Mexico Culture

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Octavio Paz
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Mexican poet awarded with Nobel Prize of Literature, born in Mexico City. he studied at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. He published his first book of poems, Wild moon, before he was 20 years old. Also distinguishing him as a poet, Octavio Paz has written books of essays about art, literature, and Mexican reality in general. Perhaps the book’s most influential essay is The Labyrinth of Solitude, where he makes a critical analysis of Mexico and the Mexican.
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Elena Poniatowska
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Mexican writer and journalist, born in France, of a Polish-born French father and Mexican mother. She arrived in Mexico City during the Second World War. She started journalism in 1954 and has since published numerous novels, short stories, chronicles, and essays. The Night of Tlatelolco, her most well-known work, offers testimonies about the massacre of students by military force, in the Plaza of the Three Cultures in Tlatelolco, some days before the beginning of the Olympic Games in Mexico.
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Luis Miguel
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Mexican singer, born in Veracruz. He is the son of Spanish singer Luisito Rey and of the Italian singer Marcela Bastery. He debuted as a child singer and since 1983, he has given concerts outside of Mexico. He has become an idol of Latin American music. He has sold more than 6 million copies of his album Romance around the world. His more successful songs are mostly boleros and romantic style songs.
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Lucero Hogaza of Mijares
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Mexican actress and singer, born in Mexico. From the age of five, Lucero has had a variety of roles that include films, sitcoms, and soap operas. Perhaps among her roles, the most interesting, according to Lucero, was the opportunity she had to do the voices of characters in the movies Mulan and Tarzan. In her career as an artist, which extends more than 20 years, she has managed to be recognized not only in her home country, but throughout the Hispanic world.
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Mexico: Land of Contrasts
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Tall mountains and fertile valleys, as well as extensive desserts and rain forests. More than 50 indigenous groups exist, each one with its own language and its own cultural traditions.Majority of the Mexicans are mestizos, a mixture of indigenous and Spanish. Like the people, the history and culture of Mexico are varied.
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Mesoamerican Origins
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Mesoamerican civilization was born in Mexico, named from the region where the Aztecs and Mayans lived, began with the Olmeca culture, which prospered more than 3 million years in the region near the coast of the States of Tabasco and Veracruz, cultivated plants like the corn, the bean, the chile, and the tomatoes, created large urban centers like Teotihiacan, Tula, and Tenochtitlan
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Tenochtitlan
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founded by the Aztecs, after a terrible of place of months, Tenochtitlan finally fell to the power of the Spanish, who decided to establish the capital of Mexico there, which is where it is today
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Hernan Cortes
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arrival of the Spanish exposition, the major part of the southern Mexican territory, with the exception of Yucatan, formed part of the Aztec Empire. He was informed of the conflict between the different indigenous nations
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Myth of Quetzalcoatl
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known by Cortes, the Feathered Serpent; this god of the Middle American mythology was promised to return to the east, where it had gone a few centuries earlier. Cortes used this for his benefit, leaving the natives to believe that there was a Quetzalcoatl
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Mexico
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the capital of the Vice royalty of New Spain named the region by the conquerors, important colony of the vast Spanish Empire. Evidence of the wealth of the new territory – impressive churches, palaces, and colonial monuments. Wealth was based on the production of large silver and gold mines and the general exploitation of the indigenous population
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Creoles
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the Spanish born in Mexico, resented the power of the Spaniards, the Spanish born in Spain, and finally achieved the independence of Mexico
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Mexico in the nineteenth century
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Independence did not lead to political stability or greater economic development
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Mexico First Half of Nineteenth Century
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Sieges, coups and armed struggles between different political factions became widespread
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Mexico 1836
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Mexico was forced to grant independence to Anglo settlers in Texas. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – ends war with United States
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Benito Juarez
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a Zapotec political liberal, one of the Mexican indigenous groups, became president in 1858 and promoted progressive reforms.
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1862
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Benito had to flee the capital to save the presidency
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Benito and the French
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During his rule, French invaded Mexico, tried to establish a monarchy satellite. Five years later, the French were defeated and Juarez returned to the City of Mexico
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General Porfirio Diaz
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took the presidency by force and ruled as dictator for over thirty years
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“Porfiriato”
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thirty year period of economic development which saw the integration of Mexico into the world market. also foreign merchants received great benefits while many farmers lost their land and were forced to work as laborers on large estates. the people said that Mexico was “the mother of aliens” and “the stepmother of Mexicans.”
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The Porfiriato term to lead to the Mexican Revolution in 1910.
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true
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Mexican Revolution
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Lasted two decades, left more than a million dead. Almost ten percent of the population crossed the border and settled in the U.S. thus revitalizing the Mexican presence around the southwest of that country. it adopted a new constitution, which is still in use.
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Most Important Results of Mexican Revolution
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Revaluation of the cultural roots authentically Mexican. Artists and writers held in his works the mestizo culture of the country
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Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata
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revolutionary leaders, appear in literary works and numerous “corridos” or popular songs
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Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
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founded in 1929
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Lazaro Cardenas
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ruled the republic between 1934 and 1940, to implement the partitioning of land and nationalization of the oil industry, he inaugurated the presidential period of six years, called “sexenio”
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1960’s
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Mexico diversified and developed its economy, went from being essentially agricultural to an industrial nation. but in the last two decades, the “miracle” Mexico has been affected by a prolonged economic crisis that has reduced living standards of Mexicans.
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Mexico Today
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one of the most urbanized countries of the Third World. The At the beginning of 1994, an indigenous rebellion in Chiapas question the policy of the poorest ruled.
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City of Mexico
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approximately twenty-eight million inhabitants, is the most populated city in the world, and perhaps also the most contaminated.
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2000
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the PRI political party lost the reign that had lasted about 80 years, when Vicente Fox was elected president of Mexico, shows that the future of Mexico will be very different from Mexico’s past, at the same time will remain very similar to old Mexico, a land which draws strength and identity in very different realities.
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Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo
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Married in Coyoacan, a suburb of Mexico City. He was forty-three years old and she was twenty-two. Both recognized as two of the most important Mexican artists of the twentieth century. Frida died in 1954 and Diego, three years after. House where they lived in Coyoacan is now the Frida Kahlo Museum, where you can appreciate the talent of both artists and the love they had in spite of stormy marriage
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Diego Rivera
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Diego Rivera returned to Mexico after spending many years in Europe, and began to paint huge murals, stimulated the revival of fresco painting in Latin America and the United States.
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Rivera’s murals
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he painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York – some criticized for being too radical. Mural painted in Rockefeller Center in New York was destroyed when Rivera refused to remove the image of Lenin, the communist leader, from his mural. Later, he reproduced the mural for the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico.
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Frida Kahlo
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Famous for her portraits and self portraits – combined the real with the fantastic. Taffic accident nearly caused the death Frida at 18, who later had to undergo numerous operations. Paintings reflect her pain and suffering.
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Synagogue
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in the heart of the current Mexico City, some workers from the electricity company found, seven feet deep, a foreign object on. A huge circular monolith representing Coyolxauhqui, the Aztec goddess of the moon, had been found, first of many objects found through six years in the excavation of the Temple, the holiest place of the ancient capital of the Aztec empire, Mexico-Tenochtitlan. There is now a modern museum dedicated to the Temple a few steps away from where the monolith was found.
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1790
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sun stone was found 269 years after the Spanish conquest of Tenochtitlan, represents the vision of the cosmos that had the ancient Mexicans, twelve feet in diameter and weighs twenty-four tons, centerpiece of the most important exhibition hall of the National Museum of Anthropology and History located in Chapultepec Park in Mexico City.
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Aztec calendar
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sun stone is also called the Aztec calendar, though it does not look like modern calendars, book that summarizes stone astronomic knowledge and vision of the time that the great Mesoamerican civilization had

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