MCOM !!!

1. Which of the following is not a point of “critical conceptual differentiation,” according to Frank Dance?
c. Understandability

2. Which of the following best describes the definitional concept of intentionality?
b. Some definitions include only purposeful message sending and receiving; others do not impose this limitation.

3. In the United States, in an attempt to establish communication as a social science, researchers began by studying communication through _____ methods; in Europe, investigations of communication came to rely on _____ methods.
a. quantitative; critical/cultural

4. Robert Craig’s landmark article, “Communication Theory as a Field,” offers a way to conceptualize communication theory in a way that addresses communication’s complexities. Craig argues that the field’s coherence should be based on:
a. a common understanding of the similarities and differences among theories.
b. a commitment to manage these tensions through dialogue.
BOTH

5. Which of the following most accurately describes a theory/theorizing?
b. Trying to define, describe, explain, and make judgments and inferences about observations

6. Which of the following most accurately describes scientific scholarship?
a. Researchers see reality as waiting to be discovered, and the goal is to observe and explain the world as accurately as possible.

7. Which of the following most accurately describes social-scientific scholarship?
c. Humans are the object of study; if human behavior patterns exist, observation must be as objective as possible. Behavioral phenomena are accurately observed and explained or interpreted.

8. Which of the following most accurately describes humanistic scholarship?
b. Research is subjective and seeks creative interpretation; the aim is to understand individual subjective responses and individual cases

9. Scholars in the communication field follow a fairly predictable pattern of inquiry and theory development. Which of the following is the typical starting place for theory development?
b. A scholar or group of scholars becomes curious about or interested in a topic.

10. Which of the following is not listed in the book as a typical format for peer review?
b. Internet resources

1. Communication is relatively easy to define
f

2. Communication theories can provide explanations that help us understand the phenomenon of communication
t

3. Communication technologies and the use of propaganda to disseminate the ideas of oppressive ideological regimes during World War II are two factors that have helped establish the academic study of communication.
t

4. Scholars in the communication discipline typically see communication as one of many different organizing element of human life.
f

5. In his landmark article, “Communication Theory as a Field,” Robert Craig argues that scholars should try to standardize the field of communication as much as possible.
f

6. According to the book, inquiry typically involves three stages: asking questions, observation, and constructing answers.
t

7. According to the book, methods of inquiry can be grouped into three forms of scholarship: social-scientific, rhetorical, and humanistic.
f

8. Theories are discourses about discourse, or metadiscourse.
t

9. In social-scientific scholarship, the process of interpretation is complicated by the fact that the object of observation—the human subject—is an active, knowing being.
t

10. Scholarship must be shared with others and provides the scholar with feedback—typically from other scholars and students, in conventions, and during the peer review publication process.
t

1. Common communication-based epistemological questions include:
a. To what extent can knowledge exist before experience?
b. To what extent can knowledge be certain?
c. By what process does knowledge arise?
ALL

2. _____ think behavior is caused by prior conditions that largely determine human behavior; _____ claim people plan their behavior to meet future goals and see people as active, decision-making beings who affect their own destinies.
a. Determinists, Pragmatists

3. Expectancy-violation theory predicts how people react when their expectations about an interaction are somehow violated. Some of the most important _____ of this theory are expectancy, violation, nonverbal behavior, and credibility.
a.concepts

4. _____ stop at the conceptual level; they provide a list of categories for something without explaining how they relate to one another.
d.taxonomies

5. _____ are guidelines that enable you to interpret an event, make judgments about what is happening, and then decide how to act in the situation
c. principles

6. Your bathroom scale gives you a different weight each day, even though you have not gained or lost weight. The scale is therefore not:
a. reliable

7. _____, most practical theories tend to be generally value conscious.
b. axiologically

8. When an explanation is a mere speculation about a single event, it is not a theoretical explanation. This implies the theory has a limited _____.
a. Heuristic value

10. Which of the following is not a basic element of a theory?
a. concepts
b. philosophical assumptions
c. principles
d. all of the above

9. Which of the following is not a criteria to evaluate communication theories?
a. Heuristic value
b. Appropriateness
c. Theoretical Score
d. All are criteria
D

1. There is agreement about what is considered an adequate theory of communication.
f

2. In the social sciences, some theories can reveal the whole truth.
f

3. Questioning a theory’s usefulness is wiser than questioning its truthfulness.
t

4. In value-conscious scholarship, researchers recognize the importance of values to research and theory and make efforts to direct those values in positive ways.
t

5. Scholars disagree about what a theory should do; some believe theories depict things as they are and others think theories should go beyond depiction to guide action. These two perspectives are known as causal explanation and practical explanation.
t

6. There is consensus in the social sciences that theories should include principles for judgment and action.
f

7. An example of an operational definition of intelligence is the Stanford-Binet intelligence test.
t

8. When a theory has heuristic value, it is said to generate new ideas for research and additional theory.
t

9. Theory refers to an organized set of concepts, explanations, and principles of some aspect of human experience.
t

10. Ontology is the opposite of epistemology
f

epistemology
the philosophical theory of knowledge

ontology
the metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence

axiology
the study of values and value judgments

nomothetic theories
theories use the same set of traits to describe all people; these contend that there are quantifiable measurements of each of those traits in all of us; include Big 5, Eysenck, Cattell

practical theory
pragmatic

dimensions of theory
1.philosophical assumptions
2.concepts
3.explanations
4.principles

philosophical assumptions
basic beliefs that underlie the theory
ex. epistemology, ontology, axiology

concepts
building blocks
ex. expectancy. credibility, context, evaluation, reciprocity, credibility, nonverbal behavior etc

explanations
dynamic connections made by the theory

principles
guidelines for action

1. Which of the following is not a specific element of the triad of meaning in the semiotic tradition?
b. the symbol

2. Semiotics is often divided into three areas of study. Which of the following is not one of these areas?
d. Dialectics

3. ____ is the way in which humans come to understand the world through direct experience.
a. Phenomenology
b. Semiotics
c. Pragmatics
d. Cybernetics
a

4. A sports team is more than a collection of people. In order to fully understand a sports team, you would need to look at how members interact with and influence one another, the different ways communication functions in the team, and how the team changes over time. From this systems perspective, a _____ approach is best to use to understand the depth and complexity of team dynamics.
d

5. The _____ tradition studies the individual as a social being.
a. cybernetic
b. phenomenological
c. sociocultural
d. sociopsychological
d

6. The _____ tradition looks at identity in relationship to and as interacting with social group membership, one’s place within a larger community, one’s role in regard to others, and relationships.
a. critical
b. sociocultural
c. phenomenological
d. cybernetic
b

7. You are interested in researching the special assets, abilities, or resources that certain people/groups possess that are not especially valued in society. These issues typically align with research within the _____ tradition.
a. critical
b. sociocultural
c. phenomenological
d. cybernetic
a

8. Of the five canons of rhetoric, _____ involves choosing symbol systems, choosing the meanings we give those symbols, and all symbolic behavior from words and actions to clothing and furniture.
a. invention
b. arrangement
c. style
d. delivery
c

9. Semantics refers to:
a. how signs make a difference in people’s lives
b. grammar
c. how signs relate to their referents
d. syntactics
c

10. Rhetoric was originally concerned with:
a. culture
b. persuasion
c. syntax
d. critical theory
b

1. Signs have a clear referent to something in reality while symbols are arbitrary.
t

2. Critical theories are narrow and are therefore easy to place and categorize within the overall body of communication theory.
f

3. From a systems perspective, a rhetorical approach is best to use to understand the depth and complexity of team dynamics.
f

4. Semiotics is the study of signs and how signs come to represent objects, ideas, states, situations, feelings, and conditions outside of themselves.
t

5. Feminist scholars largely began with a focus on sex and sought to distinguish
f

6. An emergence of feminist, queer, Afrocentric, Asiacentric, Native American, and Aboriginal rhetorical theories are changing the character of the rhetorical tradition.
t

7. You are interested in specifically researching the resources that children possess that are not especially valued in a society that privileges adults. Conducting research on this issue from this starting point would typically involve the critical tradition.
t

8. The semiotic tradition focuses on signs and symbols
t

9. Marxism is the originating branch of critical theories and has numerous variations.
t

10. The study of rhetoric dates back to ninth-century BC in Italy.
f

sociocultural
perspective of psychology that examines the effects of factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture and socioeconomic status on human behavior

sociopsychological
feelings, attitudes, and behaviors during communication

cybernetics
the study of control processes in systems, especially analysis of the flow of information in closed systems

phenomenology
a philosophical doctrine proposed by Edmund Husserl based on the study of human experience in which considerations of objective reality are not taken into account
– YOUR CONCIOUS EXPERIENCE

critical tradition
deals with the distribution of power. the distribution of differential power. parent over child.
** NOT FROM BOOKS>

1. Argumentativeness might be understood as a combination of low neuroticism, high extraversion, low openness, low agreeableness, and high conscientiousness. Communication anxiety can include high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness. These approaches to argumentativeness and communication anxiety are examples of _____.
a. trait theory
b. the critical tradition
c. identity negotiation theory
d. the presentational self
a

2. If your roommate fails a test, you are apt to claim that she did not study hard enough. If you fail the test, you will probably say that the test was too hard. This is an example of
a. Social judgment theory
b. Elaboration likelihood theory
c. Fundamental attribution error
d. Heuristic-systematic model
c

3. Suppose that your best friend surprises you by sharing an opinion that is directly opposite to what you believe about something. How will you handle this? _____ tries to predict how you will evaluate your friend’s message, and how the evaluation will affect your own belief system.
a. Fundamental attribution error
b. Social judgment theory
c. Elaboration likelihood theory
d. Heuristic-systematic model
b

4. Children sometimes do not carefully evaluate everything parents say, but rely on “authority” instead. This is an example of
a. Fundamental attribution error
b. Social judgment theory
c. Elaboration likelihood theory
d. Heuristic-systematic model
d

5. Believing that saturated fats are harmful to your health is inconsistent with eating a lot of red meat. The more inconsistent your diet is with your knowledge about cholesterol, the greater the pressure you will feel to do something about your diet. This would be an example of _____.
a. Problematic-Integration Theory
b. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
c. Theory of Reasoned Action
d. Expectancy-Value Theory
b

6. _____ seeks to disrupt the categories of sexuality and identity by showing them to be social constructions created in discourse rather than essential, biological categories.
a. Standpoint theory
b. Queer theory
c. Critical standpoint analysis
d. Social judgment theory
b

7. _____ examines how identity is negotiated in interaction with others, especially across cultures.
a. Standpoint theory
b. Elaboration likelihood theory
c. Identity negotiation theory
d. Heuristic-systematic model
c

8. _____ theories of the communicator assume that social relationships prefigure individual differences.
a. Cybernetic
b. Sociocultural
c. Rhetorical
d. Critical
b

9. _____ is the fear or dislike of communicating in a specific situation and is widely studied.
a. Communication apprehension
b. Fundamental attribution error
c. Psychological apprehension disorder
d. Identity negotiation
a

10. To deal with cognitive dissonance, you can
a. change or add a cognitive element
b. see the dissonant elements as less important
c. seek consonant information or distort the information
d. All of the above
d

1. The two routes for processing information in elaboration-likelihood theory are central route processing and peripheral route processing
t

2. Cybernetic theories of the communicator rely on the basic idea that people orient to more than one thing at a time, creating a system with at least the person and two objects of perception or evaluation.
t

3. Rhetorical and critical theories of the communicator assume that individual differences come before social relationships, while sociocultural theories assume just the opposite—that social relationships prefigure individual differences.
f

4. Cognitive theories explain how you think, organize, and store information, and how cognition helps shape your behavior
t

5. Queer theory focuses on how circumstances of an individual’s life affect how he/she understands and constructs a social world.
f

6. Theories of the communicator within the critical tradition center on the politics of self, or how we position ourselves socially as empowered or disempowered individuals.
t

7. A factor is a distinguishing quality or characteristic; it is an individual’s relatively consistent way of thinking, feeling, and behaving across situations and is often used to predict behavior.
f

8. Some theories across traditions examine the concept of identity. Identity is best described as the joining point between the individual and society; communication is the link that allows this intersection to occur.
t

9. Erving Goffman uses a theatrical metaphor of a movie theater, presentation, and the presentational self to explain how we present the self.
f

10. One of the largest bodies of work related to attitude, attitude change, and persuasion falls under the umbrella of consistency theory.
t

elaboration likelihood theory
assumes people are motivated to hold correct attitudes, they want their attitudes to be the right ones

identity negotiation theory
That our cultural variability influences our sense if self And ultimately influences how successful we are in Intercultual interactions. ( social science perceptive – dialectic)

1. Imagine that you would like to borrow your sister’s car to go out with friends. Your reason for needing the car is not all that great, but you think your sister will agree. How, exactly, will you ask to borrow the car? How you will give thought to the language you use—words, phrases, structure, delivery, and how they will be interpreted—describes the _____ approach to communication theory.
a. communicator
b. message
c. relationship
d. conversation
b

2. _____ behaviors, which may be in part innate, involve the display of feelings and emotions.
a. Emblem
b. Affect display
c. Regulator
d. Illustrator
b

3. _____ is the study of how humans structure space in the practice of daily life.
a. Proxemics
b. Kinesics
c. Haptics
d. Semiotics
a

4. _____ theories are distinguished by their use of highly qualitative interpretive processes to discover the meaning of texts.
a. Rhetorical
b. Sociocultural
c. Critical
d. Phenomenological
d

5. Because it provides a way to understand ancient texts such as the Bible that can no longer be explained by the author, the Supreme Court uses _____ to interpret the U.S. Constitution.
a. syntactics
b. hermeneutics
c. semiotics
d. proxemics
b

6. In _____, the meaning we get from a text is a result of a dialogue between our own present-day meanings and those embedded in the language of the text.
a. Paul Ricoeur’s Theory of Distanciation
b. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Philosophical Hermeneutics
c. Chaïm Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca’s New Rhetoric
d. Stephen Toulmin’s Practical Argumentation
b

7. _____ distinguishes between rational and reasonable forms of argumentation.
a. Paul Ricoeur’s Theory of Distanciation
b. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Philosophical Hermeneutics
c. Chaïm Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca’s New Rhetoric
d. Stephen Toulmin’s Practical Argumentation
c

8. Storytelling is a universal function and a natural human capacity that crosses time and culture. In contrast to a rational paradigm, narratives are a way of conceptualizing how humans communicate. This is the basic tenet of which of the following theories?
a. Bitzer’s Rhetorical Situation
b. Burke’s theory of Identification
c. Toulmin’s Practical Argumentation
d. Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm
d

9. How verbal and nonverbal messages play out in social groups is the focus of the _____ tradition.
a. sociocultural
b. rhetorical
c. critical
d. sociopsychological
a

10. You would like to study how a parent gets a child to take a medicine. To study this, it would be most appropriate to use which kind of theory?
a. Compliance gaining theory
b. Action-assembly theory
c. Planning theory
d. Inoculation theory
a

1. Communication scholars recognize that language and behavior often work together, making theories of nonverbal signs an important element in the semiotic tradition.
t

2. A popular term for kinesics is body signs.
f

3. All semiotic theories are similar in how they raise the question of interpretation (what should a sign or group of signs be taken to mean).
t

4. Speech act theory helps us understand how people accomplish things with their actions.
f

5. To Kenneth Burke, motions (which humans have) consist of purposeful, voluntary behaviors; actions (which objects and animals have) are nonpurposeful, nonmeaningful ones.
f

6. Syntactics is how signs are organized into systems with other signs.
t

7. Constructivism is the study of how one’s symbolic actions in the world are formed by ways of knowing. Individuals interpret and act according to conceptual categories in the mind.
t

8. Inoculation theory studies how individuals resist messages when arguments in opposition to their beliefs are offered.
t

9. Messages are created to meet single goals and to achieve one level of meaning.
f

10. Politeness theory involves protecting the face of the other person; in everyday life we typically design messages that protect face and achieve other goals.
t

1. Media messages usually consist of a blend of symbols that are organized spatially and chronologically to create an impression, transmit an idea, or elicit a meaning in an audience. The _____ tradition typically looks at media in this way.
a. critical
b. rhetorical
c. sociocultural
d. semiotic
d

2. _____ theories of media are diverse in orientation. What these theories share is a concern for larger social and cultural forces. They do not agree on what these forces are, but they do see the need to look beyond media content and individual effects. The primary contribution of this tradition is to capture large social and cultural outcomes of society-media interactions.
a. Sociocultural
b. Sociopsychological
c. Critical
d. Rhetorical
A

3. _____ theories of media concentrate on individual effects of media, such as how individuals are believed to be impacted by media.
a. Sociocultural
b. Critical
c. Rhetorical
d. Sociopsychological
D

4. Parents wonder how television is affecting their children. Educators want to know if children will learn from films, videos, magazines, and television programs. People sometimes even wonder about the consequences of cell phones and video games on children. A researcher who studies how individuals are believed to be impacted by media would use _____ theories of media.
a. sociocultural
b. sociopsychological
c. critical
d. rhetorical
B

5. In the _____ theory, people mute their opinions rather than discuss them, creating a situation where one side of an issue ends up with more publicity.
a. decolonization
b. cybernetic
c. spiral of silence
d. media gagging
C

6. Most _____ media communication theories are concerned with mass media primarily because of the media’s potential for disseminating dominant ideologies and their potential for expressing alternative and oppositional ones.
a. cybernetic
b. critical
c. rhetorical
d. sociological
B

7. _____ calls for the use of communication to disrupt and eradicate the ideology of domination—referred to as white supremacist capitalist patriarchy.
a. Kenneth Burke’s Equipment for Living
b. feminist media studies
c. bell hooks’s Critique of Media
d. critical theory
C

8. _____ theory’s explanation of the mass media is laid out in four parts—media organizations, audiences, messages, and effects.
a. Lineation
b. Kenneth Burke’s Equipment for Living
c. bell hooks’s Critique of Media
d. Dependency
A

9. _____ theory takes a step toward showing how both limited-effects and powerful-effects models may explain media effects. This theory takes a broad systems approach, proposing an integral relationship among audiences, media, and the larger society.
a. Lineation
b. Kenneth Burke’s Equipment for Living
c. bell hooks’s Critique of Media
d. Dependency
D

10. _____ refers to the process of putting a news story together, including the ways in which it a story is organized and structured.
a. Lineation
b. Framing
c. Situating
d. Dependency theory
B

1. In Jean Baudrillard’s theory of the semiotics of media, the present day consists of simulation, in which signs no longer represent—but create—our reality.
T

2. Structural features of media, apart from media content, affect how we think about and respond to the world; sociocultural theories explore the fixed features of media and their effects on society.
T

3. Ancient heavy media such as parchment, clay, or stone are durable and therefore space binding because they last over time, while time-binding media such as paper are light and easy to transport, so they facilitate communication from one location to another, fostering empire building, large bureaucracies, and military expansion.
F

4. New media theory drew attention to emerging forms of media use—from individualized information and knowledge acquisition to interaction.
T

5. Many media researchers think that the media can but does not always have a powerful effect on the public agenda.
T

6. Most framing theorists today believe that media by themselves cause new frames to come into existence within individual minds.
F

7. In general, the meanings of media shift constantly as the members approach the media in different ways.
T

8. The theory of the spiral of silence could be considered part of the sociopsychological tradition because of its emphasis on what individuals do in response to the conditions they face, but we believe this theory actually demonstrates cybernetic thinking quite well, as larger systemic interactions are at stake.
T

9. Media institutions have little if no role in the production of culture.
F

10. Audience members and communities participate in constructing the meaning of media messages.
T

agenda setting theory
predicts the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public

cultivation theory
theory that the media shape how people view the world

1. Also known as the theory of linguistic relativity, _____ states that the structure of a culture’s language determines the behavior and habits of thinking in that culture.
a. elaborated and restricted codes theory
b. convergence theory
c. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
d. diffusion of innovations hypothesis
c

2. _____—an important term in critical theories—is a set of ideas that structure a group’s reality, a system of representations or a code of meanings governing how individuals and groups see the world.
a. Hegemony
b. Ideology
c. Structuralism
d. False consciousness
b

3. _____ theories attempt to counteract the tendency to only describe the outcomes of social interaction without questioning them.
a. Critical
b. Sociocultural
c. Rhetorical
d. Cybernetic
a

4. _____ look at a group’s forms of communication, the meanings these practices have for the group, how group members use these practices, how practices create community, and the codes used by a group.
a. Ethnographers
b. Cartographers
c. Rhetoricians
d. Critical theorists
a

5. In the theory of elaborated and restricted codes, _____ codes provide a wide range of different ways to say something; _____ codes have a narrower range of options, where it is easier to predict what form they will take.
a. restricted, elaborated
b. elaborated, restricted
c. close-role systems, open-role systems
d. open-role systems, close-role systems
b

6. Which of the following is not one of the six phases of the convergence-divergence process?
a. Scene-setting
b. Resolution
c. Conflict
d. Resurrection
d

7. As people communicate more tightly within a network, they come to experience increasing similarity in their meanings and actions. This is known as _____.
a. convergence theory
b. network theory
c. poststructuralism
d. hybridity theory
a

8. _____ objected to the idea that language structures are just natural forms to be used by individuals as a tool of communication.
a. Poststructuralists
b. Postmodernists
c. Postmarxists
d. Postcolonialists
a

9. _____ is the space between cultures—a displaced position with a special consciousness and way of seeing that is valuable to understanding both cultures.
e. Hyperreality
a. Simulation
b. Dexterity
c. Hybridity
d?

10. A _____ stance challenges the power of the establishment and offers a critique of domination and a critique of freedom.
a. sociocultural
b. postcolonial
c. critical rhetorical
d. critical Marxian
c

1. Performance ethnography is significant because it broadens the field beyond its traditional fixation on language and text to include embodied practice.
t

2. Postmodernism is such an important tradition in critical studies that it is often known simply as Critical Theory.
f

Rhetoric is the study of how signs bridge the world of experience and the human mind.
f

4. Lazarsfeld’s Two-Step Flow Hypothesis holds that the effect of media is influenced by interpersonal communication.
t

5. The theory of cross-cultural adaptation explains how members of immigrant cultures come to adapt to their host culture.
t

6. Rather than using tests, experiments, and questionnaires to study people and interaction, some researchers prefer to learn about culture through personal interpretation. The process of personal interpretation is called ethnography.
f

Many critical theorists attempt to create new forms of language that will enable the predominant ideology to be exposed and competing ideologies to be heard.
t

8. Radical feminism is based in liberal democracy—the idea that justice involves the assurance of equal rights for all individuals. Liberal feminism believes that the oppression of women runs far deeper than political rights.
f

9. To feminist cultural studies, power relations are constructed in social interaction; language and symbolic forms are constantly creating categories of thought as well as social relationships.
t

10. Critical Race Theorists see racism as fairly rare and uncommon.
f

diffusion of innovation
the process by which the use of an innovation, whether a product or a service, spreads throughout a market group over time and over various categories of adopters

ethnography of communication
A qualitative research perspective in which the researcher is interested in understanding the code of communication that organizes meaning in a given cultural group. Also known as the ethnography of speaking and is concerned w all the situations &uses, the patterns and functions, of speaking as an activity in its own right. *Primary unit of analysis 4 speech communities. Ethnographer-of-comm in a particular “case”, or speech community, is a specific form of a more general kind of rsch tht uses participnt-obsvn- the case study.

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