Life-Span 7e Chapter 1 Exam

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John Tatum
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won three gold medals at the 2009 National Senior Games.
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Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on children’s emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with children’s _____ development.
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psychosocial
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Traditionally, growth has been defined as
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physical changes that occur from conception to maturity.
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The term age grade refers to
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a socially defined age group, with culture-specific assigned roles, privileges, and responsibilities.
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Male social age grades for the Arusha people of East Africa include
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Junior warriors and retired elders.
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A rite of passage marks a transition from one _____ to another.
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status
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A quinceañeara
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occurs at age 15.
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Diversity can be based on
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race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
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When compared to those from middle- or upper-income families, individuals from lower-income families tend to
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reach milestones of adulthood earlier.
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Which statement concerning the pre-seventeenth century conception of childhood is most accurate?
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Pre-seventeenth century adults held views toward childhood that are different from most modern parents.
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Hermes is currently in the \”emerging adulthood\” stage of development. As such, he would most likely
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believe in a life of limitless possibilities.
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Which of the following has had the most significant impact on lengthening the average lifespan in the United States?
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Major decreases in infant mortality
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The average life expectancy for a newborn in the United States is _____ years.
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78
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Maturation is best defined as
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the biological unfolding of genetic potential.
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Which best describes the relationship between maturation and genes?
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Maturation is driven by a plan contained in the genes.
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Which of the following represents a maturational process?
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The development of pubic hair during puberty
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Environmental impacts include all _____ that influence our development.
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external physical and social conditions
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A cross-cultural study on aggression in children from Belize, Kenya, Nepal, and American Somoa by Munro and colleagues (2000) indicated that
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boys were more aggressive an all four countries.
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The abusive behavior that Crosby perpetrated on his son has definitely negatively impacted his son’s development. According to the ecological model, this impact is best explained by events occurring in the child’s
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microsystem.
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Which is best described as a linkage between two microsystems?
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Mesosystem
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Differences in Maternal Leave Acts (laws) between the United States and other nations definitely influence children living in those counties. Bronfenbrenner would describe this phenomena in terms of the impact of the
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macrosystem.
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The fact that specific historical events (e.g., living during the AIDS epidemic) can influence development is best explained by the influence of the
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chronosystem.
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The title of Dr. Doublemint’s latest bestseller is Why Identical Twins Differ from Each Other! Given this title, it is safe to assume that Dr. Doublemint’s primary interest is in the _____ goal of psychology.
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explanation
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Vue is a developmental psychologist who is concerned with helping adolescents learn to deal constructively with divorce. Her work focuses primarily on which goal of developmental psychology?
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Optimization
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When making a decision on whether or not to follow the latest diet trend, Jillian focuses on what the best scientific research has to say about the topic of nutrition. This indicates that Jillian believes in engaging in _____ practice.
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evidence-based
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In his book Adolescence (1904), G. Stanley Hall described the period between childhood and adulthood as a time of
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storm and stress.
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Which is NOT an assumption of the lifespan perspective?
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Development focuses on gains not losses.
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Sixty-year-old Kwan has led a life filled with ups (a prosperous career) and downs (a battle with breast cancer) and continues to maintain the capacity to change in response to such experiences. A lifespan developmental psychologist would likely say that Kwan has
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great plasticity.
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Reba wants to examine the TV-viewing habits of 18- to 25-year-old males in the United States. As it is quite impossible to include all males of this age group in her study, she selects a smaller group of 18- to 25-year old males to survey. The males included in her study are called a(n)
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sample.
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Trojan interviews a group of 50 teen mothers to determine what sort of knowledge they hold regarding use of contraceptives prior to the time they became pregnant. He then writes an article where he speaks in broad terms about what teen mothers know about the use of contraceptives prior to becoming pregnant. In this study, the group of 50 teen mothers is called the _____, while all teen mothers are collectively called the _____.
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sample; population
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Developmental psychologist Dr. Wiggles is interested in preschool children’s helping behavior. He spends hours watching children at the campus preschool, taking great care not to interfere with the children or to influence their behavior in any way. What data collection technique is Dr. Wiggles using?
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Naturalistic observation
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The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it
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can tell us what people do in everyday life.
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Which is true of ALL structured observations?
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The researcher creates a special condition to elicit a behavior.
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Dr. DrĂ© is very interested in infants’ reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-olds into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap music, and watches each baby’s reactions. Given this description, Dr. DrĂ© appears to be using the _____ technique.
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structured observation
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An fMRI uses magnetic forces to measure _____ in an active area of the brain.
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blood flow
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The main limitation of physiological measures is that
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it is not always clear what is being assessed.
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Which type of study always involves an in-depth examination of one specific individual or a very small number of individuals?
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Case study
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Professor Plumb is interested in the impact of fruit consumption on memory. He identifies a group of college students to serve as research participants. Then he randomly assigns them to one of three conditions. In condition 1, the students eat no fruit for a week. In condition 2, students eat one pound of fruit each day for one week. Those students assigned to condition 5 eat five pounds of fruit each day for one week. At the end of the week, Professor Plumb measures the students’ memory recall for a list of 20 words. Given this description, Professor Plumb appears to be using a(n) _____ research technique.
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experimental
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In an experimental design, the behavior being measured is called the _____ variable.
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dependent
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A study is done examining whether rewarding children for good behavior increases the amount of time students spend studying. In this study, amount of time spent studying would be the _____ variable.
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dependent
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Random assignment helps ensure
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similarity of treatment groups prior to the treatment.
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What point was Urie Bronfenbrenner attempting to make when he said that developmental psychology had become, \”the science of the strange behavior of children in strange situations with strange adults\”?
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Modern developmental psychology is too focused on laboratory research.
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Mara finds that the correlation between variables A and B is +.43, while the correlation between variables A and C is -.78. These results indicate that
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the correlation between A and C is stronger than the correlation between A and B.
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Smoking cigarettes and having lung cancer are highly correlated events, and people often logically conclude that smoking must cause the cancer. It is hypothetically possible, however, that having lung cancer causes one to crave nicotine and thus it leads to smoking. This example illustrates the issue of
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a reversed cause-effect relationship.
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Who is using a cross-sectional research design?
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Wilma, who is simultaneously testing the study habits of fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders
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For her senior project, Shantae wants to study children’s moral reasoning. During the Fall semester, she interviews 20 individuals in each of the follo:wing grades: first, fourth, seventh, tenth, and college sophomores. She asks each participant to solve a practical moral dilemma. What sort of research design is Shantae using?
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Cross-sectional
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Who is using a longitudinal research design?
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Jane, who is assessing the eating habits in a group of 40-year-olds, and who will follow and assess this same group when they get to ages 60 and 80
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The impact on research findings produced by historical events occurring at the moment the data were collected are referred to as _____ effects.
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time of measurement
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In a study in which participants are tricked into believing that they caused harm to someone else, a researcher is obligated to make sure that the participants are told about the true nature of the study before they leave and also must make sure that the participants do not feel bad about their behavior. These two researcher obligations are referred to as
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debriefing and protection from harm.
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Due to the ethical standard concerning _____, a researcher could not tell a parent that the parent’s child scored in the \”genius\” range on an IQ test that the researcher had given.
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confidentiality

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