MCAT psyc

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Retrospective chart review
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reviewing old data
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Prospective chart review
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reviewing new, incoming data
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Embedded Field Study
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This study would occur if the researchers posed as patients, for example.
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Longitudinal Study
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analysis of patients over time
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Moderating Variable
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alters the relationship between two other variables
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Confounding Variable
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one which is not typically of interest to the researcher but affects the relationship between the dependent and independent variables
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Mediating Variable
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one which explains the relationship between two other variables.
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Cross’s Nigrescence Model of Cultural Awareness
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1. Pre-encounter: African-Americans tend to view the majority Caucasian culture as being more desirable and would view a doctor of this race as being more skilled 2. Immersion-Emmersion: Someone in this stage would view the majority Caucasian culture with resentment and distrust and prefer to be treated by someone of his or her own race. 3. Internalization Stage: integrated aspects of his own culture with that of the majority culture and is working to rectify past racial injustices.
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Drive-Reduction Theory is correlated with what?
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Arousal
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Frontal Lobe
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involved in humans’ ability to project future consequences of current actions
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Limbic System
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regulates emotion and memory
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Hypothalamus
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coordinates many hormones, some of which are involved in mood regulation
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Incidence
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describes the number of new cases of a disease during a specific time interval
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Prevalence
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describe how common a disease is
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Case Control Design
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compare information about individuals with a disease or condition against people without the disease or condition
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Cross-Sectional Design
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examine a group of individuals at one point in time
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Randomized Controlled Trials
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randomly assign participants to one of two groups: an experimental group and a control group
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Law of Symmetry
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we tend to perceive stimuli as grouped symmetrically around a center point.
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Reconstructive Bias
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a type of bias related to memory: we may not remember as accurately when under high amounts of stress
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Social Desirability
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a type of bias related to how people respond to research questions.
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Selection Bias
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a type of bias related to how people are chosen to participate. In this case, people who witnessed unethical behavior in medical school may have been more likely to respond to the survey.
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Attrition Bias
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occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study
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Distress
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a negative type of stress that builds over time and is bad for your body. It happens when you perceive a situation to be threatening to you some way
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Eustress
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a positive type of stress that happens when you perceive a situation as challenging, but motivating.
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Neustress
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happens when you are exposed to something stressful, but it doesn’t actively or directly affect you. For example, news about a natural disaster on the other side of the world may be very stressful, but your body doesn’t perceive that stress as good or bad for you so you aren’t affected.
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Schachter-Singer Theory
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First we experience physiological arousal, then we cognitively interpret the situation, and finally we experience the emotion
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James-Lange Theory
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behavioral and physiological aspects of emotion (like increased heart rate and shouting) lead to cognitive aspects of emotion (like understanding a situation is scary and feeling afraid).
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Cannon-Bard Theory
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physiological and cognitive aspects of emotion occur simultaneously and independently. Annabel’s brain released hormones at the same time that she interpreted the situation as happy and calm. The theory also states that behavioral expression is the last aspect – like when Annabel smiled.
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Yerkes-Dodson Theory
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people tend to perform their best when they’re moderately emotionally stimulated.
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Variable-Ratio Reinforcement
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schedules tend to produce the highest response rates that are the most resistant to extinction,
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Stroop Effect
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describes the phenomenon in which it is harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors than information that is consonant.
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External Validity
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refers to the generalizability of the research to settings beyond this study
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Criterion Validity
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refers to whether a variable is able to predict a certain outcome
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Construct Validity
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how the terms are defined.
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Discrimination
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unfair treatment and harmful actions against others based on their membership in a specific social group
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Stigma
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disapproval attached to disobeying the expected norms so that a person is discredited as less than normal
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Prejudice
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preconceived opinions or attitudes that are usually negative and not based on any facts or experience. Prejudice is an attitude and discrimination is actually acting on that feeling
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Semantic Memory
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the type of memory related to facts and information.
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Conditioned Memory
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a type of memory that is formed based on your associations between two things. For example, if your professor rings a bell at the end of the exam, you will remember the bell as the sign that the exam is over.
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Double Approach Avoidance Conflicts
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consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics
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Avoidant Avoidant Conflict
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both options are unappealing
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In drive reduction theory, the motivating drive comes from what?
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disruption of homeostasis
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Parasomnia
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category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, or dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.
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Habituation
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a reduction in response following repeated stimulation
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Mental Rotation Tasks
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involve making judgments of a mental image where the orientation needs to be changed
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Difference between independent and dependent variables
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In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. The independent variable is the presumed cause whereas the dependent variable is the presumed effect.
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Implicit Bias
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the attitudes or stereotypes that affect an individual’s understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner.
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3 \”happy\” neurotransmitters
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Dopamine, Norepinephrine, & Serotonin
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Piaget
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outlined the stages of cognitive development that applies to children and adolescents
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Kohlberg
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outlined stages of moral reasoning addressing how people reason their way through moral questions, and showed how this reasoning develops from children to adults
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self-efficacy
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a feeling of not being able to make changes
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Dorsal Pathway
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detecting spatial location
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Propriocentive Senses
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allow humans to control their limbs without directly looking at them. It is the sense of location, position, orientation, and movement of various parts of your body with each other
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Trait theory is very similar to what?
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Social-cognitive theory
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Max Weber
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theories of symbolic interactionism emphasize how individuals relate to society, and one of his ideas was the concept of the iron cage. He believed that the experience of the \”iron cage\” led to disenchantment with society
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Stanley Millgram
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demonstrated that participants would follow orders of a superior if instructed to go against their conscience.

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