A) intelligence tests
B) personality tests
C) detailed medical histories
D) genetic counseling
A) the principle of evolutionary selection
B) natural selection
C) the origin of selection
D) adaptive behavior
A) evolved mechanisms are always adaptive in contemporary society.
B) some characteristics of childhood were selected to be adaptive at specific points in development in preparation for adulthood.
C) an extended childhood period evolved because humans require time to learn the complexity of human societies.
D) evolved psychological mechanisms are domain-specific.
Humans have __________ pairs of chromosomes.
A) only physical characteristics
B) only psychological characteristics
C) both psychological and physical characteristics.
D) neither psychological nor physical characteristics; instead, these are included in one’s genotype
C) reaction range.
A) sickle-cell anemia.
C) Klinefelter syndrome.
A) Klinefelter syndrome
B) Turner syndrome
C) Phenylketonuria PKU
D) Down syndrome.
A) is less in chronic villus sampling.
B) is greater in chronic villus sampling.
C) is equal in chronic villus sampling.
D) varies depending on the age of the woman.
A(n) __________ is someone who seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.
A) evolutionary psychologist
B) behavior geneticist
C) environmental psychologist
D) epigenetic psychologist
A) Adopted children show slightly higher levels of adjustment than nonadopted children do.
B) An increase in problems is associated with later ages of adoption.
C) Adopted children have lower levels of prosocial behavior.
D) Adoptees have fewer school-related problems.
A) passive genotype-environment correlations
B) evocative genotype-environment correlations
C) active genotype-environment correlations
D) non-shared environment correlations
A) epigenetic view
B) gene x environment interaction
C) niche-picking environment
D) all of these
Chorionic villus sampling
people of Asian descent.
people of Middle Eastern descent.
general purpose devices
a. genetic imprinting
b. genetic foundations of development
d. natural selection
e. bidirectional view
b. Genetic foundations of development is not the best answer. It focuses specifically on genes, and how they transmit the characteristics of a species from one generation to another.
c. Meiosis is not the best answer. It describes a specialized form of cell division.
d. Natural selection is the best answer as it refers to the evolutionary process by which the best adapted within a species survive and reproduce.
e. Bidirectional view is not the best answer. It refers to human evolution, and how environmental and biological conditions influence each other.
a. biological, cognitive, and social processes
b. continuity versus discontinuity
c. nature versus nurture
d. stability versus change
e. periods of development
b. Continuity versus discontinuity is not the best answer. The course of development—either prenatally or postnatally—is not described.
c. Nature versus nurture is the best answer. This is a continuing theme of the chapter, throughout which the point is made that environments interact with genotypes in the course of development. For example, natural selection determines which genotypes survive. In the discussion of genetic principles, it is clear that genetic expression is a function, in varying degrees, of environmental influence. Research on intelligence is driven by the question of how much of the variation in each individual is determined by heredity and how much by environment.
d. Stability versus change is not the best answer. There is material on this issue in the discussion of intelligence, but the issue is not as pervasive as the nature-nurture issue.
e. Periods of development is not the best answer. These simply receive no treatment in this chapter. The discussion of the biological bases of development is not organized around separate developmental periods.
a. Identical twins have identical genetic endowments.
b. Identical twins should have IQs that are more similar than the IQs of ordinary siblings.
c. The correlation between IQs of twins reared together is 0.89.
d. Differences between the correlations of IQs for twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart indicate that environment has only a weak effect on intelligence.
e. The environments of twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart are very different.
b. Identical twins should have IQs that are more similar than the IQs of ordinary siblings is an inference. It is a hypothesis about the correlations based on the belief that heredity makes an important and direct contribution to individual differences in intellectual ability.
c. The correlation between IQs of twins reared together is 0.89 is an observation taken directly from research on the correlations of IQs in twins reared together.
d. Differences between the correlations of IQs for twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart indicate that environment has only a weak effect on intelligence is an inference. It interprets the finding that these two types of correlation do not differ very much.
e. The environments of twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart are very different is the assumption. According to the text, Jensen and others have not verified this belief about the environments of twins reared together and twins reared apart, but rather take it for granted that these environments differ. In fact, this belief is a point that critics of Jensen’s work have challenged.