Management 301 Exam 1 Essay

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Introduction What was the point of the football exercise?
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To understand the process of MGMT. -Shows organization makes business more efficient -Goal, structure, engagement, and metrics
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Introduction Diagon Alley Example
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Had a ton of planning, resources, organizing to go into it
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Introduction The Management Process
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Planning – Setting performance objectives and deciding how to achieve them Controlling- Measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results Leading- Inspiring people to work hard to achieve high performance Organizing- Arranging tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work
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Introduction Smeal Honor Code
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1. We aspire to high ethical standards & 2. Will hold each other accountable. 3. We will not engage in any improper academic or professional actions.
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Introduction Languages of Business
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Accounting – Technical Language Business Major – Functional Language Management – People and Organizational Language Business Information/Literacy – Conversational Language *You need to know management so you know how to manage people and you understand why you are being managed in a certain way.
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Introduction Fortune 500
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Largest companies in the United States based on revenue -Walmart is the largest (476 billion) -Exxon #2
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Introduction Global 500
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Largest companies in the World based on revenue -#1 is Walmart
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Introduction So You Think You Can Dance
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????
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Chapter 1 What do Managers Do?
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1. Relies on Control 2. Administers 3. Maintains 4. System/Structure 5. Short-Range View 6. Asks How and When 7. Maintain Status Quo 8. Does Things Right *EXECUTION*
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Chapter 1 What does a Leader do?
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1. Innovates 2. Focus on People 3. Develops 4. Inspire Trust 5. Long-Range View 6. Asks what and Why 7. Challenge Status Quo 8. Does the Right Think *VISION, THINKING, STRATEGY*
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Chapter 1 Shirtless Dancing Guy Example
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-Their is a shirtless dancing guy -The first person to follow the dancing guy is actually the most important because he starts the movement -The Leader is just glorifed
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Chapter 1 Levels of MGMT Traditional Pyramid
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1. For Profit = Board of Directors or Non Profit = Board of Trustees 2. CEO (President, VP) 3. Senior Managers (CFO) 4. Middle Managers (Division Managers, Regional Managers) 5. Front-Line Managers (Department Head, Team Leader) 6. Non-Managerial Worker
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Chapter 1 Levels of MGMT Non-Traditional Pyramid (Inverted Levels)
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1. Customers 2. Operating Workers 3. Team Leaders & Middle Managers 4. Sr. Managers 5. CEO 6. Board of Directors or Board of Trustees
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Chapter 1 Levels of MGMT Inverted Company Structure Example
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W. L. Gore -CEO Terri Kelly -GoreTex -No titles, completely team based
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Chapter 1 Levels of MGMT Traditional Pyramid Examples
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Military Religion Education Government Business ***Caterpillar***
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Chapter 1 Who is Henry Mintzbeg?
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*Author of The Nature of Managerial Work” -Mechanical Engineering degree from McGill University
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Chapter 1 Mintzberg’s Roles 3
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Interpersonal Role Informational Role Decisional Role
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Chapter 1 Mintzberg’s Roles Interpersonal Role
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How a manager interacts with other people. – Figurehead – ceremonial role, honor is important – Leader – Task people, make people accountable – Liaison – Whatever the outside world needs of you (Ex: Government, News) (Inside and Outside Work) – Ex: Don Thompson is the CEO of McDonald’s, but he isn’t the founder
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Chapter 1 Mintzberg’s Role Informational Role
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How a manager exchanges and processes information. – Monitor – looking out for opportunities and threats – Disseminate – take outside information and teach it to any team – Spokes Person – disseminates information to team for innovation – Ex: Steve Jobs (Former CEO of Apple) Tim Cook (Current CEO) unveil new items
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Chapter 1 Mintzberg’s Role Decisional Role
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How a manager uses information in decision making – Negotiator – most complex, make decisions, talk with different states about battery function – Disturbance Handler – any internal or external disturbances – Entrepreneur – making decisions to innovate (what is next) – Resource Allocater – who gets what resources, where these resources go, strategies – Ex: Elon Musk – CEO of Tesla Motors, SpaceEx, and Co-founder of Paypal “Iron Man”
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Chapter 1 Robert Katz’s Big 3 Skills of Managers
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1. Conceptual Skills – the ability to think analytically and achieve integrative problem solving (High Top-Level Managers) 2. Human Skills – The ability to work well in cooperation with other persons: emotional intelligence – the ability to manage ourselves and relationships effectively (Equal for Top, Middle, and Low Levels) 3. Technical Skills – The ability to apply expertise and perform a special task with proficiency (High Low-Level Managers)
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Chapter 1 Emotional Intelligence includes all the facets of leadership competencies except?
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Ethical Decision Making
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies
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1.Globalization 2. Ethics 3. Governance 4. Diversity 5. Knowledge 6. Self Management
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Globalization
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The worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets, and business competition.
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Ethics
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A code of moral principles that sets standards of conduct for what is good and right
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Governance
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Oversight of a company’s management by a board of directors
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Diversity
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Describes differences among workers in gender, race, age, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and able-bodiness. (discrimination and prejudice)
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Knowledge
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Knowing about the company and it’s workers
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Chapter 1 Career Issues for Managers Leadership Competencies Self Management
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The ability to understand oneself, exercise initiative, accept responsibility, and learn from experience.
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Chapter 2 History of Management
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Study of the Western European approach Industrial Revolution 1700’s and on -MGMT has occurred everywhere in the world in all cultures -MGMT has been practiced for all of time Ex: Coliseum & Pyramids both needed MGMT of people and supplies to make them happen
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Chapter 2 3 Approaches to Management
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1. Classical 2. Behavioral 3. Modern
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Chapter 2 Classical
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Frederick Taylor – Scientific Management Max Weber – Bureaucratic Organization Henri Fayol – Administrative Principles *Assume that people are rational*
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Chapter 2 Frederick Taylor
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Scientific Management (1911) -Goal is to secure maximum prosperity for employer and maximum prosperity for the employees -Observed that lack of clear uniform methods caused workers to lose efficiency and under-perform *Measured Things* *Quantify* -Proposed 4 core principles to address this: 1. Develop a “science” for each job – study jobs to identify basic steps and motions, work tools, work conditions; identify the most efficient ways to do each jon 2. Hire workers with the right abilities – careful selection and training of workers 3. Train and motivate workers to follow the “science” of each job – teach supervisors how to support and encourage workers 4. Support workers based on the science of each job – supervisors responsible for making sure workers have what they need to successfully perform jobs.
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Chapter 2 Scientific Management Examples
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Ex: UPS (United Parcel Service) still uses Taylor’s theories in practice, from conducting time-motion studies as its sorting facilities to developing detailed timelines for deliveries. The savings of seconds on individual delivery stops adds up to productivity increases. Ex: Henry Ford was the first to adopt Taylor’s approach in his auto manufacturing business BMW plant is current example Ex: Motion study- science of reducing a job or task to is basic physical motions (Great Shovel Project – right length and poundage) Ex: Top coach teaches football players techniques and how it fits strategy they are going to perform better
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Chapter 2 Max Weber
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Bureaucratic Organization (1864-1920) – Developed his ideas in response to what he viewed as poor performance by organizations – Felt that these problems could be addressed through bureaucracy *Organize* Power = ability to coerce actions’ authority = actions taken voluntarily Bureacracy – a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority Characteristics of an Ideal Bureacracy (Weber) 1. Clear Division of Labor – jobs well define; workers are highly skilled at performing jobs 2. Clear Hierarchy of Authority – well defined authority and responsibility; clear reporting structure 3. Formal Rules and Procedures – written guidelines for expected behaviors; files are kept for the historical record 4. Impersonality – impartial rules; no preferential treatment based on individual characteristics 5. Careers Based on Merit – worker selection and promotion based on ability/performance; managers are career employees of the organization
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Chapter 2 Bureaucratic Organization Examples
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Ex- NASA and the management of the Space Shuttle program represent the Bureaucratic Management method; the Google Lunar X-Prize is an example of non-bureaucratic approach to business Ex- Military -Religion – Business – Education -Government *Inflexible – not likely to change
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Chapter 2 Henri Fayol
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Administrative Principles (1841 – 1925) – Published Administration Industrielle et Generale outling his views on management; identified “rules” or “duties” of management 1. Foresight/Planning – complete plan of action for the future 2. Organization – provides resources to implement the plan 3. Command – lead, choose, and evaluate workers 4. Coordination – put different efforts together; share information; solve problems 5. Control – ensure that things happen as planned; take corrective action
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Chapter 2 Administrative Principles Examples
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Ex: Scalar Chain Principle – organizations should operate with clear and unbroken lines of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization Ex: Unity of Command Principle – a worker should receive orders from only 1 boss
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Chapter 2 Behavioral
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1. Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Studies 2. Douglas McGregor – Theory X & Y 3. Abraham Maslow – Human Needs Theory Look at MGMT from an HR perspective, shifting MGMT thinking away from physical factors to the human side. Understand people and manage people better, you can increase productivity.
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Chapter 2 Elton Mayo
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Hawthorne Studies (1880 – 1949) – focused on the human side of organizations, trying to increase productivity -Studied – how use of economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output (Western Electric study) – Ex: When the lights were turned on; productivity went up. When the lights were turned off, productivity went up; productivity improved regardless of changes made – Result – no direct relationships found between changes in physical working conditions and performance; researcher attention was key; groups have negative/positive influence on member behavior *Hawthorne Effect – tendency of people who receive special attention to perform as expected*
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Chapter 2 Abraham Maslow
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Human Needs Theory (1908 – 1970) – Hierarchy of needs Need – physiological or psychological deficiency that a person must satisfy Hierarchy – Self Actualization – self fulfillment and peak experience; give back to the world – Esteem Needs – respect, competence, prestige – Social Needs – love, belonging, family, friends, relationships – Safety Needs – emotional, financial, alliances – Physiological (Basic) Needs – food, water, shelter Higher order needs – self-actualization and esteem needs Progression Principle – A need at any level becomes activated only after the newt-lower need is satisfied Deficit Principle – People act to satisfy needs for which a satisfaction deficit exists; people are not motivated by already-satisfied needs *You can target marketing towards these needs to market your product *You can motivate people buy providing these needs in a management sense.
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Chapter 2 Douglas McGregor
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Theory X & Y (1906 – 1964) -Wrote the Human Side of Enterprise; influence by Maslow and the Hawthorne studies; managers should pay more attention to the social and self-actualizing needs of employees; reflects ways managers manage today -Theory X – assumes people dislike work, lack ambition, are followers, resist change, are irresponsible -Theory Y -assumes people are willing to work, are capable/creative, are self-controlled, are self-directed, are responsible -Self-fulfilling prophecy – when a person acts in a way that confirms another’s expectations; people behavior consistently with other’s assumptions (like the Hawthorne Effect); the assumptions of both Theory X and Theory Y create self-fulfilling prophecy
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Chapter 2 Theory X
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Directive Industry 1. Dislike Work 2. Lack Ambition 3. Follow not lead 4. Resist Change 5. Irresponsible
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Chapter 2 Theory Y
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Participative 1. Willing to Work 2. Capable/Creative 3. Self-controlled 4. Self-directed 5. Responsible
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Chapter 2 Modern Approaches to Management
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1. Operations and Management Science 2. Customer Driven System 3. Contingency Thinking 4. Quality Management/Evidence Based Management
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Chapter 2 Modern Approaches to Management Operations and Management Sciene
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Analytics- the systematic use and analysis of data to solve problems and make informed decisions Ex: Queing Theory, Network Models, Forecasting, Inventory Analysis, and Linear Programming
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Chapter 2 Queing Theory
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Study of waiting in lines. Ex: Disney studies rides per capita, study consumers on how long they are willing to wait. Walmart on has a certain number of lines open to study how long people are willing to wait for cash register before they just drop their shit and leave
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Chapter 2 Modern Approaches to Management Customer Driven Open Systems
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Transform resource inputs into product outputs – Inputs (resources in) – people, money, materials, technology, information – Outputs (out to customers) – finished goods, completed services – Work – business creates resources to outputs – Customer feedback – loops back from outputs to inputs Ex: Zara -1,659 stores in 85 countries – Operations Management Keys – 2 week design cycle – Design imitator – Attractive price points -Headquartered in Northern Spain
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Chapter 2 Modern Approaches to Management Contingency Thinking
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(Government vs. Private Space Program) matches management practices with situational demands -What works for 1 organization may not work for another -What works now may not work later
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Chapter 2 Modern Approaches to Management Quality Management/Evidence Based Management
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Focuses on continuous improvement; an example is Six Sigma -Total Quality Management – managing with an organization – wide focus on continuous improvement, product quality, customer needs – Continuous Improvement – always searching for new ways to improve work/performance – ISO Certification – conforming with a rigorous set of international quality standards -Make decisions based on facts, looking at what works -Scientific Method
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Chapter 2 Six Sigma
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Process Improvement Example of Quality MGMT/Evidence Based MGMT
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Chapter 2 Lean Principles
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Reduction of waste Example of Quality MGMT/Evidence Based MGMT
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Chapter 3 Responsibility
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Ability or authority to act or decide on one’s own without supervision
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Chapter 3 Spider Man Example
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With great power comes great responsibility!
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Chapter 3 PONG
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Personal – Most important Organizational National – different customs Global – values applied across
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Chapter 3 Ethics Research Study Data
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In 2011 we saw a increase of 5% from 2009 to 13% of US workers perceiving pressure to commit misconduct. Millenniums are the most retaliated against age group when it comes to whistle blowing. -% Point Changes in Key ERC Metrics (2011-2013) There was a 2% decrease in Reporting of Observed Misconduct to 63%
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Chapter 3 Ethics
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Standards of good or bad, right or wrong, in conduct Set of Principles Right Conduct Underlying Values
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Chapter 3 Other Moral Approaches
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1. Utilitarian View 2. Individualism View 3. Justice View 4. Moral Rights View
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Chapter 3 Other Moral Approaches Utilitarian View
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John Stuart Mill -Ethical behavior delivers the greatest good to the most people; results oriented view
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Chapter 3 Other Moral Approaches Individualism View
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Ethical behavior advances long-term self interests; people become self-regulating as they strive for their own individual success over time -Pecuniary Ethic – a tendency to push the law to its limits, probably at the expense of others; can result from individualism in the business ethic
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Chapter 3 Other Moral Approaches Justice View
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Ethical behavior treats people fairly and impartially according to legal standards. 1. Procedural Justice – fair application of policies and rules 2. Distributive Justice – treating people the same regardless of personal characteristics 3. Interactional Justice – degree to which others are treated with dignity and respect 4. Commutative Justice – fairness of exchanges or transactions
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Chapter 3 Other Moral Approaches Moral Right View
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Ethical behavior respects and protects people’s fundamental rights
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Chapter 3 Conventional Approach
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Common Sense Approach – If that’s all we have we are not going to be ethical because their are so many ways that it won’t work
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Chapter 3 What is Right and What is Wrong?
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Right 1. Respect 2. Not cheating 3. Treating Workers Fairly Wrong 1. Stealing from company 2. Cheating customers 3. Abusing Children 4. Sexual Abuse 5. Unfair Treatment 6. Discrimination
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Chapter 3 Hypernorms
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Values that are excepted in virtually in every single culture. Customs and approaches can be different, but hyper norms are almost always excepted.
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Chapter 3 Cultural Relativism
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When in Rome, Do as the Romans Do -Follow those standards of the host country -Cultural context determines it No one right way to behave; we must consider cultural context when evaluating ethical behavior, ethics can vary across cultures
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Chapter 3 Moral Absolutism
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Define what my standards are in my host country, and you take your standards with you from your own country. Imposing one’s own ethical standards on another culture
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Chapter 3 Descriptive Ethics
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WHAT IS
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Chapter 3 Normative Ethics
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WHAT OUT TO BE
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Chapter 3 Ethical Decision-Making Assessment Framework (6)
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1. Awareness – Idea of what is going on 2. Facts – actual information 3. Stake holders – anyone who has an interest 4. Standards – laws, policies, procedures 5. Values – Do I operate on a certain level 6. Actions – what do I do
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Chapter 3 Sweetie Case
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Worker calls a female worker “Sweetie”
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Chapter 3 Kolberg’s Levels of Moral Development
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Level 1: Preconventional (Self) (Self centered, Person at gain) 1. Punish 2. Reward Level 2: Conventional (Others) (Social) 3. Good 4. Law Level 3: Post Conventional (All) (Principles) 5. Fairness 6. Universal – great power, great responsibility
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Chapter 3 Organizational Ethics Components
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1. Leadership 2. Ethics Officer 3. Codes 4. Training 5. Audits 6. Industry Standards 7. Avoid Undue Authority 8. Communicate 9. Detection & Prevention 10. Compliance Standards
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Chapter 3 What is the #1 factor of effecting behavior?
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Behavior of Superiors (Supervisor)
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Chapter 3 Rules and Ethics
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Rules – found in a compliance document Ethics/Values – found in a code of conduct
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Chapter 3 Whistleblower
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Report/expose misconduct of an organization and/or it’s members to preserve ethical standards and protect against wasteful, harmful, or illegal acts. Reason for not doing it: No corrective action would be taken, reports would not be confidential.
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Chapter 3 Immoral Managers
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Behaves unethically -personal gain, purposefully disregards ethics
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Chapter 3 Amoral Manager
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Does not consider the ethics of his/her behavior -Unintentional *MOST COMMON*
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Chapter 3 Moral Managers
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Sets ethical behavior as a personal goal -post conventional or principal stage of moral development
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Chapter 3 Terminal Values
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Preferences about desired end states Ex: self-respect, family security, freedom, happiness *Can vary by person
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Chapter 3 Instrumental Values
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Are preferences regarding the means to desired ends. Ex: honesty, ambition, courage, imagination, self-discipline *Can vary by person
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In classical management theory, who is the person credited with identifying bureaucracy?
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Max Weber
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What management theory focuses on people first?
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Behavorial
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You are asked to make a decision for your new employer based on facts. You are being asked to make what type of decision?
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Sensation & Thinking
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One of the conclusions of the Hawthorne studies was that
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Supervisors should avoid close relations with their subordinates
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When readily available information is used to assess the situation and it results in a bad decision, it is called
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Availability Heuristic
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In a department meeting, your supervisor takes credit for the excellent work of an absent colleague. What should you do?
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Inform the absent colleague of what took place and allow him to take action.
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The (blank) decision model views managers as making optimizing decisions while the (blank) decision model views managers as making satisficing decisions.
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Classical/Behavorial
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If a local bank is a complex system, then customer service department would be a
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Subsystem or Closed System
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The goal of the scientific management approach (Frederick Taylor) was to
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Secure maximum prosperity for employer and employee
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(blank) are broad beliefs about what is considered appropriate behavior.
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Values
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(blank) highlight the risks from public disclosure of a person’s actions.
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Spotlight questions
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The social responsibility audit
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Measures and reports on organizational performance in regards to social responsibility
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Who is McDonald’s current CEO?
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Don Thompson
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3 P’s of Organization Performance
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Profit, People, Planet
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Robert Katz
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Skills of Managers
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Charles Hardy
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Shamrock Organization
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Frederick Taylor
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(Classical) Scientific Management
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Max Weber
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(Classical) Bureaucratic Management
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Henri Fayol
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(Classical) Administrative Principles
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Lawrence Kohlberg
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Levels of moral development
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Elton Mayo
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(Behavioral) Hawthorne Studies
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Abraham Maslow
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(Behavioral) Human Needs Theory
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Douglas McGregor
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(Behavioral) Theory X & Theory Y

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