermophyton, and microsporum are associated with this type of mycoses.
answer

Cutaneous mycoses (dermatomycoses)
question

True or False:

In a normal habitat, opportunistic mycoses are highly pathogenic.

answer

False:

Opportunistic mycoses only become pathogenic in a host who is immunocompromised.

question

Mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis all fall under which category of mycoses?
answer

Opportunistic mycoses
question

What two fungi are considered to cause Mucormycosis?
answer

Rhizopus and Mucor
question

Apicomplexans are also known as …?
answer

sporozoans
question

Flagellates, one of the medically important protozoa, are also known as …?
answer

Mastigophora
question

Amoebae, one of the medically important protozoa, are also known as…?
answer

Sarcodina
question

Amoebae move via …?
answer

Pseudopods
question

This species of amoebae is known to cause amebic dystentery?
answer

Entamoeba histolytica
question

Trichomonas vaginalis falls under which category of protozoan?
answer

Flagellates
question

Giardia lamblia falls under which category of protozoans?
answer

Flagellates
question

Where would a hemoflagellate be found in the human body and how does it become transmitted?
answer

Found in the blood or lymph fluids and it is transmitted by bites or feces of blood-feeding insects
question

African sleeping sickness is caused by what genus and species of protozoan? This protozoan falls under which category?
answer

Caused by Trypanosoma brucei which falls under Hemoflagellates
question

True or False:

African sleeping sickness is associated with the tsetse fly.

answer

True

The tsetse fly is an arthropod vector for Trypanosoma brucei

question

Chagas’ disease is caused by which protozoan? It is transferred to a human via which arthropod vector?
answer

Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by the kissing bug or reduviid bug
question

Trypanosoma cruzi falls under which category of protozoan?
answer

Hemoflagellates
question

Plasmodium species fall under which category of protozoan? These species are the causative agent for which major disease?
answer

Apicomplexans

Malaria

question

True or False:

Plasmodium species definitve host is in the mosquito

answer

True
question

When a mosquito containing malaria bites you it injects what into the human body?
answer

Injects a sporozoite (sexual stage)
question

What does the term dioecious refer to?
answer

Separate sexes
question

True or False:

Monoecious is synonymous with hermaphrodidic

answer

true
question

Trematodes/flukes fall under which phyla of helminth?
answer

Platyhelminthes
question

An acetabulum is also known as a…?
answer

Ventral sucker of a trematode
question

What is the intermediate hose for a trematode?
answer

Snail
question

How does a trematode obtain its food?
answer

From absorption through a cuticle
question

A schistosome is also known as a …?
answer

Blood fluke
question

Respectively, the scolex and proglottids are also known as?
answer

Holdfast organ and segments on a cestode
question

The infective stage of a nematode is …?
answer

Larvae or egg
question

Which two helminth species discussed in lecture have their infective stage as larvae?
answer

Necator americanus (hookworm) and Trichinella spiralis
question

Trichinella spiralis is transmitted to humans by…?
answer

Ingesting larvae
question

What is a virion? What is it made of? Is there any special structure?
answer

Complete, fully-developed viral particle composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by protein coat
question

How do viruses multiply?
answer

By taking over the host cells machinery (obligate intracellular parasite)
question

How does a capsid differ from a capsomere?
answer

Capsid – protein coat

Capsomere – protein subunits that make up capsid

question

Between naked viruses and enveloped viruses, which is more resistant to killing?
answer

Naked viruses
question

What is the typical morphology of an enveloped virus?
answer

Spherical
question

What is the morphology of a complex virus?
answer

helical and icosohedral
question

What does the term icosahedron refer to?
answer

A virus displaying 20 triangular faces and 12 corners
question

In reference to viral taxonomy what do the follow suffixs’ mean-virus
-viridae
-ales
answer

-virus – genus names
-viridae – family names
-ales – order names
question

What is the viral cytopathic effect?
answer

Observation of cell deterioration on a culture virus
question

Adenoviridae is associated with what pathological condition? Is this a DNA or RNA virus
answer

common cold

DNA virus

question

Herpesviridae is associated with cold sores and what other pathological condition? Is this a DNA or RNA virus?
answer

mononucleosis

DNA virus

question

Poxviridae is associated with what pathological conditions
Is this a DNA or RNA virus?
answer

small pox and cow pox

DNA virus

question

True or FAlse

Papovaviridae and Hepadnaviridae are what RNA viruses?

answer

False

DNA viruses

question

True or FAlse:

A reoviridae is a negative sense ssRNA virus.

answer

False

reoviridae is a double stranded rna virus

question

What -viridae is responsible for rabies? influenza? Measles
These -viridae all fall under the same type of virus (DNA/RNA) which type are they?
answer

Rabies = Rhabdovirus
Influenza = Orthomyxoviridae
Paramyxoviridae = Measles

All fall under negative sense ssRNA viruses

question

What are the two positive sense ssRNA viruses and what conditions are associated with each?
answer

Picornaviridae – common cold, polio

Togaviridae – rubella, arthropod-borne viruses

question

Togaviridae causes what two pathological conditions?
answer

Rubella, arthropod-borne viruses
question

Picornaviridae is responsible for what two pathological conditions?
answer

common cold and polio
question

True or False

Retroviridae is composed of 2 copies of positive sense ssRNA

answer

true
question

What is a provirus? What type of -viridae is it associated with?
answer

Provirus – viral dna integrated into host cells chromosome

Associated with retroviridae

question

True or False:

Reverse transcriptase works by forming DNA from RNA and then degrading to original viral RNA

answer

True
question

Viral adsorption is the process of…?
answer

Attaching to the receptor site
question

Viral penetration is the process of…?
answer

Endocytosis or fusion of the virus into the host cell
question

Viral uncoating is the process of…?
answer

Releasing of nucleic acid
question

Viral biosynthesis accomplishes two things, what are they?
answer

Replication of nucleic acid

Production of capsid proteins

question

Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of DNA viruses?
answer

transciption/translation of early genes

DNA replication

transciption/translation of late genes (capsid proteins)

question

Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of RNA viruses? (for + sense rna)
answer

Positive RNA acts as mRNA and codes for/makes RNA polymerase. Then a – sense copy is made (used as a template for replication) or translation may occur directly
question

Describe the steps involved for biosynthesis of RNA viruses? (for – antisense RNA)
answer

– antisense RNA carries RNA polymerase and makes a + strand to be used as a template for replication. The formed + strand may also complex with mRNA to translate enzymes and capsid proteins
question

Viral assembly (maturation) refers to the process of…?
answer

assembling viral nucleic acid and capsids into virions
question

What are two ways that a virus is “released”?
answer

Budding (seen in enveloped viruses)
Lysis
question

What are the three dna oncogenic viruses discussed in lecture and what type of cancer can they cause?
answer

HPV – cervical cancer

EBV – burkitt’s lymphoma

HBV – liver cancer

question

What are the two RNA oncogenic viruses discussed in lecture and what type of cancer can they cause?
answer

HTLV-1 and HTLV-2

Causes T cell leukemia and lymphoma

question

Shingles is caused by what virus?
answer

Herpes zoster
question

True or False:

The infectious agent for a prion is purely protein.

answer

True
question

What is the value for amount of normal flora in the body?
answer

1.0×10^14
question

What is microbial antagonism?
answer

normal flora inhibits overgrowth by pathogens
question

Is alpha-hemolytic strep inhibiting beta-hemolytic strep considered microbial antagonism?
answer

yes
question

E. coli operates under commensalism or mutalism?
answer

Mutalism because e. coli synthesizes vitamin K and B while the gut contents are used to e. coli growth
question

True or False:

Mycobacterium leprae and treponema pallidum are culturable bacteria.

answer

False

They are unculturable according to Koch

question

What is the difference between signs and symptoms?
answer

Signs – objective changes in body functions

Symptoms – subjective changes in body function

question

Incidence vs prevalence?
answer

Incidence is the number of new cases contracted withing a set population during specified period of time

Prevalence: total number of people infected within populations at any time

question

bacteremia vs septicemia
answer

bacteremia : transient bacteria in blood

septicemia: growth/multiplication of bacateria in blood

question

What type of infection (primary, secondary, subclinical) is HIV and West Nile Virus?
answer

Subclinical
question

Convalescence is …?
answer

Period of recovery after an infection
question

What does the term prodromal refer to?
answer

Early, mild, non-speficic symptoms
question

What is the reservoir for cholera? Tetanus?
answer

Cholera – water

tetanus – soil

question

Tinea capitis is an infection transmitted how?
answer

Indrect contact (fomite)
question

This bacteria is responsible for causing septic shock. It is a nosocomial infection. What does this term mean?
answer

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Nosocomial – hospital acquired infection

question

What is the causitive agent for nosocomial UTI’s?
answer

Candida albicans
question

Fibrooptic instruments are a way to transmit a disease from…?
answer

Patient to patient
question

The term selective toxicity refers to…?
answer

Killing microorganism without harming the host
question

Isoniazid is an antimicrobial which targets what species?
answer

Mycobacterium
question

What term refers to an overgrowth of the normal flora?
answer

Superinfection
question

How does penicillin act as an antimicrobial?
answer

By inhibiting cell wall synthesis
question

Augmentin contains penicillin and clavulanic acid, what is the purpose of the clavulanic acid?
answer

It inhibits B-lactamase from cleaving the B-lactam ring
question

How does a cephalosporin act as an antimicrobial?
answer

Inhibits cell wall synthesis
question

True or False:

Vancomycin is used against gram negative organisms

answer

False

Only effective against gram positive

question

How is vancomycin an antimicrobial?
answer

Inhibits cell wall synthesis
question

Isoiazid acts as an antimicrobial by…?
answer

Inhibiting mycolic acid synthesis
question

How do aminoglycosides act as antimicrobials?
answer

inhibit protein synthesis by preventing tRNA from binding to 30s ribosomes
question

What two antibiotics are considered aminoglycosides?
answer

streptomycin and gentamicin
question

Tetracyclines act as antimicrobials by…?
answer

Inhibiting protein synthesis by preventing tRNA from binding to 30S ribosomes
question

How do tetracyclines differ from aminoglycosides?
answer

Tetracyclines are bacteriostatic

Aminoglycosides are bacteriocidal

question

Chloramphenicol acts as an antimicrobial by…? Bacteriocidal or static?
answer

Inhibiting protein synthesis by binding to 50S subunit of ribosome

Bacteriostatic

question

A macrolide (antimicrobial) is an alternative to what?
answer

Penicillin
question

Erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin are all part of what group of antimicrobials?
answer

Macrolides
question

How do macrolides act as antimicrobials?
answer

Inhibiting protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosome subunit
question

What type of antimicrobial works by injuring the plasma membrane?
answer

polymyxins
question

How does Rifampin act as an antimicrobial?
answer

Inhibiting synthesis of mRNA
question

The antibiotic most likely to be used against pseudomonas infections is?
answer

Ciprofloxacin
question

How do quinolones act as antimicrobials?
answer

inhibit DNA gyrase
question

Antibiotics ending in _________ are part of the group quinolones?
answer

-acin
question

What type of antibiotic works by blocking folic acid synthesis?
answer

sulfonamides
question

TMP-SMZ is an antibiotic of what category?
answer

sulfonamides
question

amphotericin B works by…?
answer

binding to ergosterol in fungal plasma membranes
question

Triazoles work by…?
answer

interfering with sterol synthesis
question

Terinafines work by…?
answer

interfering with sterol synthesis (different than triazoles)
question

Griseofulvin, a class of anti-fungals, works by…?
answer

inhibiting fungal reproduction by blocking microtubule assembly and interfering with mitosis
question

Herpesvirus infections are treated with what types of antivirals?
answer

Those ending in -ovir

ancyclovir, valacyclovir, etc

question

The antiviral drug category, amantadine, works by…?
answer

preventing penetration of cell by virus
question

The antiviral drug, zanamivir or oseltamivir, works by…?
answer

inhibiting neuraminidase
question

The HIV drug zidovudine and didanosine work by…?
answer

blocking activity of reverse transcriptase of HIV
question

The HIV drug indinavir and saquinavir work by…?
answer

Inhibiting HIV protease activity
question

The HIV drug Enfuvirtide works by…?
answer

Inhibiting fusion of HIV to its receptor on host cell
question

A parenteral route of infection is one where the pathogen enters from…?
answer

Breaks in the skin
question

What is the gram reaction of an organism which produces an exotoxin?
answer

Gram positive
question

What is the most lethal type of substance known?
answer

Exotoxins
question

The Diphtheria toxin is dangerous because it inhibits what human process?
answer

protein synthesis of eukaryotic cells
question

Diphtheria toxin has two polypeptides, A and B. What does each do?
answer

A – active portion of toxin

B – binding portion

question

Endotoxins are cause by what type of gram bacteria?
answer

Gram negative bacteria
question

How does an endotoxin get into the system?
answer

Gram negative bacteria die and the cell walls undergo lysis, thus releasing the endotoxin into the blood stream
question

What is the portal of exit for the following

TB
HSV-1
Polio
Food-borne illness
STD
HIV
Hepatitis
Malaria

answer

HSV-1 – mouth
TB – mouth and nose
Polio – feces
Food-borne illness – feces
STDs – gonadal secretions
HIV – gonadal secretions, blood
Hepatitis – blood
Malaria – blood (only by vector)

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