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Mastery Test 4

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Rogers regarded the fundamental motivation to be a) the actualizing tendency. b) the need for security. c) interpersonal needs. d) sexual needs.
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a) the actualizing tendency.
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Within each person, inner experience signals what is growth-producing. Rogers called this experience __________. a) incongruence b) conscience c) self-actualization d) the organismic valuing process
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d) the organismic valuing process
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of a fully functioning person, according to Rogers? a) creativity b) the experience of freedom c) openness to experience d) adaptation to others’ expectations
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d) adaptation to others’ expectations
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If the ideal self and the real self do not match, Rogers said a) we should try to overcome the real self b) they are “incongruent” c) we should strive toward the ideal self. d) a person is self-actualised
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b) they are “incongruent”
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Unconditional positive regard means loving someone a) because you yourself feel loved b) without considering the consequences c) regardless of that person’s behavior d) unwisely
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c) regardless of that person’s behavior
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Rogers called his therapeutic method a) self-actualisation therapy b) revised psychoanalysis c) individualized therapy d) client-centered therapy
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d) client-centered therapy
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Rogers described the ideal therapist as someone whose inner experience a) includes only positive emotions toward the client b) is irrelevant to the therapeutic work c) is hidden under a professional demeanor d) is largely transparent to the client
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d) is largely transparent to the client
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Which of these is not a condition for therapeutic progress, according to Rogers? a) unconditional positive regard b) empathic understanding c) congruence d) insight
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d) insight
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Rogers called his therapy groups “__________” a) family constellation groups b) sensitivity groups c) T-groups d) encounter groups
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d) encounter groups
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Rogers thought that education cold be improved by a) more carefully applying learning principles b) using team teachers c) providing more incentives for learning d) trusting students to choose their own directions
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d) trusting students to choose their own directions
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Abraham Maslow’s theory emphasizes a. social determinants of behavior. b. learning. c. scientific methodology. d. the most healthy individuals.
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d. the most healthy individuals.
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In order of their emergence, the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are a. physiological, safety, esteem, love, self-actualization. b. physiological, esteem, safety, love, self-actualization. c. physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization. d. safety, physiological, love, esteem, self-actualization.
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c. physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization.
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Regarding sex, Maslow thought that it was a. only a physiological need. b. an important “love and belongingness” need, as well as a physiological need. c. not a source of deficiency motivation in the twentieth century. d. not interesting for a theory concerned with self-actualization.
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b. an important “love and belongingness” need, as well as a physiological need.
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The highest need on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a. creativity. b. self-esteem. c. self-actualization. d. love
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c. self-actualization.
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Which statement about self-actualization tendencies is most accurate? a. Self-actualization does not motivate people, in any form, until the lower order needs are met. b. Maslow estimated less that 1 percent of individuals are self-actualized. c. Curiosity and creative tendencies occur at the highest level of the need hierarchy only. d. Self-actualization is the dominant motivation throughout life, according to Maslow.
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b. Maslow estimated less that 1 percent of individuals are self-actualized.
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In his survey of 3,000 college students, about how many did Maslow find whom he considered to be self-actualized? a. one student b. two percent (60 students) c. ten percent (300 students) d. fifty percent (1500 students)
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a. one student
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What phrase best describes a peak experience? a. a mystical, altered state of consciousness b. a moment when achievement seems easy (though the experience may be misleading) c. a “personal best” performance d. the time in middle age when mental health is highest, before the inevitable declines of old age
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a. a mystical, altered state of consciousness
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What prevents self-actualization from being more common? a. people’s desire for safety b. people’s desire for approval c. unmet lower-order needs d. all of the above
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d. all of the above
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What was Maslow’s attitude toward religion? a. Religion has no place in the modern world. b. Religious dogma is a useful guide to self-actualization. c. Religious prophets have experienced what Maslow calls “peak experiences,” which are valuable insights to be communicated to others. d. Religion was not discussed in his theory.
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c. Religious prophets have experienced what Maslow calls “peak experiences,” which are valuable insights to be communicated to others.
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The term “positive psychology” refers to a. a current emphasis in psychology on subjective experience and psychological health. b. a philosophical position that emphasizes scientific observation. c. all the empirically verified findings within psychology. d. political activism in favor of increased funding for psychological research.
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a. a current emphasis in psychology on subjective experience and psychological health.
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Abraham Maslow’s theory emphasizes a. social determinants of behavior. b. learning. c. scientific methodology. d. the most healthy individuals
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d. the most healthy individuals
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The abuse David Pelzer experienced at the hand of his mother had little impact on how he got his needs met at an early age. a. True b. False
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b. False
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David Pelzer’s foster family helped him meet his needs for Love and Belongingness. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow emphasized the importance of well-controlled research studies in psychology. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The hierarchy of needs describes five levels of needs, from basic physical needs to selfactualization. a. True b. False
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a. True
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According to Maslow, humans, unlike animals, are never motivated primarily by hunger and other physical needs. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The needs lowest on Maslow’s hierarchy are safety needs. a. True b. False
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b. False
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After safety needs are satisfied, the next level to become important is belongingness and love needs. a. True b. False
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a. True
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After esteem needs are met, the next level to emerge as important is belongingness and love. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Maslow suggested that we could learn most about personality by studying unhealthy populations. a. True b. False
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b. False
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According to Maslow, most college students, by the senior year, are self-actualized. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Self-actualized people typically have a strong need to be with other people. a. True b. False
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b. False
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People who are self-actualized may act conventionally for convenience, but they are detached from their culture. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Self-actualized people are less likely to conform to social influence pressures than are other people. a. True b. False
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a. True
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According to Maslow, all self-actualized people have peak experiences. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Self-actualized people are particularly aware of the conflict between what is good for the individual and what is good for other people. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Self-actualized people have human faults, like the rest of us. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Esteem needs are satisfied when other people think well of us, even if that reputation is based on erroneous information. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Esteem needs are important at the level of B-motivation. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Achievement and concern with reputation are typically important at the fourth level of the need hierarchy. a. True b. False
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a. True
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At the highest level of the need hierarchy, people are metamotivated. a. True b. False
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a. True
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B-love often involves jealousy. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Maslow considered curiosity to be an early manifestation of self-actualization. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow’s theory predicts that needs will appear in a particular order within an individual’s life. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow preferred to speak of “human diminution or stunting” instead of “psychological illness.” a. True b. False
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a. True
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According to Maslow, the self-actualized person thinks intuitively, like an artist. a. True b. False
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a. True
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The Personal Orientation Inventory measures self-actualization. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Self-actualization, as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory, does not correlate with other measures of mental health or adjustment. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The desire for safety stops many people from becoming self-actualized. a. True b. False
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a. True
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The Esalen Institute is a growth center founded on the principles of Maslow’s ideas about human growth. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow believed that traditional religions were important for self-actualized people. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Maslow expected that his theory would be validated by traditional scientific investigations. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Competence, autonomy, and relatedness are important needs, according to selfdetermination theory. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Intrinsically motivated people, according to Deci’s theory, are independent of other people. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Positive psychology emphasizes people’s psychological growth and happiness. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow suggested that less than 1% of individuals ever become self-actualized. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Maslow advocated that businesses should only seek to meet lower-order needs as higher order needs were beyond most businesses’ scope. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Positive emotional states are of minor concern to the field of positive psychology. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The Satisfaction with Life Scale has high face validity and construct validity. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Flow is when artists, musicians, and / or groups become totally engaged in their activities. a. True b. False
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a. True
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A meaningful life and quest for meaning in life is always happy. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Research shows that money is an important part in achieving happiness. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Research shows the people with very low incomes in the U.S. are not as unhappy with life as most people think. a. True b. False
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a. True
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A person who is resilient has the strength to survive stressful situations but still experiences the usual negative consequences of those experiences. a. True b. False
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b. False