Marketing Ch16 (Marketing Communications) Ch17 (Advertising, PR, Sales Promotion)

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Competitive Advantage
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One or more unique aspects of an organization that cause target consumers to patronize that firm rather than competitors Ex: high quality, rapid delivery, low prices, excellent services, rare features
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Communication
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process by which meanings are exchanged or shared through a common set of symbols
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Interpersonal communication
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Direct face to face communication between two or more people
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Mass communication
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Communicating a concept or message to large audiences.
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Sender
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The originator of the message in the communication process
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Encoding
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the conversion of a sender’s ideas and thoughts into a message, usually in the form of words or signs
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Receivers
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the person who decodes the message
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Channel
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a medium of communication- such as voice, radio, or newspaper- for transmitting a message
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Noise
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Anything that interferes with, distorts or slows down the transmission of information
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Decoding
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Interpretation of the language and symbols sent by the source through a channel
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Feedback
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the receiver’s response to a message
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Promotional mix
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the combo of promotional tools- including advertising, PR, personal selling, sales promotion, and social media- used to reach the target market and fulfill the organization’s overall goals
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Asdvertising
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impersonal, one way mass communication about a product of organization that is paid for by a marketer
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Public relations
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the marketing function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies areas within the organization the public may be interested in, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance
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Publicity
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public info about a company, product, service or issue appearing in the mass media as a news item
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Sales promotion
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Marketing activities- other than personal selling, advertising and PR- that stimulate consumer buyer and dealer effectiveness
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Personal selling
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A purchase situation involving a personal, paid for communication between two people in an attempt to influence each other
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Paid media
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a category of promotional tactic based on the traditional advertising model, whereby a brand pays for media space
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Earned media
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a category of promotional tactic based on a public relations or publicity model that gets customers talking about products or services. get people talking about the brand whether it be through media coverage or through word of mouth
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Owned media
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a new category of promotional tactic based on brands becoming publishers of their own content in order to maximize the brands’ value to customers as well as increase their search rank in Google
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AIDA concept
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outlines the process for achieving promotional goals in terms of stages of consumer involvement with the message; attention, interest, desire and action
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Integrated marketing communications (IMC)
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careful coordination of all promotional messages for a product or a service to ensure the consistency of messages at every contact point at which a company meets the consumer
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push strategy
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a marketing strategy that uses aggressive personal selling and trade advertising to convince a wholesaler or retailer to carry and sell a particular item
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pull strategy
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stimulates consumer demand to obtain product distribution
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Advertising response function
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spending for advertising and sales promotion increases sales or market share up to a certain level but then produces diminishing returns
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institutional advertising
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a form of advertising designed to enhance a company’s image rather than promote a particular product
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product advertising
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a form of advertising that touts the benefits of a specific good or service
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advocacy advertising
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a form of advertising in which an organization expresses its views on controversial issues or responds to media attacks
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pioneering advertisement
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a form of advertising designed to stimulate primary demand for a new product or product category
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competitive advertising
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a form of advertising designed to influence demand for a specific brand
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comparative advantage
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a form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one or more specific attributes
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advertising campaign
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a series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan and set of advertising appeals
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advertising objective
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a specific communication task that a campaign should accomplish for a specific target audience during a specified period
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advertising appeal
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a reason for a person to buy a product
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unique selling product
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a desirable, exclusive and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign
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medium
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the channel used to convey a message to a target market
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media planning
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the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost effectively communicate the message to the target audience
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cooperative advertising
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an arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising the manufacturer’s brand
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infomercial
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a thirty minute or longer advertisement that looks more like a television talk show than a sales pitch
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Advergaming
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Placing messages in web-based, mobile, console, or handheld video games to advertise or promote a product, service, organization or issue
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media mix
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the combo of media to be used for a promotional campaign
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cost per contact (cost per thousand or CPM)
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the cost of reaching one member of the target market
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cost per click
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cost associate with a consumer clicking on a display or banner ad
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reach
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the number of target consumers exposed to a commercial at least once during a specific period, usually four weeks
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frequency
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the number of times an individual is exposed to a given message during a specific period
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audience selectivity
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the ability of an advertising medium to reach a precisely defined market
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media schedule
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designation of the media, the specific publications or programs, and the insertion dates of advertising
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continuous media schedule
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a media scheduling strategy in which advertising is run steadily throughout the advertising period; used for products in the later stages the product life cycle
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flighted media schedule
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a media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times
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pulsing media schedule
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a media scheduling strategy that uses continuous scheduling throughout the year coupled with a flighted schedule during the best sales periods
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seasonal media schedule
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a media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used
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publicity
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an effort to capture media attention, often initiate through press releases that further a corporation’s public relations plans
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product placement
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a PR strategy that involves getting a product, service or company name to appear in a movie, TV show, radio program, magazine, newspaper, video game, video or audio clip, book or commercial for another product; n the Internet; or at special events
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sponsorship
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a PR strategy in which a company spends money to support an issue, cause or event that is consistent with corporate objectives, such as improving brand awareness or enhancing corporate image
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crisis management
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a coordinated effort to handle all the effects of unfavorable publicity or another unexpected unfavorable event
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sales promotion
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marketing communication activities other than advertising, personal selling and PR, in which short term incentive motivates consumers or members of the distribution channel to purchase a good or service immediately, either by lowering the price or adding value
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trade sales promotion
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promotion activities directed to members of the marketing channel, such as wholesalers and retailers
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consumer sales promotion
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promotion activities targeted to the ultimate consumer market
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trade allowance
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a price reduction offered by manufacturers to intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers
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push money
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money offered to channel intermediaries to encourage them to “push” products- that is, to encourage other members of the channel to sell the products
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coupon
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a certificate that entitles consumers to an immediate price reduction when the product is purchased
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rebate
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a cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
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premium
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an extra item offered to the consumer, usually in exchange for some proof of purchase of the promoted product
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loyalty marketing program
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a promotional program designed to build long term, mutually beneficial relations between a company and its key customers
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frequent buyer program
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a loyalty program in which loyal consumers are rewarded for making multiple purchasers of a particular good or service
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sampling
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a promo program that allows the consumer the opportunity to try a product or service for free
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point of purchase (P_O_P)
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a promo display set up at the retailer’s location to build traffic, advertise the product, or induce impulse buying

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