LS: Chapter 2 Practice

Which of the following is NOT a component of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart?
A) intelligence tests
B) personality tests
C) detailed medical histories
D) genetic counseling
D

The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce is called:
A) the principle of evolutionary selection
B) natural selection
C) the origin of selection
D) adaptive behavior
B

One idea proposed by evolutionary developmental psychologists is that
A) evolved mechanisms are always adaptive in contemporary society.
B) some characteristics of childhood were selected to be adaptive at specific points in development in preparation for adulthood.
C) an extended childhood period evolved because humans require time to learn the complexity of human societies.
D) evolved psychological mechanisms are domain-specific.
C

The building blocks of cells and regulators that direct the body’s processes are called
A) genes.
B) chromosomes.
C) proteins.
D) molecules.
C

Humans have ________ genes.
A) 20,500
B) 25,000
C) 30,100
D) 100,000
A

__________ is the specialized form of cell division in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes but then divides twice.
A) Meiosis
B) Mitosis
C) Fertilization
D) Zygote
A

Human reproductive cells are called
A) genes.
B) zygotes.
C) chromosomes.
D) gametes.
D

8
Humans have __________ pairs of chromosomes.
A) 46
B) 23
C) 25
D) 22
B

A phenotype can include what kind of information?
A) only physical characteristics
B) only psychological characteristics
C) both psychological and physical characteristics.
D) neither psychological nor physical characteristics; instead, these are included in one’s genotype
A

Emily, who has brown eyes, has one dominant gene and one recessive gene. When we describe her actual genetic makeup, we are describing her
A) DNA.
B) genotype.
C) reaction range.
D) gametes.
B

A genetic disorder that impairs the body’s red blood cells is called
A) sickle-cell anemia.
B) phenylketonuria.
C) Klinefelter syndrome.
D) anemia.
A

Which sex-linked chromosomal abnormality occurs most often?
A) Klinefelter syndrome
B) Turner syndrome
C) Phenylketonuria PKU
D) Down syndrome.
D

When comparing chronic villus sampling and amniocentesis, the risk of losing a pregnancy
A) is less in chronic villus sampling.
B) is greater in chronic villus sampling.
C) is equal in chronic villus sampling.
D) varies depending on the age of the woman.
A

_______ of pregnancies achieved by fertility treatments result in multiple births.
A) 15-20%
B) 30-35%
C) 20-25%
D) 25-30%
D

15
A(n) __________ is someone who seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.
A) evolutionary psychologist
B) behavior geneticist
C) environmental psychologist
D) epigenetic psychologist
B

Which of the following statements regarding adopted children is TRUE?
A) Adopted children show slightly higher levels of adjustment than nonadopted children do.
B) An increase in problems is associated with later ages of adoption.
C) Adopted children have lower levels of prosocial behavior.
D) Adoptees have fewer school-related problems.
B

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that heredity and environment are correlated?
A) passive genotype-environment correlations
B) evocative genotype-environment correlations
C) active genotype-environment correlations
D) non-shared environment correlations
D

Which of the following terms states that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment?
A) epigenetic view
B) gene x environment interaction
C) niche-picking environment
D) all of these
A

indsay’s body does not produce enough insulin, causing an abnormal metabolism of sugar. She is receiving insulin treatment. Lindsay has:

Question options:

spina bifida.

hemophilia.

diabetes.

PKU.

C

_____ is a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell.

Question options:

Fertilization

Meiosis

Mitosis

Osmosis

A

A fertilized human egg cannot grow into a crocodile, duck or fish specifically because of:

Question options:

adaptive behavior.

socialization.

environmental influence.

genetic code.

D

Amniocentesis brings a small risk of:

Question options:

miscarriage.

limb deformity.

mental retardation.

Down syndrome.

A

mistake by the cellular machinery, or damage from an environmental agent such as radiation, may produce a _____, which is a permanently altered segment of DNA.

Question options:

vulnerability gene

susceptibility gene

longevity gene

mutated gene

D

Esperanza is having a prenatal test to remove a small sample of the placenta for genetic testing. Identify the test that her doctor is performing.

Question options:

NIPD

Amniocentesis

Chorionic villus sampling

Triple screen

C

The _____ view states that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment.

Question options:

bisocial

congenital

sociogenetic

epigenetic

D

Turner syndrome occurs exclusively in:

Question options:

males.

people of Asian descent.

people of Middle Eastern descent.

females.

D

The nucleus of each human cell contains _____, which are threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Question options:

chromosomes

mitochondria

mesosomes

ribosomes

A

According to evolutionary developmental psychologists, many evolved psychological mechanisms are _____. That is, the mechanisms apply only to a specific aspect of a person’s makeup.

Question options:

domain-specific

non-operational

maladjusted

general purpose devices

A

At one time, there were both tall and short giraffes. The short giraffes could only feed from the sides of the trees since they were unable to reach the tops of the trees. There are no short giraffes today. What concept described in chapter 2 best explains the disappearance of short giraffes? Circle the letter of the best answer, and explain why it is the best answer and why the other answers are not as good.

a. genetic imprinting
b. genetic foundations of development
c. meiosis
d. natural selection
e. bidirectional view

a. Genetic imprinting is not the best answer. It refers to the differing effects genes can have when they are inherited either from the mother or the father.
b. Genetic foundations of development is not the best answer. It focuses specifically on genes, and how they transmit the characteristics of a species from one generation to another.
c. Meiosis is not the best answer. It describes a specialized form of cell division.
d. Natural selection is the best answer as it refers to the evolutionary process by which the best adapted within a species survive and reproduce.
e. Bidirectional view is not the best answer. It refers to human evolution, and how environmental and biological conditions influence each other.

Chapter l describes several important issues in developmental psychology. Which of these issues receives the greatest emphasis in chapter 2? Circle the letter of the best answer, and explain why it is the best answer and why the other answers are not as good.

a. biological, cognitive, and social processes
b. continuity versus discontinuity
c. nature versus nurture
d. stability versus change
e. periods of development

a. Biological, cognitive, and social processes in development is not the best answer. These processes are simply not uniformly discussed in the chapter. The focus of the chapter is on one aspect of biological processes: genetic determination.
b. Continuity versus discontinuity is not the best answer. The course of development—either prenatally or postnatally—is not described.
c. Nature versus nurture is the best answer. This is a continuing theme of the chapter, throughout which the point is made that environments interact with genotypes in the course of development. For example, natural selection determines which genotypes survive. In the discussion of genetic principles, it is clear that genetic expression is a function, in varying degrees, of environmental influence. Research on intelligence is driven by the question of how much of the variation in each individual is determined by heredity and how much by environment.
d. Stability versus change is not the best answer. There is material on this issue in the discussion of intelligence, but the issue is not as pervasive as the nature-nurture issue.
e. Periods of development is not the best answer. These simply receive no treatment in this chapter. The discussion of the biological bases of development is not organized around separate developmental periods.

A recurrent and often bitter controversy in the study of intelligence is the issue of how heredity and environment contribute to intelligence. Arthur Jensen, a leading figure in the debate, has contributed both data and argument to the “nature” view. Which of the following statements represents an important assumption, rather than an inference or an observation, in Jensen’s argument? Circle the letter of the best answer, and explain why it is the best answer and why the other answers are not as good.

a. Identical twins have identical genetic endowments.
b. Identical twins should have IQs that are more similar than the IQs of ordinary siblings.
c. The correlation between IQs of twins reared together is 0.89.
d. Differences between the correlations of IQs for twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart indicate that environment has only a weak effect on intelligence.
e. The environments of twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart are very different.

a. Identical twins have identical genetic endowments is an observation. It is a factual statement about the nature of identical twins’ heredity.
b. Identical twins should have IQs that are more similar than the IQs of ordinary siblings is an inference. It is a hypothesis about the correlations based on the belief that heredity makes an important and direct contribution to individual differences in intellectual ability.
c. The correlation between IQs of twins reared together is 0.89 is an observation taken directly from research on the correlations of IQs in twins reared together.
d. Differences between the correlations of IQs for twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart indicate that environment has only a weak effect on intelligence is an inference. It interprets the finding that these two types of correlation do not differ very much.
e. The environments of twins reared together versus those of twins reared apart are very different is the assumption. According to the text, Jensen and others have not verified this belief about the environments of twins reared together and twins reared apart, but rather take it for granted that these environments differ. In fact, this belief is a point that critics of Jensen’s work have challenged.