Life-span development Ch1 Questions

According to Baltes, childhood and adolescence is marked by continuing growth, maintenance, and regulation, while adulthood and old age are characterized by:
Slowing growth with an increase in maintenance and regulation
A researcher studies the effect of exercise on stamina. Participants are randomly assigned to be in an exercise or no-exercise group for 12 weeks. Stamina is then measured by how long participants can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:
number of minutes on a treadmill
A psychologist designs an experiment to determine the effect of eye contact on children’s smiling. Group I is exposed to 10 eye contacts during the session, whereas Group II is exposed to no eye contacts during the session. The psychologist records the number of times the children in each group smile. In this study, the number of:
eye contact is dependant variable
A key criticism of cognitive theories is that they:
Provide inadequate description of development changes in cognition
A person’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age comprise:
psychological
Although Angie was somewhat irresponsible as a teen, she changed her ways when she entered college and leased her first apartment. This example illustrates the developmental issue of:
change
Biological processes, such as puberty and menopause, are:
normative age-graded influences
Infants raised in orphanages may not develop a positive and secure attachment to a caregiver in their first year of life. According to John Bowlby, what might the consequences of this be?
life-span development will likely not be optimal
In the final analysis, most developmentalists tend to believe that:
development is best explained by the interaction of nature and nurture
Dr. Katz believes that the period of extreme change from birth to adolescence is the most significant and is worthy of study. Which developmental theory does she espouse?
tradition
It is important to be aware of the concept of cohort effects because they can:
be mistaken for age effects
Janice is studying how baby geese recognize the first thing they see as their mother. Which theory would support this inference?
ethological
Life-span development covers the period from __________ to __________.
conception..death
Mrs. Jones uses spanking as the primary method of discipline in her household. A social cognitive theorist would say that her children will:
hit in order to deal with conflict
Nathan bites his hand frequently throughout the day. Skinner would say that the BEST way to solve this problem is to:
identify the environmental conditions that are triggering and maintaining behavior and change
One implication of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is that to understand development one must:
consider the individual at different levels of life-span development
Psychoanalytic theories stress what in development
early experiences with parents extensively shape development
Skinner claimed that we should only study that which can be __________ and __________.
observed…measured
The developmental period during which changes are rapid and primarily biological is:
prenatal
The successful outcome of Erikson’s stage of __________ results in a healthy sense of independence.
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Thinking of memory in terms of banking, one might say that you cannot make withdrawals if you haven’t first made deposits. This idea would most likely be supported by __________ theory
Which of the following is not one of Paul Baltes’ seven characteristics of the life-span perspective on development?
unidirectional
Which of the following theories emphasizes that people manipulate and monitor information and strategize about it?
information-processing theory
Which research method is used to determine causality?
experimental research
Which theory would be BEST to consider if you wanted to understand the proper ways to use incentives and time-outs as ways to help children behave?
skinner
Balts descibes development as multidirectional. What does this mean?
Development is characterized by both growth and decline.
An example of how development is contexual
Parents in the United States are more likely to rear their children to be independent than do parents in Japan
Which of the following gives the BEST description of how life-span psychologists
describe “development”?
growth and decline in skills and processes
Which of the following is not one of Paul Baltes’ seven characteristics of the life-span perspective on
development?
unidirectional
Kathy believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, social,
and cognitive aspects. Kathy believes that development is:
multidimensional.
In the United States, most individuals begin school around age 5. This is an illustration of how
development is:
contextual.
Which of the following is an example of the plasticity of development?
Someone who goes blind may develop better hearing as a result.
Normative age- and history-graded influences and nonnormative life events are all ways in which
development can be classified as:
contexual
Anna attributes her thriftiness to having been raised during the Great Depression. This is an example
of:
a normative history-graded influence
Researchers increasingly study the experiences and psychological orientations of adults at different
points in their development. This implies that development is:
lifelong.
Many older adults become wiser by calling on experiential knowledge, yet they perform poorly on
cognitive speed tests. This is an example of how development is:
multidirectional
The capacity for acquiring second and third languages decreases after early childhood, whereas
experiential wisdom increases with age. This is an example of how development is:
multidirectional.
At age 3, Jillian is beginning to participate in imaginary play. What processes are developing?
cognitive
Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between biological, cognitive, and
socioemotional development?
The development of these processes is intricately interwoven.
At what age do more people claim to be happiest?
88
Leo is 65 years old and has just retired. He is coping well with his change of lifestyle and is highly
motivated to learn new things. Leo is:
psychologically young.
The functional capacities of a person’s vital organ system indicate:
biological age.
A person’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
comprise:
psychological age
Brent refuses to treat his son’s diagnosed ADHD with recommended behavioral strategies and
medication. Brent hopes that because he outgrew inattention difficulties, his son will, too. Brent
believes that development is primarily influenced by:
nature
In the nature/nurture debate, one’s biology is related to “nature” while one’s __________ is related
to “nurture.”
environment
Although Angie was somewhat irresponsible as a teen, she changed her ways when she entered
college and leased her first apartment. This example illustrates the developmental issue of:
change
In the final analysis, most developmentalists tend to believe that:
development is best explained by the interaction of nature and nurture.
Tammy was shy as a child but became more outgoing and confident when she attended a university
far from her hometown. This is an example of which developmental issue?
stability and change
The controversy of stability versus change is closed linked to Paul Baltes’ theory of:
plasticity
Egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, butterfly. These stages of a butterfly’s maturation characterize which aspect
of development?
discontinuity
Parents who are harshly critical and punishing while toilet training a child may cause the child to be
fixated in which of Freud’s stages?
anal
An adolescent is in what stage of psychosexual development?
genatal
Ben has repressed his sexual urges and has started to develop social and intellectual skills. Ben is in
the psychosexual stage called the:
latency
Erikson’s theory emphasizes which of the following aspects of human development?
social
If you believe that development occurs in stages, and you focus on cognitive development attempting
to explain how children actively construct their own view of the world, then your personal theory is
most similar to that of:
Piagets
While Piaget emphasized biological aspects of development, Vygotsky focused on:
social interaction.
Which of the following is a cognitive theorist?
Vygotsky
Justine repeats a phrase she has heard older students use at recess. This is an example of
Bandura’s social learning.
The process by which some organisms become attached to the first moving object they see is
called:
imprinting
Janice is studying how baby geese recognize the first thing they see as their mother. Which theory
would support this inference?
ethological
While ethology stresses biological factors in human development, ecological theory emphasizes the
role of:
the environment
One implication of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is that to understand development one
must:
consider the individual at different levels of life-span development.
What is the main problem with survey research?
Subjects may give inaccurate responses.
A researcher chooses to study one pregnant teen in great detail by taking frequent measures of her
behavior, thoughts, and feelings. Which method does this researcher use?
case study
Life history records would most likely be included in which method of study?
case study
Assessment of hormones in the bloodstream is a type of:
physiological measure
Which research design aims to observe and record behavior?
descriptive
Which of the following is manipulated during an experiment?
independent variable
To chart the development of gross motor coordination over the life span, researchers tested individuals
ranging in age from childhood to old age. Which approach did they take?
cross-sectional
Cohort effects are due to all but which of the following
a person’s age