Mastering Bio Ch 34

Flashcard maker : Patsy Brent
A
Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?
A. All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
B. All deuterostomes have a coelom.
C. All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers.
D. All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.
C
Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?
A. Bone
B. Amniotic egg
C. Exoskeleton
D. Jaws
False
True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.
D
Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?
A. Their ability to move
B. The presence of an endoskeleton
C. Their habitat
D. Their body plan
C
Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?
A. All vertebrates have jaws with which to catch their prey.
B. the development of more efficient surfaces for gas exchange in reptiles stimulated expansion into terrestrial habitats.
C. The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.
D. Birds are more related to mammals than to dinosaurs.
D
Which characteristics define a chordate?
A. The development of an anus from the blastopore
B. The presence of a well-developed circulatory system
C. The ability to live on land
D. The presence of four specific morphological traits
D
Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?
A. Notochord
B. Endoskeleton
C. Dorsal nerve cord
D. Pharyngeal gill slit
A
A flexible rod that runs along the anterior posterior axis
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
A
May be associated with a jointed skeleton
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
B
Grooves that separate pouches along the side of the pharynx
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
B
May develop into parts of the ear
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
C
Openings to the outside of the body along the side of the pharynx
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
C
May develop into gill slits
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
D
A bundle of nervous tissue running the length of the body
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
D
May develop into the brain and spinal cord
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
E
A structure that contains muscles and extends past the anus
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
E
May be used to propel some species in water
A. notochord
B. Pharyngeal clefts
C. Pharyngeal slits
D. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
E. Muscular, post anal tail
A
Adults swim by the contraction of a series of muscles along the notochord
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
A
Adults bury themselves into the sediment of the seafloor
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
A
All chordate characters present in adults
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
B
Most chordate characters not present in adults
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
B
In adults, water enters through one siphon and leaves through another
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
B
Larvae swim using the notochord, but adults may be sessile
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
C
Adults feed with the aid of pharyngeal slits
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
D
Adults swim using the vertebral column
A. Lancelets
B. Tunicates
C. Both
D. Neither
D
Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic feature of the Chordata?
A. a hollow dorsal nerve cord
B. a muscular, post-anal tail
C. notochord
D. vertebrae
E. pharyngeal slits or clefts
B
A unique feature of craniates is _____.
A. a four-chambered heart
B. the neural crest
C. a closed circulatory system
D. a vertebral column composed of bone
E. segmentation
C
What do lampreys, sharks, snakes, turtles, and cats have that a hagfish lacks?
A. a cranium
B. legs
C. vertebrae
D. jaws
E. a notochord at some point in their lives
A
Jaws evolved _____.
A. by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal gill slits
B. from arthropod jaws
C. from the bony armor of ostracoderms
D. from the rasping tongue
E. by modification of middle ear bones
D
The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is _____.
A. a lateral line system
B. jaws
C. a streamlined, torpedo-shaped body
D. an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage
E. a swim bladder
C
Most members of which of the following groups are most closely associated with a wet or moist environment?
A. birds
B. dinosaurs
C. amphibians
D. mammals
E. pterosaurs
D
Listed below are four adaptations of terrestrial vertebrates. Which is a characteristic only of truly terrestrial animals with no need to return to water at any stage of the life cycle?
A. tetrapod locomotion
B. hearts with more than two chambers
C. lungs
D. amniotic eggs
E. All of these are essential for a completely terrestrial existence
B
There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.
A. habitat
B. method of reproduction
C. method of locomotion
D. size
E. presence or absence of hair
A
Which of these primate groups is most closely related to humans?
A. apes
B. Old World monkeys
C. lorises
D. prosimians
E. New World monkeys
B
_____ are the oldest known primate group.
A. Apes
B. Prosimians
C. Anthropoids
D. Hominids
E. Monkeys
D
The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____.
A. apes
B. prosimians
C. New World monkeys
D. hominids
E. Old World monkeys
A
Which of these anthropoid groups consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?
A. monkeys
B. hominids
C. prosimians
D. primates
E. apes
C
Which of these primate groups lives in trees in Central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?
A. hominids
B. apes
C. New World monkeys
D. anthropoids
E. Old World monkeys
A
Which of the following chordates is most likely to look least like other chordates?
A. adult tunicate
B. lancelet
C. embryonic human
D. larval tunicate
E. adult human
B
What is a transitional fossil?
A. Transitional fossils were poorly adapted to their environments.
B. Transitional fossils have features that are intermediate between ancestors and descendants.
C. A transitional fossil is in the middle of a direct lineage stretching from ancient forms to organisms alive today.
D. Transitional fossils only existed for a short period of time.
A, B, C, D
Which of the following is a tetrapod?
Select all that apply.
A. a reptile
B. a bird
C. a mammal
D. an amphibian
E. a fish
B, C, D, E
Which evidence supports the hypothesis that four-limbed animals came from fish?
Select all that apply.
A. Fossil evidence shows there have always been four-limbed animals on Earth.
B. DNA analysis shows that fish are tetrapods’ closest relatives.
C. Both fish and four-limbed animals are vertebrates.
D. The fossil record shows more and more tetrapod-like fish before the appearance of tetrapods about 365 million years ago.
E. Fish and four-limbed animals have very similar embryos.
A, C, D
Why have we NOT found examples in the fossil record of every animal that ever lived on Earth?
Select all that apply
A. To become a fossil, an animal must be quickly and completely buried in ash or sediment before it has a chance to decompose.
B. It is just a matter of time before we find them all. Rocks contain the history of all life, if you know where to look.
C. Many fossils remain buried. We can only find them when they are exposed by erosion or excavation.
D. To become a fossil, an animal must remain buried for thousands or millions of years until it (and the layer around it) turns to rock.
B
Why did Shubin and Daeschler search in the Canadian arctic for fossil evidence of the transition from fish to tetrapods?

A. They hypothesized that the transitional fossils were in volcanic rocks older than 530 million years ago, when the first fish appear in the fossil record.
B. They hypothesized that the transitional fossils were in sedimentary rocks older than 365 million years ago, when the first tetrapods appear in the fossil record.
C. They hypothesized that the transitional fossils were in volcanic rocks older than 365 million years ago, when the first tetrapods appear in the fossil record.
D. They hypothesized that the transitional fossils were in sedimentary rocks older than 530 million years ago, when the first fish appear in the fossil record.

B
What kind of habitat did tiktaalik live in?
A. Tiktaalik lived in a shallow, marine environment.
B. Tiktaalik lived in a warm, freshwater swamp.
C. Tiktaalik lived in cold, artic tundra.
D. Tiktaalik lived on dry, rocky slopes.
A, D, E
Tiktaalik had a combination of fishlike and tetrapod-like characteristics. Which were the tetrapod-like characteristics?
Select all that apply.

A. interlocking ribs
B. fins with fin rays
C. scales
D. a neck
E. flat head with eyes on top

B
How did the great transition from fish to tetrapod occur?

A. The transition occurred in one big step, so there are no intermediate forms.
B. The transition occurred gradually over time, so there are many intermediate forms.
C. The transition occurred in a few big steps, so there are very few intermediate forms.
D. There was no transition. Fish and tetrapods have always existed as they are today.

A, C
The 150-million-year-old Archaeopteryx fossil has birdlike features such as feathered wings, but it also has characteristics that we associate with living reptiles. Which of the following are considered reptilian characteristics of Archaeopteryx?
Select all that apply.

A. teeth in the jaws
B. wings supported by elongated fourth digits
C. claws on the ends of each digit in the “hands”
D. long, bony tail

A
Which discovery ultimately overturned the prevailing perception that all dinosaurs were large, slow, and lumbering?

A. the small theropod dinosaur Deinonychus, which had a large sickle-shaped claw on each of its hind limbs
B. a fossil of Compsognathus, a chicken-sized dinosaur, which was discovered around the same time as Archaeopteryx
C. the fossil of Archaeopteryx, discovered in Germany shortly after the publication of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species
D. pterosaur fossils with hollow bones and wings

A, B, D, F
Which of the following shared characteristics of living birds and theropod dinosaurs provided support to the hypothesis that birds evolved from dinosaurs?
Select all that apply.

A. birds and many theropods have a wishbone (or furcula)
B. birds and theropods have hollow bones that are strong, but light
C. like theropod dinosaurs, birds have long, bony tails under their feathers
D. birds and theropods have S-shaped necks
E. all birds and theropods could fly
F. birds and many theropods have feathers

C
How did Dr. Jack Horner’s discovery of dinosaur nesting grounds support the hypothesis that birds evolved from a group of dinosaurs?

A. it provided evidence that dinosaurs traveled in groups, the way birds travel in flocks
B. it provided evidence that dinosaurs laid eggs like birds
C. it provided evidence that dinosaurs raised and cared for their young in colonies like many birds

C
A key characteristic of modern birds is flight powered by feathered wings. Which of the following pieces of evidence support the hypothesis that the first feathers served a purpose other than flight?

A. Archaeopteryx had flight feathers
B. some birds have feathers but do not fly
C. some feathered theropods were not capable of flight
D. bats fly but do not have feathers

A, D
Which of the following statements about bird evolution are accurate based on the evidence presented?
Select all that apply.

A. Feathers may have originally evolved for insulation.
B. Feathered birds, capable of flight, evolved after the extinction of dinosaurs.
C. The evolution of feathers and other characteristics of birds occurred in a linear progression.
D. Feathers may have originally evolved for interspecies communication and display.

D
Why was the discovery of organisms, such as Archaeopteryx, that have a mix of traits usually associated with two different groups considered validation of Darwin’s theory of evolution?

A. transitional forms like Archaeopteryx provide DNA evidence that proves how organisms are related
B. transitional forms are evidence that it is possible to reconstruct the complete history of life on Earth
C. transitional forms are evidence that Earth has a long history lasting billions of years
D. the discovery provided evidence that species descend with modification from other species

D
Humans are _______.
A. Australopithecus
B. Homo erectus
C. Ardipithecus
D. Homo sapiens
E. Homo habilis
E
Which of the following statements about hominin evolution is correct? As hominins have evolved, _____.
A. the foramen magnum has shifted farther back on the skull
B. jaw size has increased
C. they have developed longer fingers
D. canine teeth have increased in size
E. sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced
A, B, D
Which of the following traits can be used to differentiate humans from our closest living primate relatives?
Select all that apply.

A. large brain size
B. extensive tool use
C. grasping hands
D. bipedality

B
Which of the following statements supports the conclusion that the common ancestor of modern chimps and modern humans lived around 7 million years ago?

A. Scientists estimate that it would take about 7 million years for chimps to evolve into humans.
B. Analysis of modern human and modern chimpanzee protein and DNA sequences suggests that their lineages diverged about 7 million years ago.
C. Stone tools have been found that date back about 7 million years.
D. Scientists estimate that it takes about 2.5 million years for brains to double in volume, so it would take about 7 million years to go from 300 cc (early hominid brain size) to 1500 cc (modern human brain size)

A
Which of the following anatomical features of the 3.2-million-year-old Australopithecus fossil known as “Lucy” suggest she was a bipedal hominid?
A. a much shorter hip bone that is broader from front to back and wraps around the side
B. the absence of a prehensile tail
C. a large brain
D. a hairless face
B
How do scientists know that the hominid called “Ardi” is about 4.4 million years old?
A. by comparing Ardi’s DNA to modern human DNA
B. by using radiometric dating techniques on the volcanic deposits found above and below the layer containing Ardi
C. by comparing the stone tools found in the same sediment as Ardi to other stone tools of known age
D. by looking at Ardi’s anatomical features
C
What did scientists learn from other fossils found in the same sediment layer as Ardi?
A. Ardi and Lucy lived at the same time
B. Ardi raised livestock and domesticated crops
C. Ardi lived in a woodland habitat
D. Ardi lived in an open grassland habitat
A, B, C
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding human evolution?
Select all that apply.

A. The first humans evolved in Africa.
B. In the latest phase of human evolution, there has been a greater reliance on culture.
C. The fossil record contains creatures with features that are intermediate between those of modern humans and quadrupedal apes.
D. Once bipedality, tool use, and larger brains evolved in humans, humans stopped evolving.

C
Except for modern ethnic groups in ______, the majority of humans appear to have traces of Neanderthal DNA in their genome.
A. Europe
B. America
C. Africa
D. Asia
B
Mating is believed to have taken place between modern humans and Neanderthals in ____ about 70,000 years ago.
A. Europe
B. the Middle East
C. Asia
D. Africa
C
The Neanderthal DNA discovered in Homo sapiens is best explained by ____.
A. genetic drift
B. polyploidy
C. gene flow
D. a mutation
A
Vertebrates and tunicates share
A. a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
B. a high degree of cephalization.
C. jaws adapted for feeding.
D .an endoskeleton that includes a skull.
E
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
A. lack nipples.
B. lay eggs.
C. are found in Australia and Africa.
D. include only insectivores and herbivores.
E. have some embryonic development outside the uterus
B
As hominins diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?
A. the making of stone tools
B. bipedal locomotion
C. reduced jawbones
D. language
E. an enlarged brain
A
Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
A. a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates
B. a salamander that had legs supported by a bony skeleton but moved with the side-to-side bending typical of fishes
C. an early ray-finned fish that developed bony skeletal supports in its paired fins
D. an armored, jawed placoderm with two pairs of appendages
E. an early terrestrial caecilian whose legless condition had evolved secondarily
B
Which of the following is true?
A. Hominids evolved from chimpanzees.
B. Chimpanzees and hominids share a common ancestor.
C. Chimpanzees are hominids.
D. Chimpanzees evolved from hominids.
C
Which of the following is true?
A. The genus Homo and the genus Australopithicus contain the same species.
B. The genus Homo and the genus Australopithicus co-evolved.
C. The genus Australopithicus evolved into the genus Homo.
D. The genus Homo evolved into the genus Australopithicus.
B
Which of the following is true?
A. The definition of tool is too variable to apply to hominids.
B. Early hominids used tools.
C. Early hominids did not use tools.
D. It is unknown as to whether or not early hominids used tools.
B
Why might natural selection have favored the evolution of large brains despite their high maintenance costs?
A. Large brains use more energy.
B. Large brains may make individuals more likely to survive and reproduce.
C. Large brains may make individuals less effective at raising offspring.
D. Large brains may make it less likely for individuals to obtain mates.
A, B, C
Which of the following chordate groups include(s) humans?
Select all that apply.
A. Hominins
B. Gnathostomes
C. Amniotes
A
Which of the following statements describing hominin evolution is/are correct
Select all that apply.

A. Homo sapiens is the only surviving member of a highly branched evolutionary tree of hominin species.
B. The first hominin species evolved from chimpanzees.
C. Hominin species began to walk on two legs in order to free their hands to use tools.

A
What is the significance of the evolution of Hox gene clusters during vertebrate evolution?

A. Duplication of Hox genes made increased morphological complexity possible.
B. Novel Hox genes coded for novel vertebrate features, such as jaws, limbs, and large brains.
C. Duplicate Hox genes triggered the formation of neural crest cells and allowed them to disperse throughout the body, forming a variety of structures.

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