Life Science Test 2 Study Guide

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Cells
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The basic building blocks of all organisms.
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Water
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What is the must abundant chemical in cells?
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Lipids and Proteins
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_________ and __________ are the building materials of cells.
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Stimulus
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A change in an organism’s surroundings that causes it to react.
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Reproduce
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When organisms produce an offspring similar to its parents.
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Microscope
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An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
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Autotrophs
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Organisms that make their own food.
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Heterotrophs
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Organisms that get energy by consuming other organisms.
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Multicellular
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Organisms that are composed of many cells.
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Unicellular
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Organisms that are only composed of a single cell.
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Response
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An organism reacts to a stimulus with a __________.
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Spontaneous Generation
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The mistaken idea that living organisms arise from nonliving sources.
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Homeostasis
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An organism’s ability to maintain stable internal conditions.
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Organelles
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Tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
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Cell Wall
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The rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the plant cells and other organism.
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Nucleus
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The large, oval structure that directs all of the cell’s activities.
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Cell Membrane
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The outside boundary that separates the cell from its environment.
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Cytoplasm
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The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
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Mitochondria
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Produces most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
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A maze of passageways called the ___________ _____________ carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
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Ribosomes
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Function as factories to produce proteins.
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Golgi Body
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Receives proteins and other newly formed materials and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
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Chloroplasts
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Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
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Vacuole
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The storage area of a cell.
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Lysosomes
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Small, round structures in cells that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
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Cell Wall
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A structure that is found in plant cells but not animal cells.
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Nucleus
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The dense portion of some cells containing nucleic acids.
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Species
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A group of organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring.
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Robert Hooke
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The first person to ever see a cell; saw cell walls of cork cells.
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Anton von Leeuwenhoek
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The first person to see living cells; he studied brainwater, blood, and scrapings from teeth.
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Schleidem
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This person looked at plants and figured out they were made of cells. (Last name only)
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Cell Theory
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The theory that all living things are composed of cells.
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Other cells
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What are all cells produced from? (Part of cell theory)
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Living Things
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What do cells fuction in? (Part of cell theory)
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Ribosomes
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The part of the cell where protein is produced.
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Nuclear Envelope
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What else can the nuclear membrane be called?
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Biological Classification
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Process of grouping things based on their similarities.
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Taxonomy
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The science of biological classification.
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Carolus Linneaus
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This person developed the system we use today.
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Binomial Nomenclature
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What was the two name naming system that Carolus Linneaus invented?
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Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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DKPCOFGS- List them in this order.
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Homo Sapien
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Human Being
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Felis Domesticus
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House Cat
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Panthera Leo
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African Lion
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Canis Lupus
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Wolf
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Apis Mellifera
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Honey Bee
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Bacteria
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Are prokaryotes and unicellular.
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Archaea
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Live in the bottom of the ocean where lava spews; are prokaryotes; are unicellular.
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Eukarya
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Are NOT prokaryotes; organisms with cells that contain nuclei.
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Prokaryotes
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A word meaning the cell doesn’t have a nucleus.
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Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals
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Name the 4 Kingdoms in this order: PFPA
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Gymnosperm
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A plant that doesn’t produce a flower.
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Angiosperm
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Plants that produce flowers.
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Water, food, shelter, and homeostasis
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What are the four basic needs living things must satisfy?
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Organism
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A living thing.
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Development
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Process of change that occurs during an organism’s life to produce a complex organism.
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Homeostasis
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Maintenance of stable internal conditions.
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Genus
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Classification grouping that contains similar closely related organisms.
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Domains and Kingdoms
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How organisms are placed based on cell type, ability to make food, and number of cells in their bodies.
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By bending light
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How do light microscopes magnify an object?
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Tissue, Organ, and Organ System
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In multicellular organisms, cells are often organized into what three things?

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