Lifeguarding: Section 1- CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and First Aid Flash Cards.

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How can you best protect yourself from possible bloodborne pathogen transmission when providing care?
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Use personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and a breathing barrier, when providing care.
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While having a snack in the concession area, a child suddenly clutches his throat with both hands. You ask him if he is choking and he frantically nods yes. You activate your facility’s emergency action plan (EAP). You identify yourself as a lifeguard and obtain consent from the parents. What should you do next?
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Stand or kneel behind the victim and give 5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts.
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You and another lifeguard find an unconscious adult on the floor in the locker room. You activate your facility’s EAP, size-up the scene and perform a primary assessment. You find the victim is not moving or breathing, but has a pulse. You should summon EMS personnel, then:
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Give 1 rescue breath about every 5 seconds.
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You come upon a scene where a patron appears to be injured. Before approaching the victim, which of the following will you not do as you size-up the scene? a. Use all your senses to determine if the scene is safe. b. Determine what happened and how many victims there are. c. Begin the primary assessment. d. Put on appropriate PPE.
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Begin the primary assessment.
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When providing care during an emergency, what should you do first?
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Size-up the scene.
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As the first lifeguard on the scene, you are performing CPR on an adult. When performing chest compressions, how deeply should you compress the chest?
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At least 2 inches
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CPR should be performed on which of the following victims? a. One who is conscious and has an airway obstruction b. One who is experiencing difficulty breathing c. One who is in cardiac arrest d. One who responds to painful stimuli
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One who is in cardiac arrest
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What is the first step of the Cardiac Chain of Survival?
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Early recognition and access to the emergency medical services (EMS) system
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You are providing care to a victim having a heart attack. What do you do first?
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Summon EMS personnel.
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Once you have turned on the automated external defibrillator (AED), you should:
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Apply the pads and allow the AED to analyze the heart rhythm.
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You are performing CPR on a victim and a second lifeguard arrives. What is the most appropriate for the second lifeguard to do first?
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Check to see whether EMS personnel have been called.
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What is most essential to use when giving ventilations to protect you and the victim from disease transmission?
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CPR breathing barriers
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You are providing care to a facility maintenance worker who has fallen off the top of a ladder. The victim is conscious. What should you do first?
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Obtain consent from the victim to provide care.
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For which of the following should you summon EMS personnel? a. A victim with a minor cut on the forearm that is lightly bleeding b. A victim with an airway obstruction who is forcefully coughing c. A victim with intermittent abdominal pressure d. A victim with an open leg wound with the bone protruding
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A victim with an open leg wound with the bone protruding
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You pull an unconscious adult from the water who is taking infrequent gasps. During the primary assessment you find that the victim has a pulse. What should you do next?
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Give 2 initial ventilations.
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If there is a risk of the AED pads touching each other, such as with a small child or an infant, you should:
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Place one pad in the middle of the chest and the other on the back.
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You have sized up the scene and determined the scene is safe. When performing a primary assessment, what would you do next?
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Check for responsiveness.
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Which of the following statements about bag-valve-mask resuscitators (BVMs) is most accurate? a. BVMs are readily available at all emergency scenes. b. Monitoring the victim for full exhalation is not required. c. Two rescuers need to operate the BVM. d. When used by a single rescuer, BVMs allow easy coordination with chest compressions.
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Two rescuers need to operate the BVM.
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You are preparing to give ventilations to a 8-year-old boy using a resuscitation mask. You should give 1ventilation about every:
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3 seconds.
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When compressing a child’s chest during CPR, you should compress at a rate of at least how many compressions per minute?
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100
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An AED has advised that a shock should be given. Which of the following is appropriate? a. Apply new AED pads to the victim’s chest. b. Begin chest compressions immediately. c. Cover the AED pads with a blanket. d. Tell everyone to stand clear of the victim.
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Tell everyone to stand clear of the victim.
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You are about to apply AED pads to a victim’s chest when you notice that the victim has several body piercings with jewelry on his chest. What should you do?
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Apply the pads to the chest, making sure to avoid the jewelry.
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The cycle of chest compressions and ventilations in two-rescuer CPR for an infant is:
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15 chest compressions and 2 ventilations.
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You are positioned above the child’s head and are using a resuscitation mask to give ventilations. After you position the mask, what should you do next?
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Seal the mask.
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You are providing care to a patron who started choking on some food. The victim becomes unconscious. What should you do first?
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Lower the victim carefully to the ground and open his airway.
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Where should you place your hands when giving chest compressions to an infant during CPR?
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One hand on the forehead and two or three fingers on the center of the chest
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When giving abdominal thrusts to an adult, where should you position your fist?
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In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
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When providing care to a conscious infant who is choking, which of the following is most appropriate? a. Giving 10 chest thrusts then 10 back blows b. Positioning the infant so the head is lower than the chest c. Standing slightly behind the infant with one arm around the chest d. Using the heel of your hand to give the chest thrusts
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Positioning the infant so the head is lower than the chest
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A person has been injured and is conscious. What should you do first?
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Obtain consent, check the victim for life-threatening conditions and speak with the victim to find out what happened.
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An injured patron is conscious and bleeding severely. After summoning EMS personnel, obtaining consent and putting on disposable gloves, what is your next care step?
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Press firmly against the wound with a sterile dressing and bandage.
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A way to remember the questions to ask when taking a brief history is to use the acronym SAMPLE. What does the A in SAMPLE stand for?
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Allergies
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What is the first step you should take in caring for a victim with burns?
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Remove the victim from the source of the burn.
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If a victim is having a seizure in the water, you should:
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Support the victim with his or her head above water until the seizure ends.
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Signs and symptoms of sudden illness do not include: a. Nausea or vomiting. b. Loss of vision or blurred vision. c. Bruising or rigidness of the abdomen. d. Changes in skin condition.
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Bruising or rigidness of the abdomen.
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When checking a victim during a secondary assessment you notice changes in her LOC. What does the C stand for in LOC?
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Consciousness.
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You come upon a scene where someone seems to be hurt. During the primary assessment, you should check for all of the following EXCEPT: a. Bleeding. b. Breathing. c. Consciousness. d. Swelling.
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Swelling.
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Which of the following would you identify as the universal sign that a conscious person is choking?
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Clutching the throat
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As you are giving ventilations with a resuscitation mask, the victim vomits. Which of the following would you do first?
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Turn the victim as a unit onto his or her side.
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You are providing care to a conscious infant who is choking, When giving chest thrusts, which of the following would you use?
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Two or three fingers
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You determine that a victim is unconscious but breathing. While waiting with the victim for EMS personnel, you would position the victim:
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Face-up.
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While preparing to use an automated external defibrillator (AED) on a victim, you notice a medication patch on the victim’s chest. Which action is most appropriate?
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Removing the patch with a gloved hand
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You are giving ventilations to a s-year-old child using a resuscitation mask. You should give 1 ventilation about every:
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3 seconds.
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When giving chest compressions to an adult, how would you position your hands?
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Heel of one hand on the center of the chest with the other hand on top
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You are performing CPR on a victim and you notice that the victim’s chest begins to rise and fall. What would you do next?
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Stop CPR and monitor the victim’s condition.
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When using a resuscitation mask, which of the following should you do?
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Place the broad end of the mask between the lower lip and chin.
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Which of the following findings would lead you to determine that an infant’s airway is open? a. The infant is crying uncontrollably. b. The infant is not breathing. c. The infant is unable to speak d. The infant’s chest fails to rise and fall.
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The infant is crying uncontrollably.
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During a primary assessment, which of the following should you evaluate first?
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Check the victim for responsiveness
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You are walking on the pool deck when the swim team coach suddenly collapses in front of you. During your primary assessment you do not find a pulse, you should:
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Suspect he is in cardiac arrest and immediately begin CPR.
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Based on which of the following signs and symptoms would you determine that a victim is experiencing respiratory distress? a. Audible high-pitched gurgling b. Complaints of feeling “really thirsty” c. Sneezing with watery eyes d. Yellowish skin
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Audible high-pitched gurgling
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You and another lifeguard find an unconscious adult on the locker room floor. The other lifeguard goes to summon EMS personnel. You complete a primary assessment and find that the victim has a pulse but is not breathing. What should you do next?
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Give 1ventilation about every 5 seconds.
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As the only lifeguard performing CPR on a 7-year-old child, you would perform cycles of:
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30 chest compressions and 2 ventilations.
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AnAED indicates that “No shock is advised.” What do you do next?
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Perform CPR for about 2 minutes.
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You are providing care to an adult who is unconscious and not breathing. You give 1 ventilation during CPR and notice that the chest does not rise. Which of the following should you do next’?
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Retilt the head and then attempt another ventilation.
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You and a fellow lifeguard are giving ventilations using a BVM. You position the mask over the victim’s mouth and nose. What should the other lifeguard do?
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Squeeze the bag with both hands.
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You and another lifeguard are preparing for CPR on an adult who collapsed in the locker room. You determine that there is no breathing or pulse and state, “Victim has no pulse. Begin CPR.” Which of the following should the other lifeguard do next?
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Begin chest compressions.
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Which of the following is most essential to use when giving ventilations to protect you and the victim from disease transmission?
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CPR breathing barriers
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Which of the following should you do first when approaching the scene of an emergency?
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Size-up the scene.
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To ensure effective chest compressions during CPR, which of the following is most appropriate?
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Allowing the chest to fully recoil between compressions
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When using an AED, which of the following should you do immediately after attaching the AED pads to the victim’s chest?
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Tell everyone to stand clear.
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A person has been injured and is conscious. You obtain consent to check the victim for life-threatening conditions. What life-threatening condition would require you to immediately summon EMS personnel?
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Persistent chest pain
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You and a patron enter the locker room and find an unconscious person lying on the floor. You size-up the scene and then you begin performing a primary assessment. The patron asks, “Should we move him to the first aid room?” What should you do next?
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Tell the patron the victim should not be moved since there is no immediate danger.
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12-year-old boy at a swim meet grabs his chest and begins to make wheezing noises. After you obtain consent to provide care, his mother informs you that he has a history of asthma, but does not have his inhaler nearby. What care should you provide?
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Summon EMS personnel and place the victim into a position that helps breathing.
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A patron has cut her leg on the edge of the bleachers and is bleeding heavily. You think the patron is in shock because she:
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Becomes restless and irritable.
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The purpose of a secondary assessment is to:
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Identify and care for conditions that are not life threatening.
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When immobilizing an injured patron’s arm:
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Leave the arm in the position you find it or in the position the patron is holding it.
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A way to remember the questions to ask when taking a brief history is to use the acronym SAMPLE. What does the S in SAMPLE stand for?
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Signs and symptoms
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A patron seems to be having a diabetic emergency. You should:
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Have the victim drink a fruit juice.
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patron has slurred speech, is unable to lift her right arm level with her left arm and is unable to smile without one side of her face drooping. You make note of the time the symptoms started. These are symptoms of:
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A stroke.
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A victim is having a seizure in the water, what should you do?
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Support the victim with his or her head above water until the seizure ends.
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During a swim meet, the bleachers behind your guard station suddenly collapse. As you check the scene you notice several people who appear injured. Who should you approach first? a. A mother holding a crying infant b. A man who appears unconscious c. A woman who is bleeding lightly from an injury on her leg d. A child who is holding his arm, which appears to be injured
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A man who appears unconscious
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When caring for musculoskeletal injuries, what does RICE stand for?
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Rest, immobilize, cold, elevate

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