Medical Terminology, Chapter 3 Terms, The Skeletal System

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acetabulum
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hip socket; the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
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acromion
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an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
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allogenic
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originating with another
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allogenic bone marrow transplant
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uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling
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ankles
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form the joint between the lower leg and the foot
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ankylosing spondylitis
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a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
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ankylosis
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the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure
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appendicular skeleton
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makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction; consists of 126 bones that are organized into the upper extremeties and the lower extremeties
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arthritis
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an inflammatory condition of one or more joints
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arthrodesis
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the surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder
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arthrolysis
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the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
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arthroplasty
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the surgical placement of an artificial joint
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arthrosclerosis
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a stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly
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arthroscopic surgery
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a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
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arthroscopy
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the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
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articular cartilage
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covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
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auditory ossicles
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the six tiny bones of the middle ear
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autologous
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originating within an individual
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autologous bone marrow transplant
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the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed
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axial skeleton
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protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems; consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column
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body of the sternum
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the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
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bone density testing
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used to determine losses or changes in bone density
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bone marrow biopsy
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a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
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bone marrow transplant
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used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow
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bone-conserving hip resurfacing
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function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum
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bursa
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a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
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bursectomy
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the surgical removal of a bursa
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bursitis
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an inflammation of a bursa
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calcaneus
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the largest of the tarsal bones (heel bone)
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callus
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forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break as a bone heals
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carpals
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the 8 bones that form the wrist
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cartilage
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the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
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cartilaginous joints
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allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
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cervical vertebrae
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the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck; also known as C1 through C7
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chiropractor
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holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
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chondroma
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a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
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chondromalacia
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the abnormal softening of cartilage
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chondroplasty
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the surgical repair of damaged cartilage
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clavicle
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the collar bone, a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
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closed fracture
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one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin
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closed reduction
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the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
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coccyx
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forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together (tailbone)
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Colles’ fracture
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occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
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comminuted fracture
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one in which the bone is splintered or crushed
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compact bone
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the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
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compression fracture
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occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself
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costochondritis
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an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
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craniectomy
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the surgical removal of a portion of the skull
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cranioplasty
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the surgical repair of the skull
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craniostenosis
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a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
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craniotomy
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a surgical incision or opening into the skull
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cranium
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the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
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crepitation
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the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
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cruciate ligaments
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make possible the movements of the knee
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diaphysis
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the shaft of a long bone
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dislocation
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the total displacement of a bone from its joint
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dual x-ray absorptiometry
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a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
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endosteum
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the tissue that line the medullary cavity
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epiphysis
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the wide end of a long bone
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ethmoid bone
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forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium
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external auditory meatus
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the opening of the exernal auditory canal of the outer ear
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external fixation
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a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external applicance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing
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fat embolus
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can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
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femur
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the upper leg bone (largest bone in the body)
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fibrous dysplasia
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a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
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fibrous joints
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consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds the bones tightly together
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fibula
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the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
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fontanelles
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soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn
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foramen
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an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
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fracture
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a broken bone
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frontal bone
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forms the forehead
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gouty arthritis
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a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints
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greenstick fracture
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one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken
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hallux valgus
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an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
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hemarthrosis
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blood within a joint
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hemopoietic
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pertaining to the formation of blood cells
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herniated disk
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the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
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humerus
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the bone of the upper arm
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ilium
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the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
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immobilization
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the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
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interior conchae
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the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
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internal fixation
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a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place
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intervertebral disks
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made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other
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ischium
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forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone and bears the weight of the body when sitting
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joints
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the place of union between two or more bones
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juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
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an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
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knees
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the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
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kyphosis
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an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (humpback)
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lacrimal bones
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make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
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laminectomy
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the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra
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ligaments
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bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage
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lordosis
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an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)
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lumbago
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pain of the lumbar region of the spine
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lumbar vertebrae
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make up the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine; also known as L1 through L5
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magnetic resonance imaging
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MRI, used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
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malleolus
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the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
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mandible
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the jawbone, the only movable bone of the skull, attached to the skull at the TMJ
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manubrium
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the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
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maxillary bones
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form most of the upper jaw
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medullary cavity
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located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone
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meniscus
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the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints
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metacarpals
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the 5 bones that form the palms of the hand
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metatarsals
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form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached
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myeloma
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a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
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nasal bones
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two bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose
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oblique fracture
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occurs at an angle across the bone
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occipital bone
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forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
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olecranon process
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a large projection on the upper end of the ulna (funny bone)
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open fracture
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one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
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orthopedic surgeon
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a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
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orthotic
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a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
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ostealgia
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pain in a bone
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ostectomy
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the surgical removal of bone
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osteitis
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an inflammation of bone
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osteoarthritis
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most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis)
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osteochondroma
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a benign bony projection covered with cartilage
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osteoclasis
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the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
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osteomalacia
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abnormal softening of bones in adults
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osteomyelitis
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an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
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osteonecrosis
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the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply
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osteopath
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holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
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osteopenia
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thinner than average bone density in a young person
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osteoplasty
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the surgical repair of a bone or bones
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osteoporosis
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a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
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osteoporotic hip fracture
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usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall
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osteorrhaphy
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the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones
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osteotomy
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a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone
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Paget’s disease
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a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
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palatine bones
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form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose
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parietal bones
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form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
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partial knee replacement
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a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced
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patella
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the bony anterior portion of the knee (kneecap)
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pathologic fracture
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occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
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pectoral girdle
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formed by the shoulders, which support the arms and hands
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pelvic girdle
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protects internal organs and supports the lower extremeties; a cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk that consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis
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percutaneous diskectomy
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performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk
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percutaneous vertebroplasty
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performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures
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periosteotomy
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an incision through the periosteum to the bone
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periosteum
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the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
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periostitis
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an inflammation of the periosteum
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phalanges
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the 14 bones of the fingers; the bones of the toes
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podiatrist
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holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
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popliteal
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referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
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primary bone cancer
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a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
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process
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a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons
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prosthesis
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a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated
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pubic symphysis
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the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth
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pubis
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forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder
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radiograph
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x-ray
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radius
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the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm
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red bone marrow
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located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
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revision surgery
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the replacement of a worn or failed implant
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rheumatoid arthritis
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a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
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ribs
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12 pairs, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
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rickets
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a deficiency disease occurring in children
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sacroiliac
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the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
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sacrum
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the slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
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scapula
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shoulder blade
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scoliosis
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an abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
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secondary bone cancer
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describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
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short stature
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a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
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skeletal system
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consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, legaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
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skull
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consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
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sphenoid bone
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forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit
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spina bifida
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a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
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spinal column
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supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord
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spinal fusion
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a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae
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spiral fracture
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a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
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spondylolisthesis
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the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
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spondylosis
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a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
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spongy bone
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lighter, not as strong, as compact bone
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sternum
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the breastbone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
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stress fracture
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a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact
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subluxation
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the partial displacement of a bone from its joint
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synovectomy
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the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
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synovial capsule
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the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
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synovial fluid
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flows within the synovial cavity and acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
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synovial joints
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created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
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synovial membrane
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lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
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synovitis
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inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
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talipes
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describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones)
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talus
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the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
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tarsal
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seven short bones which form the ankle
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temporal bones
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form the sides and base of the cranium
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temporo-mandibular joint
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TMJ, attaches the jawbone to the skull
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thoracic cavity
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the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs; consists of the ribs, sternum, and uppoer portion of the spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm, not including the arms
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thoracic vertebrae
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the second set of 12 vertebrae; form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12
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tibia
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the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg (shinbone)
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total hip replacement
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performed to restore a adamaged hip to full function
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total knee replacement
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a procedure in which all of the parts of the knee are replaced
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traction
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a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
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transverse fracture
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occurs straight across the bone
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ulna
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the larger and longer bone of the forearm
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ultrasonic bone density testing
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a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
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vertebrae
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the bony structure units of the spinal column (26)
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vomer bone
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forms the base for the nasal septum
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xiphoid process
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the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
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yellow bone marrow
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functions as a fat storage area, composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
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zygomatic bones
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known as the cheeckbones, articulate with the frontal bone (forehead)

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