Making Sense of Change Management – Flashcards

question
Learning
answer
The process of acquiring knowledge through experience, which leads to a change in behaviour
question
Gestalt
answer
Psychologist that suggested that people have a worldwide view that entails some things being in the foreground and other things being in the background of their consciousness
question
Unconscious competence
answer
Able to do something without realising it
question
Unconscious incompetence
answer
You do not know what you do not know, and the only way of realising is by making a mistake (and reflecting upon it)
question
Kolb's learning cycle (Unconscious incompetence cycle)
answer
Activist -> Reflector -> Theorist -> Pragmatist
question
Activist
answer
Experience in order to learn
question
Reflector
answer
Reflect on the experience before taking action
question
Theorist
answer
Investigate
question
Pragmatist
answer
Relate to what is happening to own circumstances
question
Behavioural approach
answer
Focuses on how one individual can change another individual's behaviour using reward and punishment to achieve intended results
question
Project of planned behaviour steps
answer
1. Identification of behaviours that impact performance 2. Measurement of those behaviours 3. Functional analysis: identification of the component parts that make up each behaviour 4. Strategy of intervention: what rewards and punishments should be linked to the behaviours that impact performance 5. Evaluation
question
McGregor (Motivation and behaviour)
answer
He concluded that employee behaviour was the result of the style management
question
Theory X (McGregor)
answer
People hate work, they have to be forced to work and prefer to be told what to do. People are selfish and have no interest in the organisation. They are motivated by threats of punishment
question
Theory Y (McGregor)
answer
People like work, they drive themselves and work effectively. People accept responsibility and seek inner fulfilment from work. They seek recognition and encouragement.
question
Hygiene factors (McGregor)
answer
A desire to avoid pain or deprivation. Do not motivate but their withdrawal demotivate (pay, company policy, status, working conditions, security, etc.) -- They do it because the benefits they get are good, but don't like the job itself
question
Motivators (McGregor)
answer
Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, learning, type and nature of the work
question
Cognitive theory
answer
Achieving results through positive reframing. Associated techniques are goal setting and coaching to achieve results. It does not refer to the external stimuli and the responses to the stimuli (setting goals, or making sense of our results are examples)
question
Techniques for change
answer
Positive listing, pattern breaking, detachment, rational analysis, reframing, etc.
question
Benefits of the cognitive theory
answer
It builds on the behaviourist approach by putting behaviour into the context of beliefs, and focusing more firmly on outcomes. It focuses on building a positive, mental attitude and some stretching goals, backed up by a detailed look at what limiting beliefs produce behaviour that becomes self-defeating
question
Drawbacks of the cognitive theory
answer
Lack of recognition of the inner emotional worlds of the individual, and the positive and negative impact that this can have when attempting to manage change. Some obstacles cannot be made okay by reframing or positive talk
question
Psychodynamic approach
answer
Understanding and relating to the inner world of change. This is especially significant when people are going through highly affecting change
question
Kubler-Ross model (change curve)
answer
1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
question
Virginia Satir Model
answer
Highlights two key events that disturb or move an individual's experience along: the foreign element, and the transforming idea
question
Foreign element
answer
Something new enters the system which causes chaos
question
Transforming idea
answer
Individual is coming to terms with reality
question
Humanistic approach
answer
Believing in development and growth, and maximising potential. The emphasis is on healthy development, healthy authentic relationships and healthy organisation
question
Maslov's hierarchy of needs
answer
Until the lower level needs are met, an individual cannot progress or be interested in the needs higher up the pyramid
question
Maslov's hierarchy of needs pyramid (starting from the top)
answer
1. Self-actualisation 2. Self-esteem 3. Love and belonging 4. Safety 5. Physiological
question
7 stages in the process of change (Rogers)
answer
1. Defensive and resistant to change 2. More open, and will talk about external events or other people 3. Talks about him/herself, but as an object 4. Begins about deep feelings and develops a relationship 5. Expresses more emotions, and is becoming more accepting 6. Rapid growth towards congruence, and positive regards for others 7. Empathetic and understanding; self-actualisation
question
Gestalt Cycle
answer
Use a cycle of experience to map how individuals and groups enact their desires, but more often than not how they block themselves from completing the cycles
question
Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBIT)
answer
A personality inventory which identifies 8 different personality 'preferences' that we all use at different times - but each individual will have a preference for one particular combination over the others
question
4 groups of MBIT
answer
- Thoughtful realists: introverted sensing - Thoughtful innovators: introverted intuitive - Action oriented realists: extraverted sensing - Action oriented innovators: extraverted intuitive
question
5 factors in responding to change
answer
1. Nature of the change 2. Consequences of the change 3. Organisational history 4. Type of individual 5. Individual history
question
Change occurring in three stages (Schein)
answer
1. Unfreezing: creating the motivation to change 2. Learning new concepts and new meanings from old concepts 3. Internalising new concepts and meanings
question
Unfreezing stage
answer
People need to unlearn certain things before they can focus on new learning
question
Survival anxiety (what if I don't change?)
answer
Must be greater than learning anxiety if a change is to happen. Managers need to reduce people's learning anxiety rather than increase their survival anxiety by increasing the learner's sense of psychological state
question
Learning anxiety
answer
Will I fail?
question
A group
answer
A collection of individuals who draw a boundary around themselves
question
A team
answer
Tighter than a group, with a common purpose and is clearer about what it is and what its reason for existence is
question
Tuckman's model of team change
answer
1. Forming primary purpose, structure, roles, leaders, tasks, etc. 2. Storming: arising and dealing of conflicts 3. Norming: settling down of team and dynamic and stepping into agreed way of working 4. Performing: focus on main task
question
Bion's 3 possible pitfalls of leadership in a team, and Turquet's 4th one
answer
1. Dependency: team members invest the leaders with all power and authority 2. Fight or flight: team members challenge the leaders or other members, and then withdraw 3. Pairing: team members form pairings in an attempt to resolve their anxiety 4. Cosiness: the team seems to believe it has come together, so member lose their individualism
question
Machine metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Organisations can be changed to an agreed end state by those in positions of authority. Change needs to be well planned and well controlled
question
Organism metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Views change as a process of adapting to changes in the environment. The focus is on designing interventions to decrease resistance to change, and increase the forces to change
question
Political metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Recognises the important role that power plays, competing interest, and conflict have in organisations
question
Flux and transformation metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Models the true complexity of how change really happens in a turbulent world; it emerges
question
Three basic ingredients of leadership (Bennis)
answer
1. A guiding vision 2. Passion 3. Integrity
question
Transformational leadership
answer
Involves the leader raising the followers' sense of purpose and levels of motivation (example: Obama)
question
Transactional leadership
answer
When a leader hands over rewards when followers meet expectations
question
Adaptive leadership (Heifetz and Laurie)
answer
Taking people out of their comfort zones, letting people feel external pressure, and exposing conflict
question
Connective leadership (Jean Lipman-Blumen)
answer
The need for leaders to ensure connectivity. Leaders need to be able to perceive connections among diverse people, ideas, and institutions even when the parties themselves do not
question
Dispersed leadership (Senge)
answer
Change comes from within the organisation
question
Three types of leaders in an organisational system
answer
1. Local line leaders: core processes - rely on network leaders and executive leaders 2. Executive leaders: board members - innovation environment, infrastructure, role model 3. Network leaders: guide - help local line leaders to move forward
question
Sponsor (change process role)
answer
Has the authority to make change happen, and control of resources. Must give a clear vision for change and identify foals and measurable outcomes
question
Sustainable sponsor (change process role)
answer
Sponsors change in own area, although top-level responsibility lies further up the hierarchy
question
Implementer (change process role)
answer
Implements change. Reports to sponsor. Responsible for giving feedback. Needs to lister, enquire, and clarify questions with the sponsor at the start of an intiiative
question
Change agent (change process role)
answer
Facilitator of change; helps sponsor and implementers stay aligned. Acts as data gatherer, educator, advisor, coach, etc.
question
Advocate
answer
Has an idea, but needs a sponsor to make it happen, and is usually highly motivated.
question
Coercive leadership style
answer
Telling people what and when to do something; used when there is a crisis
question
Authoritative leadership style
answer
Persuading and attracting people with an engaging vision; used when change is required
question
Affiliative leadership style
answer
Building relationships with people through use of positive feedback; used when relationships are broken
question
Democratic leadership style
answer
Asking the team what they think, and listening to the answers; used when team members have something to contribute
question
Pace-setting leadership style
answer
Raising the bar and asking a bit more, increasing the pace; used when team members are highly motivated and competent
question
Coaching leadership style
answer
Encouraging and supporting people to try new things and develop their skills; used when there is a skills gap
question
Culture
answer
The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefor to be taught to new member as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems
question
Internal rebranding/marketing
answer
Promoting of the firm and its products or product lines to the firm's employees
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question
Learning
answer
The process of acquiring knowledge through experience, which leads to a change in behaviour
question
Gestalt
answer
Psychologist that suggested that people have a worldwide view that entails some things being in the foreground and other things being in the background of their consciousness
question
Unconscious competence
answer
Able to do something without realising it
question
Unconscious incompetence
answer
You do not know what you do not know, and the only way of realising is by making a mistake (and reflecting upon it)
question
Kolb's learning cycle (Unconscious incompetence cycle)
answer
Activist -> Reflector -> Theorist -> Pragmatist
question
Activist
answer
Experience in order to learn
question
Reflector
answer
Reflect on the experience before taking action
question
Theorist
answer
Investigate
question
Pragmatist
answer
Relate to what is happening to own circumstances
question
Behavioural approach
answer
Focuses on how one individual can change another individual's behaviour using reward and punishment to achieve intended results
question
Project of planned behaviour steps
answer
1. Identification of behaviours that impact performance 2. Measurement of those behaviours 3. Functional analysis: identification of the component parts that make up each behaviour 4. Strategy of intervention: what rewards and punishments should be linked to the behaviours that impact performance 5. Evaluation
question
McGregor (Motivation and behaviour)
answer
He concluded that employee behaviour was the result of the style management
question
Theory X (McGregor)
answer
People hate work, they have to be forced to work and prefer to be told what to do. People are selfish and have no interest in the organisation. They are motivated by threats of punishment
question
Theory Y (McGregor)
answer
People like work, they drive themselves and work effectively. People accept responsibility and seek inner fulfilment from work. They seek recognition and encouragement.
question
Hygiene factors (McGregor)
answer
A desire to avoid pain or deprivation. Do not motivate but their withdrawal demotivate (pay, company policy, status, working conditions, security, etc.) -- They do it because the benefits they get are good, but don't like the job itself
question
Motivators (McGregor)
answer
Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, learning, type and nature of the work
question
Cognitive theory
answer
Achieving results through positive reframing. Associated techniques are goal setting and coaching to achieve results. It does not refer to the external stimuli and the responses to the stimuli (setting goals, or making sense of our results are examples)
question
Techniques for change
answer
Positive listing, pattern breaking, detachment, rational analysis, reframing, etc.
question
Benefits of the cognitive theory
answer
It builds on the behaviourist approach by putting behaviour into the context of beliefs, and focusing more firmly on outcomes. It focuses on building a positive, mental attitude and some stretching goals, backed up by a detailed look at what limiting beliefs produce behaviour that becomes self-defeating
question
Drawbacks of the cognitive theory
answer
Lack of recognition of the inner emotional worlds of the individual, and the positive and negative impact that this can have when attempting to manage change. Some obstacles cannot be made okay by reframing or positive talk
question
Psychodynamic approach
answer
Understanding and relating to the inner world of change. This is especially significant when people are going through highly affecting change
question
Kubler-Ross model (change curve)
answer
1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
question
Virginia Satir Model
answer
Highlights two key events that disturb or move an individual's experience along: the foreign element, and the transforming idea
question
Foreign element
answer
Something new enters the system which causes chaos
question
Transforming idea
answer
Individual is coming to terms with reality
question
Humanistic approach
answer
Believing in development and growth, and maximising potential. The emphasis is on healthy development, healthy authentic relationships and healthy organisation
question
Maslov's hierarchy of needs
answer
Until the lower level needs are met, an individual cannot progress or be interested in the needs higher up the pyramid
question
Maslov's hierarchy of needs pyramid (starting from the top)
answer
1. Self-actualisation 2. Self-esteem 3. Love and belonging 4. Safety 5. Physiological
question
7 stages in the process of change (Rogers)
answer
1. Defensive and resistant to change 2. More open, and will talk about external events or other people 3. Talks about him/herself, but as an object 4. Begins about deep feelings and develops a relationship 5. Expresses more emotions, and is becoming more accepting 6. Rapid growth towards congruence, and positive regards for others 7. Empathetic and understanding; self-actualisation
question
Gestalt Cycle
answer
Use a cycle of experience to map how individuals and groups enact their desires, but more often than not how they block themselves from completing the cycles
question
Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBIT)
answer
A personality inventory which identifies 8 different personality 'preferences' that we all use at different times - but each individual will have a preference for one particular combination over the others
question
4 groups of MBIT
answer
- Thoughtful realists: introverted sensing - Thoughtful innovators: introverted intuitive - Action oriented realists: extraverted sensing - Action oriented innovators: extraverted intuitive
question
5 factors in responding to change
answer
1. Nature of the change 2. Consequences of the change 3. Organisational history 4. Type of individual 5. Individual history
question
Change occurring in three stages (Schein)
answer
1. Unfreezing: creating the motivation to change 2. Learning new concepts and new meanings from old concepts 3. Internalising new concepts and meanings
question
Unfreezing stage
answer
People need to unlearn certain things before they can focus on new learning
question
Survival anxiety (what if I don't change?)
answer
Must be greater than learning anxiety if a change is to happen. Managers need to reduce people's learning anxiety rather than increase their survival anxiety by increasing the learner's sense of psychological state
question
Learning anxiety
answer
Will I fail?
question
A group
answer
A collection of individuals who draw a boundary around themselves
question
A team
answer
Tighter than a group, with a common purpose and is clearer about what it is and what its reason for existence is
question
Tuckman's model of team change
answer
1. Forming primary purpose, structure, roles, leaders, tasks, etc. 2. Storming: arising and dealing of conflicts 3. Norming: settling down of team and dynamic and stepping into agreed way of working 4. Performing: focus on main task
question
Bion's 3 possible pitfalls of leadership in a team, and Turquet's 4th one
answer
1. Dependency: team members invest the leaders with all power and authority 2. Fight or flight: team members challenge the leaders or other members, and then withdraw 3. Pairing: team members form pairings in an attempt to resolve their anxiety 4. Cosiness: the team seems to believe it has come together, so member lose their individualism
question
Machine metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Organisations can be changed to an agreed end state by those in positions of authority. Change needs to be well planned and well controlled
question
Organism metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Views change as a process of adapting to changes in the environment. The focus is on designing interventions to decrease resistance to change, and increase the forces to change
question
Political metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Recognises the important role that power plays, competing interest, and conflict have in organisations
question
Flux and transformation metaphor (organisational change)
answer
Models the true complexity of how change really happens in a turbulent world; it emerges
question
Three basic ingredients of leadership (Bennis)
answer
1. A guiding vision 2. Passion 3. Integrity
question
Transformational leadership
answer
Involves the leader raising the followers' sense of purpose and levels of motivation (example: Obama)
question
Transactional leadership
answer
When a leader hands over rewards when followers meet expectations
question
Adaptive leadership (Heifetz and Laurie)
answer
Taking people out of their comfort zones, letting people feel external pressure, and exposing conflict
question
Connective leadership (Jean Lipman-Blumen)
answer
The need for leaders to ensure connectivity. Leaders need to be able to perceive connections among diverse people, ideas, and institutions even when the parties themselves do not
question
Dispersed leadership (Senge)
answer
Change comes from within the organisation
question
Three types of leaders in an organisational system
answer
1. Local line leaders: core processes - rely on network leaders and executive leaders 2. Executive leaders: board members - innovation environment, infrastructure, role model 3. Network leaders: guide - help local line leaders to move forward
question
Sponsor (change process role)
answer
Has the authority to make change happen, and control of resources. Must give a clear vision for change and identify foals and measurable outcomes
question
Sustainable sponsor (change process role)
answer
Sponsors change in own area, although top-level responsibility lies further up the hierarchy
question
Implementer (change process role)
answer
Implements change. Reports to sponsor. Responsible for giving feedback. Needs to lister, enquire, and clarify questions with the sponsor at the start of an intiiative
question
Change agent (change process role)
answer
Facilitator of change; helps sponsor and implementers stay aligned. Acts as data gatherer, educator, advisor, coach, etc.
question
Advocate
answer
Has an idea, but needs a sponsor to make it happen, and is usually highly motivated.
question
Coercive leadership style
answer
Telling people what and when to do something; used when there is a crisis
question
Authoritative leadership style
answer
Persuading and attracting people with an engaging vision; used when change is required
question
Affiliative leadership style
answer
Building relationships with people through use of positive feedback; used when relationships are broken
question
Democratic leadership style
answer
Asking the team what they think, and listening to the answers; used when team members have something to contribute
question
Pace-setting leadership style
answer
Raising the bar and asking a bit more, increasing the pace; used when team members are highly motivated and competent
question
Coaching leadership style
answer
Encouraging and supporting people to try new things and develop their skills; used when there is a skills gap
question
Culture
answer
The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefor to be taught to new member as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems
question
Internal rebranding/marketing
answer
Promoting of the firm and its products or product lines to the firm's employees
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