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Med Terms Ch 6

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anti-
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against
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carcin/o
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cancerous
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immun/o
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immune, protection, safe
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lymph/o
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lymph, lymphatic tissue
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lymphaden/o
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lymph node or gland
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lymphangi/o
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lymph vessel
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neo-, ne/o
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new, strange
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-oma
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tumor, neoplasm
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onc/o
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tumor
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phag/o
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eat, swallow
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-plasm
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formative material of cells
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sarc/o
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flesh, connective tissue
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splen/o
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spleen
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-tic
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pertaining to
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tox/o
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poison, poisonous
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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
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The most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection.
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allergen
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A substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual.
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anaphylaxis
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A severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly and, without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
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antibiotics
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medications capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms. not effective against viral infections.
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antibody
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A disease-fighting protein created in response to a specific antigen. often used interchangeably with immunoglobulin.
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antifungal
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An agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.
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antigen
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Any substance that the body regards as being foreign.
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antigen-antibody reaction
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also known as the immune reaction, involves binding antigens to antibodies.
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autoimmune disorder
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Any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies to work against its own tissues, mistaking healthy cells, tissues, or organs for antigens
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bacilli
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Rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria that cause diseases such as tetanus and tuberculosis.
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bacteria
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A group of one-cell microscopic organisms.
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candidiasis
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also known as a yeast infection or thrush., infections occurring on the skin or mucous membranes in the warm, moist areas such as the vagina or the mouth.
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carcinoma
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A malignant tumor that occurs in the epithelial tissues covering the internal and external surfaces of the body.
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carcinoma in situ
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describes a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue.
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complement system
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a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria. complement the ability of antibodies to ward of pathogens by combining with them to dissolve and remove pathogenic bacteria and other foreign cells
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cytokines
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a group of proteins such as interferons and interleukins released primarily by the T cells. These cells act as intracellular signals to begin the immune response.
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cytomegalovirus
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An infection caused by a group of large herpes-type viruses with a wide variety of disease effects. if found in most body fluids. most often present as a silent infection
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cytotoxic drug
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Medication that kills or damages cells. used as immunosuppressants or as antineoplastics
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ductal carcinoma
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Breast cancer at its earliest stage.
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hemolytic
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To destroy worn-out red blood cells and to liberate their hemoglobin for reuse
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herpes zoster
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An acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflmaed nerve. caused by the chickenpox virus that has been reactivated after remaining dormant in a nerve. also known as shingles
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hodgkin’s lymphoma
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is distinguished from other types of lymphoma by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
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human immunodeficiency virus
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A bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life-threatening opportunistic infections
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immunodeficiency disorder
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A condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing. occurs when the immune response is compromised
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immunoglobulins
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Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response. also known as antibodies
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immunosuppressant
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Medication administered to prevent or reduce the body’s normal immune response. administered to prevent the rejection of a donor tissue and to depress autoimmune disorders
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immunotherapy
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also called biological therapy, Treatment of disease by either enhancing or repressing the immune response.
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infectious mononucleosis
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Disease caused by the Epstein Barr virus that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes.swelling of the spleen or liver involvement can also develop.
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infiltrating ductal carcinoma
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Breast cancer that starts in the milk duct and invades the surrounding fatty breast tissue.
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interferons
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produced in response to the presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells. activate the immune system, fight viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication, and signal other cells to increase their defenses.
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lymphadenitis
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Inflammation of the lymph nodes. commonly known as swollen glands, frequently an indication of an indication of infection
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lymphadenopathy
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any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes.
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lymphangioma
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A benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system.
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lymphedema
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Swelling of the tissues due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph within the tissues. caused by damage to to the lymphatic system that prevents lymph from draining properly. often associated with infections since pathogens thrive in protein which lymph is rich in
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lymphocytes
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are leukocytes that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells, that specialize to act as antibodies so they can attack specific antigens. also known as lymphoid cells. 3 types: natural killer cells, B cells, T cells
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lymphoma
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a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues.
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lymphoscintigraphy
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A diagnostic test to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels. a radioactive substance is injected into lymph ducts, and a scanner or probe is used to follow the movement of the substance on a computer screen. used to find a sentinel node
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macrophage
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a type of leukocyte that surrounds and kills invading cells. also remove dead cells and stimulate the action of other immune cells
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malaria
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A disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.
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mammography
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A radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells.
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metastasis
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A new cancer site that results from the spreading process.
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metastasize
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Process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.
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myoma
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Benign neoplasm made up of muscle tissue.
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myosarcoma
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A malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue.
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non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
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All lymphomas other than Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
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opportunistic infection
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A pathogen that normally does not cause disease but is able to cause illness in a weakened host whose resistance has been decreased by a different disorder.
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osteosarcoma
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a hard tissue sarcoma of the shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or the knee.
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parasite
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Plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism.
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rabies
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An acute viral infection that may be transmitted to humans by the blood, tissue, or saliva of an infected animal.
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rickettsia
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Small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites and can transmit infection, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to humans.
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rubella
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A viral infection characterized by fever and a diffuse, fine, red rash; also known as German measles or 3-day measles.
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sarcoma
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A malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including bones, the bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscles, and spleen.
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spirochetes
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Spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement.
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splenomegaly
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abnormal enlargement of the spleen.can be due to to bleeding caused by an injury, an infectious disease, or abnormal functioning of the immune system
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staphylococci
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Bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters. most are harmless and reside on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms, but other are capable of producing very serious infections
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systemic reaction
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is a severe response to an allergen. symptoms develop rapidly. also described as anaphylaxis
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teletherapy
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Radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body.
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toxoplasmosis
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A parasite that is most commonly transmitted from pets to humans by contact with contaminated feces.
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varicella
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A disease caused by a herpes virus, varicella zoster, that is highly contagious. fever, rash consisting of hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form crusts
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streptococci
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Bacteria that form a chain
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lacteals
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specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fats that cannot be transported by the bloodstream. the cells in the ______ transform these dietary fats and the lymphatic vessels return them to the venous circulation so they can be used throughout the body as nutrients.
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Interstitial fluid
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plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries and into the spaces between the cells. also known as intercellular or tissue fluid. delivers nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to the cells.
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Lypmh
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the remaining 10% of the returning interstitial fluid. clear, watery fluid containing electrolytes and proteins.
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Lymphatic circulatory system
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also known as the secondary circulatory system. a circulatory system that contains vessels that collect excess body fluid (lymph) from the body’s tissue and returns it to the bloodstream. the lymph merges with the blood vessels at the thoracic duct which empties into the heart. is compose
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Lymphatic capillaries
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microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body with capillary walls that are only one cell in thickness. separate to allow the lymph to enter the capillary then the action of these cells as they close force the lymph to flow upward and forward
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Lymphatic vessels
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lymph flows from the lymphatic capillaries into these progressively larger vessels, which are located deeper within the tissues. have valves like veins to prevent the backward flow of lymph
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Right Lymphatic duct
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collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein
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subclavian
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proximal part of the main vein of the arm
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Thoracic duct
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largest lymphatic vessel in the body, collects lymph from the left side of the head and neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk, the left arm, and the entire lower portion of the trunk and both legs; empties into the left subclavian vein
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lymph node
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contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens.
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Cervical lymph nodes
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Located along the sides of the neck
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Axillary lymph nodes
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located under the arms in the armpits
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axill
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armpit
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Inguinal lymph nodes
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Located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen
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inguin
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groin
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natural killer cells
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play an important role in the killing of cancer cells and cells infected by virus
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B cells
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also known as B lymphocytes, lymphocytes that produce antibodies. each makes a specific antibody that is capable of destroying a specific antigen.
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Plasma cells
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Cells that develop from B cells and secrete a large volume of antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens
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T cells
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also known as T lymphocytes, Cells created in the thymus play a central role in cell-mediated immunity
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Interleukins
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play multiple roles in the immune system including directing B and T cells to divide and proliferate
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tonsils
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three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and the upper throat
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adenoids
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also known as the nasopharyngeal tonsils, located in the nasopharynx
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palatine tonsils
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located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth
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palatine
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Referring to the hard and soft palates that form the roof of the mouth
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lingual tonsils
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located at the base of the tongue, not readily visible
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lingual
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pertaining to the tongue
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Thymus
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mass of lymphoid tissue located above the heart and reaches its greatest size at puberty and becomes smaller with age. as a part of the endocrine system it secretes a hormone that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells
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vermiform appendix
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Hangs from the lower portion of the cecum
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spleen
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an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen just inferior to the diaphragm and posterior to the stomach. that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood. forms lymphocytes and monocytes. maintains the appropriate balance b/w these cells and the plasma of the blood
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pathogens
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disease producing microorganisms
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toxins
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Poisonous or harmful substances
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malignant cells
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Potentially life-threatening cancer cells
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intact skin
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wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body
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intact
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no cuts, scrapes, open sores, or breaks in the skin
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acid mantle
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skin covering which makes it an inhospitable environment for most bacteria
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respiratory system
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traps breathed in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining of the ________ _______.
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Digestive system
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uses acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food
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tolerance
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an acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen. also describes a decline in the effective response to a drug usually due to repeated use
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immunoglobulin G (lgG)
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the most abundant class of antibodies; found in blood serum and lymph; active against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and foreign particles
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immunoglobulin A (lgA)
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the class of antibodies produced predominantly against ingested antigens; found in body secretions such as saliva, sweat, or tears, and function to prevent the attachment of viruses and bacteria to the epithelial surfaces that line most organs
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immunoglobulin M (lgM)
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the class of antibodies that are found in circulating body fluids; the first antibodies to appear in response to an initial exposure to an antigen
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immunoglobulin D (lgD)
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the class of antibodies found only on the surface of B cells; important in B cell activation
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immunoglobulin E (lgE)
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is the class of antibodies produced in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes. These antibodies are responsible for allergic reactions
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phagocytes
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specialized leukocytes that act as part of the antigen-antibody reaction by destroying substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis to engulf foreign organisms. include monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells
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phagocytosis
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process of destroying pathogens in which phagocytes surround and swallow microorganisms and cellular debris
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monocytes
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leukocytes that provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms replenish macropahges and dendritic cells
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dendritic cells
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specialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections. when a cell is found, the dendritic cells grabs it, swallows, and alerts B and T cells to act against this specific antigen
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immunity
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state of being resistance to a specific disease can be natural or acquired
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natural immunity
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or passive immunity, resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease. either present at birth or it passed on from mother to child through breast milk
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acquired immunity
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immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease, or through inoculation (such as vaccination)
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vaccine
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a preparation containing an antigen of weakened or killed pathogens
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vaccination
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taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
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allergist
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specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions
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immunologist
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specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system
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lymphologist
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physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the lymphatic system
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immun
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protected
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oncologist
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physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer
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primary lymphedema
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a heredity disorder due to malformation of the lymphatic system. This condition which can appear at any time in life, most commonly produces swelling in the feet and legs.
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secondary lymphedema
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caused by damage to the lymphatic system that most commonly produces swelling in the limb nearest to the damaged lymphatic vessels; cancer and trauma are the most frequent causes
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bioimpedance spectroscopy
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noninvasive method of diagnosing lymphedema by measuring the resistance to an electrical current passed through the affected limb, with abnormally low results showing a buildup of lymph.
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allergic reaction
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occurs when the body’s immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
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allergy
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hypersensitivity, overreaction by the body to a particular antigen.
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localized allergic response
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includes redness, itching, and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen
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scratch test
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a diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed. swelling and itching indicate an allergic reaction
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antihistamines
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medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever and other types of allergies
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histamine
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a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues
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compromised
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weakened or not functioning properly
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dibilitated
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weakening by another conditon
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pernicious anemia
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autoimmune disorder affects the red blood cells
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crohn’s disease
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autoimmune disorder affects the intestines, ileum, or the colon
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multiple scelrois
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autoimmune disorder affects the brain and the spinal cord
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scleroderma
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autoimmune disorder affects the skin and connective tissues
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graves’ disease
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autoimmune disorder affects the thyroid gland
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Kaposi’s sarcoma
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a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, or in other organs; frequently associated with HIV. opportunistic infection
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ELISA
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enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, test to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies
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western blot test
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is a blood test that produces a more accurate results than the ELISA test. This test is used to confirm the diagnosis when the results of the ELISA test are positive
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stimulate
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means to cause greater activity
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-therapy
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treatment
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repress
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to decrease or stop a normal response
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synthetic immunoglobulins
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aka immune serum, used as a postexposure preventive measure against certain viruses including rabies and some types of hepatitis
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postexposure
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means that the patient has been exposed to the virus
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synthetic interferon
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used in treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, and some cancers
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monoclonal antibodies
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any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells. used to enhance a patient’s immune response to certain malignancies
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monoclonal
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pertains to a single clone of cells
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clone
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exact replica of a group of bacteria
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immunosuppression
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treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulations by antigens
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anthrax
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a contagious disease that can be transmitted through livestock infected with bacillus anthracis
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lyme disease
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caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected deer tick. can affect the joints, heart and central nervous system. symptoms: fever, headache, fatigue, and characteristic skin rash known as erythema migrans. spirochetes also cause syphilis
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Staphylococcus aureus
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a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning
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septic shock
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a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
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antibiotic-resistant bacteria
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develop when an antibiotic fails to kill all of the bacteria it targets, surviving bacteria become resistant to this particular drug
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methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
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is resistant to most antibiotics; the first symptom looks like small, red bumps with a black top, which soon become red-hot abscesses that require immediate care; are serious, difficult to treat, and can be fatal, originally – nosocomial but are now increasingly present in the general population
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fungus
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a simple parasitic organism
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tinea pedis
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a fungal infection that commonly develops between the toes and on the feet, athlete’s foot
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west nile virus
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spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. mild form has flu like symptoms. sever type spreads to the spinal cord and brain
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viruses
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very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells
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measles
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an acute, highly contagious infection caused by the rubeola virus and transmitted by respiratory droplets. symptoms: a red itchy rash over the entire body, a high fever, runny nose, and coughing
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mumps
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an acute viral disease characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands, which are the salivary glands located just in front of the ears. in adults it can cause swelling of the ovaries or the testicles
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measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR)
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prevents these three viral conditions and should be administered in childhoood
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rabies
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an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
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photophobia
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a serious complication of measles which is serious sensitivity to light
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bactericide
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a substance that causes the death of bacteria
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bacteriostatic
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agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria
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antiviral drug
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drug used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
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oncology
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the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer
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tumor or neoplasm
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an abnormal mass of tissue that can live and reproduce itself, but performs no service to the body
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angiogenesis
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the process through which the tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
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antiangiogenesis
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form of treatment that disrupts this blood supply to the tumor
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-genesis
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reproduction
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adenocarcinoma
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any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue
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hard-tissue sarcomas
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arise from bone or cartilage; example is OSTEOSARCOMA (malignant tumor involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee)
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soft-tissue sarcomas
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arise from tissues such as muscle, connective tissues such as tendons, blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and fat.
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liquid-tissue sarcomas
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arise from blood & lymph example leukemia- affects the blood
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staging
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the process of classifying tumors by how far the disease has progressed, potential for its responding to therapy, and the patients’ prognosis
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breast cancer
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a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites
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infiltrating lobular carcinoma
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a.k.a.- invasive lobular carcinoma, -cancer that starts in the mild glads (lobules), breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast.
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inflammatory breast cancer
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(IBC) the most aggressive and least common form of breast cancer; grows rapidly, symptoms include: pain, rapid increase in breast size, redness or a rash on the breast, and the swelling of nearby lymph nodes; detectable by MRI but not mammography or ultrasound
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male breast cancer
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can occur in the small amount of breast tissue that is normally present in men.
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synovial sarcoma
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is a malignant tumor of the tissue surrounding a synovial joint.
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breast self-examination
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an essential self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer
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professional palpation of the breast
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performed to feel the texture, size, and consistency of the breast
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needle breast biopsy
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a technique in which an x-ray-guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast
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surgical biospy
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the removal of a piece of tissue for examination to confirm a diagnosis
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sentinel node biospy
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biopsy of the 1st lymph node to come into contact with cancer cells as they leave the organ of origination and start spreading to the rest of the body. after the sentinel lymph node has been identified, only this and the other affected nodes are removed for biopsy
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lymph node dissection
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a surgical procedure in which all of the lymph nodes in a major group are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer
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lumpectomy
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the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of normal tissue
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mastectomy
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the surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple
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radical mastectomy
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the surgical removal of an entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues
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modified radical mastectomy
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the surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm
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chemotherapy
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the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues
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chemoprevention
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the use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs or vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer, or to reduce the chance that cancer will recur; may also be used to reduce the size or slow the development of an existing tumor
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antineoplastic
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medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells
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brachytherapy
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the use of radioactive materials in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated
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targeted therapy
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developing form of anti-cancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells
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adjuvant therapy
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used after the primary treatments have been completed to decrease the chance that a cancer will recur
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adjuvant
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refers to an agent intended to increase the effectiveness of a drug
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clinical trials
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testing of a new drug in selected patients
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radiation therapy
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used in the treatment of some cancers
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A, Ab
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Antibody
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AG, Ag
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antigen
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CA, Ca
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carcinoma
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CIS
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carcinoma in situ
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DCIS
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ductal carcinoma in situ
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HZ
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herpes zoster
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HL
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hodgkin’s lymphoma
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IG
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immunoglobulin
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LE
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lymphedema
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MMR
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measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination
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MET
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metastasis
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met
answer

metastasize
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NHL
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non-hodgkin’s lymphoma
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VSZ
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varicella