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Medical Terminology 7th Ed Chapter 19 Terms Essay

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adenocarcinoma (Adeno-CA)
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Malignant tumor arising in a glandular organ
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adjuvant therapy
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In breast cancer, adjuvant therapy includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy.
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anaplasia
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Characteristic of most cancerous cells in which there is a loss of differentiation and an irreversible alteration in adult cells toward more embryonic cell types.
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astrocytoma
astrocytoma
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Tumor composed of star-shaped neuroglial cells.
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betatron
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Megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy.
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brachytherapy
brachytherapy
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Radiation therapy in which the radioactive substance is inserted into a body cavity or organ. The source of radiation is located a short distance from the body area being treated. (http://www.tricountyurology.com/procedures)
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Burkitt’s lymphoma
Burkitt's lymphoma
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Malignant tumor, most commonly found in Africa, that affects children; the characteristic symptom is a massive, swollen jaw. (http://www.medical-terms-glossary.com/Images)
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carcinogen
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Agent or substance that incites or produces cancer.
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carcinoid
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Tumor derived from the agentaffin cells in the intestinal tract, bile duct, pancreas, bronchus, or ovary.
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carcinoma
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Malignant tumor arising in epithelial tissue.
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chondrosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor derived from cartilage cells
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choriocarcinoma
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Cancerous tumor of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy.
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cyclotron
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Megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy.
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dedifferentiation
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Process by which normal cells lose their specialization (differentiation) and become malignant.
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deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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Complex protein of high molecular weight found in the nucleus of every cell; controls all of the cell’s activities and the genetic material necessary for the organism’s heredity.
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differentiation
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Process by which normal cells have a distinct appearance and specialized function.
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ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
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Abnormal cells that involve only the lining of a duct and have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast; also called intraductal carcinoma.
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encapsulated
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Enclosed within a site, sheath or capsule
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Ewing’s sarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma
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Primary bone cancer occurring in the pelvic area or in one of the long bones; occurs mostly in children and adolescents. (http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/data/bin/a50979791b26e5_OS-cortical-destruction2.jpg)
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exacerbation
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Process of increasing the severity of symptoms; a time when the symptoms of a disease are most prevalent.
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external radiation
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Process of administering radiation to the patient via a radiation machine located outside the body.
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fibrosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor arising in collagen-producing fibroblasts.
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fungating
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Process of growing rapidly, like a fungus.
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glioblastoma
glioblastoma
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A rapidly growing cancerous tumor of the brain. (http://www.medicalartlibrary.com/images/brain-tumor.jpg)
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glioma
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Cancerous tumor of the brain.
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hemangiosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor originating in blood vessels.
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Hodgkin’s disease (HD)
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Form of lymphoma that occurs in children and young adults. The 2 kinds of lymphoma are Hodgkin’s disease (named after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, who first recognized it in 1832) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma).
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human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV)
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First virus known to cause cancer in humans.
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hyperplasia
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Excessive formation and growth of normal cells.
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immunosuppression
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Process of preventing formation of the immune response.
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immunotherapy
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Treatment of disease by active, passive, or adoptive immunity.
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infiltrative
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Pertaining to the process of extending or growing into normal tissue; invasive.
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in situ
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Enclosed within a site; refers to tumor cells that remain at a site and have not invaded adjacent tissue.
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invasive
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Pertaining to the spreading process of a malignant tumor into normal tissue.
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Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)
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Malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous (purplish discoloration) vascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy; often seen in patient who have AIDS.
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leiomyosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor of smooth muscle tissue
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lesion
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Wound; an injury, altered tissue, or a single infected patch of skin.
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leukemia
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Cancer of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes; cancer of the blood-forming tissues.
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leukoplakia
leukoplakia
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White, thickened patches formed on the mucous membranes of the inner cheeks, gums or tongue that tend to become cancerous. (http://www.ghorayeb.com)
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linear accelerator
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Megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy.
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liposarcoma
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Cancerous tumor of fat cells.
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lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
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Abnormal cells found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. However, having lobular carcinoma in situ increases the risk of developing cancer in either breast.
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lymphangiosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor of lymphatic vessels.
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lymphoma
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Cancerous tumor of lymphoid tissue.
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lymphomosarcoma
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Cancerous disease of lymphatic tissue; also called lymphoblastoma.
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malignant
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Pertaining to a bad wandering; refers to the spreading process of cancer from one area of the body to another.
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medulloblastoma
medulloblastoma
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Cancerous tumor of the brain, the fourth ventricle, and the cerebellum. (http://weillcornellbrainandspine.org/sites/default/files)
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melanoma
melanoma
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“A cancerous black mole or tumor” (https://asset.ghc.org/ghc-resources/images/public/specialties/cancer)
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meningioma
meningioma
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Cancerous tumor originating in the arachnoidal (meninges) membrane of the brain. ((http://www.medicalartlibrary.com/images/brain-tumor.jpg)
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metastasis
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Spreading process of cancer from a primary site to a secondary site. Similarly, invasive growth is the spreading process of a malignant tumor into adjacent normal tissue.
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mucositis
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Inflammation of the oral mucosa caused by exposure to high-energy beams delivered by radiation therapy.
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mutagen
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Agent that causes a change in the DNA (genetic structure) of an organism.
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mutation
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Process by which the DNA (genetic structure) is changed.
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mycotoxin
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Substance produced by fungus growing in food or animal feed that, if ingested, can cause cancer.
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myeloma
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Tumor arising in the hemopoietic portion of the bone marrow.
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myosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor of muscle tissue.
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neoplasm
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New tissue formed, such as an abnormal growth or tumor.
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nephroblastoma
nephroblastoma
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Cancerous tumor of the kidney; also called Wilm’s tumor; most often found in children 2-3 years of age. (http://www.physio-pedia.com/images/8/8d/)
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neuroblastoma
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Cancerous tumor composed chiefly of neuroblasts; can appear anywhere but usually in the abdomen as a swelling; most often diagnosed in the first year of life.
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oligodendroglioma
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Cancerous tumor composed chiefly of neuroglial cells and located in the cerebrum.
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oncogenes
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Cancer-causing genes; genes in a virus that can induce tumor formation.
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oncogenic
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Pertaining to the potential formation of tumors, especially cancerous ones.
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osteogenic sarcoma
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Cancerous tumor composed of osseous (bone) tissue
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Paget’s disease of the breast
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Paget’s disease of the breast (also called mammary Paget’s disease [MPD]) is a rare form of breast cancer. The condition was originally reported in 1874 by Sir James Paget, and English surgeon, who also described an unrelated skeletal condition known as Paget’s disease of the bone. These disorders are distinct disease entities that are medically unrelated. Paget’s disease of the breast is characterized by inflammatory “eczema-like” changes of the nipple that may extend to involve the areola. Initial findings often include itching, scaling and crusting of and/or discharge from the nipple. In those with Paget’s disease of the breast, distinctive tumor cells (known as Paget cells) are present within the outermost layer of skin of the nipple. In addition, the condition is often associated with an underlying malignancy of the milk ducts (ductal carcinoma).
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palliative
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Pertaining to a form of treatment to relieve or alleviate symptoms without curing.
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port
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In radiation therapy, refers to the skin area of entry for the radiation.
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precancerous
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Pertaining to changes or conditions before the onset of cancer.
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primary site
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Original, initial, or principle site
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proliferation
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Process of rapid production; growth by multiplying.
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remission
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Process of lessening the severity of symptoms; time when symptoms of a disease are controlled.
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reticulosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor of the lymphatic system.
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retinoblastoma
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Cancerous tumor of the retina. Although relatively rare, it accounts for 5% of childhood blindness.
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rhabdomyosarcoma
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Cancerous tumor originating from the same embryonic cells that develop into striated muscles. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children.
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ribonucleic acid (RNA)
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Nucleic acid found in all living cells; responsible for protein synthesis.
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sarcoma
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Cancerous tumor arising in connective tissue
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secondary site
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Second site usually derived from the primary site.
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seminoma
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Cancerous tumor of the testis.
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tamponade (cardiac)
tamponade (cardiac)
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Excessive fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart; can be caused by advanced cancer of the lung or a tumor that has metastasized to the pericardium.
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teletherapy
teletherapy
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Radiation therapy in which the radioactive substance is at a distance from the body area being treated. (http://panji1102.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/biot234photob.gif)
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teratoma
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Cancerous tumor of the ovary or testis; can contain embryonic tissues of hair, teeth, bone, or muscle.
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thymoma
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Tumor of the thymus gland
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trismus
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Pertaining to the inability to open the mouth fully; occurs in patients with oral cancer who undergo a combination of surgery and radiation therapy.
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tumor
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Abnormal growth, swelling, or enlargement.
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viral
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Pertaining to a virus, which means “poison” in Latin.
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Wilm’s tumor
Wilm's tumor
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Cancerous tumor of the kidney occurring mainly in children; also called nephroblastoma; most often found in children 2-3 years of age. (http://www.physio-pedia.com/images/8/8d)
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xerostomia
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Condition of dryness of the mouth; oral change caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.