Making Sense of Change Management

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Learning
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The process of acquiring knowledge through experience, which leads to a change in behaviour
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Gestalt
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Psychologist that suggested that people have a worldwide view that entails some things being in the foreground and other things being in the background of their consciousness
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Unconscious competence
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Able to do something without realising it
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Unconscious incompetence
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You do not know what you do not know, and the only way of realising is by making a mistake (and reflecting upon it)
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Kolb’s learning cycle (Unconscious incompetence cycle)
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Activist -> Reflector -> Theorist -> Pragmatist
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Activist
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Experience in order to learn
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Reflector
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Reflect on the experience before taking action
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Theorist
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Investigate
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Pragmatist
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Relate to what is happening to own circumstances
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Behavioural approach
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Focuses on how one individual can change another individual’s behaviour using reward and punishment to achieve intended results
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Project of planned behaviour steps
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1. Identification of behaviours that impact performance 2. Measurement of those behaviours 3. Functional analysis: identification of the component parts that make up each behaviour 4. Strategy of intervention: what rewards and punishments should be linked to the behaviours that impact performance 5. Evaluation
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McGregor (Motivation and behaviour)
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He concluded that employee behaviour was the result of the style management
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Theory X (McGregor)
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People hate work, they have to be forced to work and prefer to be told what to do. People are selfish and have no interest in the organisation. They are motivated by threats of punishment
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Theory Y (McGregor)
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People like work, they drive themselves and work effectively. People accept responsibility and seek inner fulfilment from work. They seek recognition and encouragement.
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Hygiene factors (McGregor)
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A desire to avoid pain or deprivation. Do not motivate but their withdrawal demotivate (pay, company policy, status, working conditions, security, etc.) — They do it because the benefits they get are good, but don’t like the job itself
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Motivators (McGregor)
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Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, learning, type and nature of the work
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Cognitive theory
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Achieving results through positive reframing. Associated techniques are goal setting and coaching to achieve results. It does not refer to the external stimuli and the responses to the stimuli (setting goals, or making sense of our results are examples)
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Techniques for change
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Positive listing, pattern breaking, detachment, rational analysis, reframing, etc.
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Benefits of the cognitive theory
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It builds on the behaviourist approach by putting behaviour into the context of beliefs, and focusing more firmly on outcomes. It focuses on building a positive, mental attitude and some stretching goals, backed up by a detailed look at what limiting beliefs produce behaviour that becomes self-defeating
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Drawbacks of the cognitive theory
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Lack of recognition of the inner emotional worlds of the individual, and the positive and negative impact that this can have when attempting to manage change. Some obstacles cannot be made okay by reframing or positive talk
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Psychodynamic approach
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Understanding and relating to the inner world of change. This is especially significant when people are going through highly affecting change
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Kubler-Ross model (change curve)
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1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
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Virginia Satir Model
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Highlights two key events that disturb or move an individual’s experience along: the foreign element, and the transforming idea
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Foreign element
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Something new enters the system which causes chaos
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Transforming idea
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Individual is coming to terms with reality
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Humanistic approach
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Believing in development and growth, and maximising potential. The emphasis is on healthy development, healthy authentic relationships and healthy organisation
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Maslov’s hierarchy of needs
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Until the lower level needs are met, an individual cannot progress or be interested in the needs higher up the pyramid
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Maslov’s hierarchy of needs pyramid (starting from the top)
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1. Self-actualisation 2. Self-esteem 3. Love and belonging 4. Safety 5. Physiological
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7 stages in the process of change (Rogers)
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1. Defensive and resistant to change 2. More open, and will talk about external events or other people 3. Talks about him/herself, but as an object 4. Begins about deep feelings and develops a relationship 5. Expresses more emotions, and is becoming more accepting 6. Rapid growth towards congruence, and positive regards for others 7. Empathetic and understanding; self-actualisation
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Gestalt Cycle
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Use a cycle of experience to map how individuals and groups enact their desires, but more often than not how they block themselves from completing the cycles
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Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBIT)
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A personality inventory which identifies 8 different personality ‘preferences’ that we all use at different times – but each individual will have a preference for one particular combination over the others
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4 groups of MBIT
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– Thoughtful realists: introverted sensing – Thoughtful innovators: introverted intuitive – Action oriented realists: extraverted sensing – Action oriented innovators: extraverted intuitive
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5 factors in responding to change
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1. Nature of the change 2. Consequences of the change 3. Organisational history 4. Type of individual 5. Individual history
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Change occurring in three stages (Schein)
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1. Unfreezing: creating the motivation to change 2. Learning new concepts and new meanings from old concepts 3. Internalising new concepts and meanings
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Unfreezing stage
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People need to unlearn certain things before they can focus on new learning
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Survival anxiety (what if I don’t change?)
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Must be greater than learning anxiety if a change is to happen. Managers need to reduce people’s learning anxiety rather than increase their survival anxiety by increasing the learner’s sense of psychological state
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Learning anxiety
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Will I fail?
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A group
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A collection of individuals who draw a boundary around themselves
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A team
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Tighter than a group, with a common purpose and is clearer about what it is and what its reason for existence is
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Tuckman’s model of team change
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1. Forming primary purpose, structure, roles, leaders, tasks, etc. 2. Storming: arising and dealing of conflicts 3. Norming: settling down of team and dynamic and stepping into agreed way of working 4. Performing: focus on main task
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Bion’s 3 possible pitfalls of leadership in a team, and Turquet’s 4th one
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1. Dependency: team members invest the leaders with all power and authority 2. Fight or flight: team members challenge the leaders or other members, and then withdraw 3. Pairing: team members form pairings in an attempt to resolve their anxiety 4. Cosiness: the team seems to believe it has come together, so member lose their individualism
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Machine metaphor (organisational change)
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Organisations can be changed to an agreed end state by those in positions of authority. Change needs to be well planned and well controlled
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Organism metaphor (organisational change)
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Views change as a process of adapting to changes in the environment. The focus is on designing interventions to decrease resistance to change, and increase the forces to change
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Political metaphor (organisational change)
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Recognises the important role that power plays, competing interest, and conflict have in organisations
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Flux and transformation metaphor (organisational change)
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Models the true complexity of how change really happens in a turbulent world; it emerges
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Three basic ingredients of leadership (Bennis)
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1. A guiding vision 2. Passion 3. Integrity
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Transformational leadership
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Involves the leader raising the followers’ sense of purpose and levels of motivation (example: Obama)
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Transactional leadership
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When a leader hands over rewards when followers meet expectations
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Adaptive leadership (Heifetz and Laurie)
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Taking people out of their comfort zones, letting people feel external pressure, and exposing conflict
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Connective leadership (Jean Lipman-Blumen)
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The need for leaders to ensure connectivity. Leaders need to be able to perceive connections among diverse people, ideas, and institutions even when the parties themselves do not
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Dispersed leadership (Senge)
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Change comes from within the organisation
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Three types of leaders in an organisational system
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1. Local line leaders: core processes – rely on network leaders and executive leaders 2. Executive leaders: board members – innovation environment, infrastructure, role model 3. Network leaders: guide – help local line leaders to move forward
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Sponsor (change process role)
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Has the authority to make change happen, and control of resources. Must give a clear vision for change and identify foals and measurable outcomes
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Sustainable sponsor (change process role)
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Sponsors change in own area, although top-level responsibility lies further up the hierarchy
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Implementer (change process role)
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Implements change. Reports to sponsor. Responsible for giving feedback. Needs to lister, enquire, and clarify questions with the sponsor at the start of an intiiative
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Change agent (change process role)
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Facilitator of change; helps sponsor and implementers stay aligned. Acts as data gatherer, educator, advisor, coach, etc.
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Advocate
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Has an idea, but needs a sponsor to make it happen, and is usually highly motivated.
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Coercive leadership style
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Telling people what and when to do something; used when there is a crisis
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Authoritative leadership style
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Persuading and attracting people with an engaging vision; used when change is required
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Affiliative leadership style
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Building relationships with people through use of positive feedback; used when relationships are broken
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Democratic leadership style
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Asking the team what they think, and listening to the answers; used when team members have something to contribute
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Pace-setting leadership style
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Raising the bar and asking a bit more, increasing the pace; used when team members are highly motivated and competent
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Coaching leadership style
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Encouraging and supporting people to try new things and develop their skills; used when there is a skills gap
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Culture
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The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefor to be taught to new member as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems
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Internal rebranding/marketing
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Promoting of the firm and its products or product lines to the firm’s employees

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