Learning Check 5

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Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
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operant conditioning
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In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the
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conditioned stimulus
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The loudness of sounds is determined by the ” ” of the sound waves.
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amplitude
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The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of
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pressure, pain, warmth, and cold
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The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that
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the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts
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Watson and Rayner’s study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
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may be produced through classical conditioning
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Psychologists define learning as
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a relatively permanent change in behaviors due to experience
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Retinal disparity refers to the
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somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object
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A child’s learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle in a(n)
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conditioned response
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Sensory restriction is much more likely to hinder visual development in early infancy than during other times of life. This suggests that here is a(n) ” ” for normal visual development
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critical period
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After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ” ” for Colin’s fear.
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unconditioned stimulus
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Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images is known as
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perceptual constancy
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A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)
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conditioned stimulus
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Cones and rods are to vision as ” ” are to audition.
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hair cells
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Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently make Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate
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generalization
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Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
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extinction
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If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
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associative learning
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Perception is the process by which
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sensory input is organized and interpreted
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The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the
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spinal cord
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Garcia and Koelling’s studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
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biological predispositions

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