Medical terminology 2

anatomic reference system
descriptive terms used to describe the location of body planes, directions and cavaties

cytology
the structure of cells, chromosomes, DNA, and genetics

histology
the study of tissues, which are composed of cells that join together to perform specific functions

glands
specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body

organs
body parts organized into systems according to function

pathology
study of structual and functional changes caused by disease

anatomy
the study of the structures of the body

physiology
the study of the functions of the body

vertical plane
an up-and-down line at a right angle to the horizon

sagittal plane
any vertical plane parallel to the midline that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

midsagittal plane
the vertical plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal right and left halves

horizontal plane
a flat crosswise line like the horizon

ventral
refers to the front or belly side of the body or organ

dorsal
refers to the back of the body or organ

anterior
means situated in the front. It also means on the forward part of an organ

posterior
means situated in the back. It also means on the back part of an organ

superior
means uppermost, above, or toward the head.

inferior
means lowermost, below, or toward the feet

cephalic
means toward the head

caudal
means toward the lower part of the body

proximal
means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure

distal
means situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

medial
means the direction toward or nearer the midline

lateral
means the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline

body cavity
a space within the body that contains and protects the internal organs

cranial cavity
located within the skull and protects the brain

spinal cavity
located within the spinal column and protects the spinal cord

thoracic cavity
(the chest cavity) protects the heart and lungs

diaphragm
seperates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

abdominal cavity
contains primarily the major organs of digestion

pelvic cavity
the space formed by the pelvic bones, contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

peritoneum
the membrane that protects and supports (suspends in place) the organs located in the abdominal cavity.

parietal peritoneum
the outer layer of this membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

visceral peritoneum
the inner layer of this membrane that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

visceral
relating to the internal organs

mesentery
layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine within the abdominal cavity

retroperitoneal
means located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity

peritonitis
an inflammation of the peritoneum

ascites
an abnormal accumulation of clear or milky serous (watery) fluid in the peritoneal cavity

laparoscopy
the visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope; involves the use of a laparoscope plus instruments inserted into the abdomen through small incisions

cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder of the exocrine glands

down syndrome
a genetic syndrome characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and multiple physical abnormalities

hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which one of the factors needed to clot the blood is missing; genetic transmission is from a mother to her son

hudington’s disease
a hereditary disorder with symptoms that first appear in midlife and cause the irreversible and progressive loss of muscle control and mental ability; the HD gene, which can be detected through genetic testing, is a dominant gene. This means that 50% of those inheriting it will develop the disease

muscular dystrophy
a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness of muscle fibers

phenylketonuria
genetic disorder in which an essential digestive enzyme is missing; can be detected by a blood test at birth. If it is not detected and treated early, causes severe mental retardation

sickle cell anemia
serious genetic disorder caused by genes that produce abnormal hemoglobin in the red blood cells

tay-sachs disease
a hereditary disease marked by progressive physical degeneration, mental retardation, and early death

congenital disease
an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth and may be caused by a developmental disorder before birth, prenatal influences, premature birth, or injuries during birth

developmental disorder
may result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe at birth

anomaly
a deviation from what is regarded as normal

prenatal influences
are the mother’s health and the prenatal care she receives

birth injuries
congential disorders that were not present before the events surrounding the time of birth

cerebral palsy
may be caused by premature birth or be due to inadequate oxygen to the brain during birth

stem cells
cells with the ability to divide without limit and to give rise to specialized cells; abundant in a fetus and in the cord blood of a newborn; limited quantities in adults

epithelial tissue
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body

epithelium
the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes

endothelium
the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

connective tissues
support and organs and other body tissues

adipose tissue
provides protective padding, insulation, support, and acts as a nutrient reserve

loose connective tissue
surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

muscle tissue
contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax

nerve tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses

aplasia
means the lack of development of an organ or tissue

hypoaplasia
the incomplete development of an organ or tissue, but less severe in degree than aplasia

hyperplasia
an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue

dysplasia
abnormal development or growth, especially of cells

anaplasia
a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other; characteristic of malignancy

malignancy
life-threatening tumor that tends to spread to distant body sites

adenectomy
the surgical removal of a gland

adenitis
inflammation of a gland

adenoma
a benign tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures

adenomalacia
the abnormal softening of a gland

adenosclerosis
the abnormal hardening of a gland

adenosis
any disease condition of a gland

reproductive system
produces new life

endocrine system
integrates all body systems

integumentary system
protects the body against invasion by bacteria. Regulates the body temperature and water content

nervous system
coordinates the reception of stimuli. Transmits messages throughout the body

urinary system
filters blood to remove waste; maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance within the body

digestive system
digests ingested food so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream; eliminates solid wastes

respiratory system
brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells; removes carbon dioxide and some water waste from the body

lymphatic system
protects the body from harmful substances; brings oxygen and nutrients to cells; removes waste from the cells

cardiovascular system
pumps blood that carries oxygen and nutrients throughout the body; carries liquid waste to the lungs and kidneys

muscular system
holds the body erect; makes movement possible; moves body fluids and generates body heat

skeletal system
supports and shapes the body; protects the internal organs; forms some blood cells and stores minerals

pathology
the study of structural and functional changes caused by disease

pathologist
specializes in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples removed at operations and postmortem (after death) examinations to confirm or establish a diagnosis

etiology
the study of the causes of diseases

infectious disease
is an illness caused by a pathogenic organism

idiopathic disease
an illness without known cause

organic disease
there are pathologic physical changes that explain the symptoms being experienced by the patient. As an example, a gastric ulcer is an organic disorder

functional disorder
there are no detectable physical changes to explain the symptoms being experienced by the patient; as an example, a panic attack

iatrogenic illness
an unfavorable response to medical treatment for a different disorder

nosocomial infection
is a hospital-acquired infection that was not present on admission but appears 72 hours or more after hospitalization

communicable disease
any disease transmitted from one person to another either by direct contact or indirectly by contact with contaminated objects

contaminated
the possible presence of an infectious agent

bloodborne transmission
through contact with blood or body fluids that are contaminated with blood; examples include acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis; bloodborne diseases are also transmitted through sexual contact

sexually transmitted disease
require direct person-to-person contact or contact with lesions

airborne transmission
through respiratory droplets such as contact with material from the cough or sneeze; examples include tuberculosis, influenza, colds, and measles

food and waterborne transmission
by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been prepared properly to kill the contamination

endemic
the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area; example, the common cold is endemic because it is always present within the population

epidemic
a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a population group or area; example, a sudden widespread outbreak of measles

pandemic
means occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide; example, the spread of AIDS

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