Mastering the TEKS in World History: Ch. 19

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920.
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries’ issues
The former policy of racial segregation and oppression in the Republic of South Africa
Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation’s first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Indira Gandhi
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister. She was also prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977. She was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards.
\”Iron Curtain\”
Winston Churchill’s term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West., A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader from 1949 to 1976.
Korean War
a war between North and South Korea
Cultural Revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Nuclear Arms Race
Cold War competition between U.S. and Soviet Union to develop the most advanced nuclear weapons
\”Cuban Missile Crisis\”
1962-American leaders discover Cuba building bases to install nuclear missiles–Pres. Kennedy ordered blockade of Cuba an threatened to invade if missiles were not withdrawn
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Khmer Rouge
Cambodia communist government under the leadership of Pol Pot– undertook a systematic program to eliminate almost all of Cambodia’s government officials, army officials, teachers, and intellectuals. Between 1975 and 1977, well over 1 million Cambodians were killed.
Natan Sharansky
Russian dissident and founder of the Refusenik Movement. He was imprisoned in 1977 for speaking out for greater human rights in the Soviet Union–particularly for Russian Jews
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms such as Glasnost and Perestroika
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise
Pope John Paul II
Instrumental in ending communism. Originally from Poland, he inspired and gave courage to the Poles during their revolution. He stood for peace and openly criticized communism.
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc’s first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Tiananmen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with many deaths.
Deng Xiao Ping
A reformer who opposed Mao during the Cultural Revolution, became Chairman of the People’s Republic of China in 1976 after Mao’s death; his goal was to modernize China by reforming its economy

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