Latin Verbs, Adjectives & Pronouns

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Future Perfect & Passive, Diminuitives
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1: Future Perfect – Pf. active stem + er. NOTE IRREGULAR ENDINGS – ō, is, it, īmus, ītis, int! 2: Diminiutives for SMALL VERSIONS – often with variations on VOWEL + L + 1st/2nd decl. endings! 3: Pronunciations – ACCENTS – 2nd last syllable, (thus 1st in 2-syllable). ENCLICTICS – soft (like ne), VOWELS – ONLY 1 DIPTHONG (ei), all others are two vowels, SILENT H!
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Indirect Statement
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“accusative + infinitive” – SUBJECT IS IN THE ACCUSATIVE, VERB IS IN THE INFINITIVE 1/ note that participles must agree with the subject. 2/ time relative to main verb is shown – future after, present while, perfect before 3/ used for reported speech (rumor erat / dicere)
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Imperatives – Present Act, Present Pas, Future Act
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1: Present – active sing. = (vowel) plural = vowel + te 2: Present passive – subg. = (vowel) + re, plural = (vowel) + mini 3: Future imperative – singular = (vowel) + to, plural 2nd = (vowel) + tote, plural 3rd = (vowel) + nto
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Perfect Active Irregularities, the Three Infinitives
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1: PERFECT ACTIVE STEM used. 1st & 4th conjugation just add “v” onto normal stem. Also 3rd normal WITHOUT “C”! 2: 2nd conjugation uses “U” in place of vowel, 3rd NORMAL has “X” & no vowel, 3rd I-STEM has “Ē” in place of vowel between consonant! 3: Present active – 2nd principal part Perfect active – 3rd principal part + isse (like deponent) Future active – future active participle + esse
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Irregular Stems
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1: 3rd Conjugation – D and T to S, B to PS, “c, “g” and “h” to X! Rideo, Sentio & Plaudo all change to “s”! 2: LOCATIVE CASE FORMATION – Locations all have GEN if 1st / 2nd Decl. singular, but ABL if 1st / 2nd Decl. plural or 3rd Decl 3: Perfect stem for present meaning in defective verbs! 4: Many verbs use “C”E + “C”I”C” Eg: Do – Ded, Cano – Cecin, DUPLICATION!
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Third-Declension Adjectives
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1: 3-termination adjectives: nominative singular -er, -ris, re gen. singular -is, dat. sing. -ī accusative sing. -em for masc + fem, -e for neuter, ablative sing. – -ī, nom. plural -ēs, neuter -ia gen. plural -ium dat/abl plural -ibus acc. plural -ēs or īs, neuter -ia 2: 2-termination adjectives: Nom & Acc: SINGULAR E, PLURAL IA. 3: 1-termination adjectives: Nom & Acc: SINGULAR AX, PLURAL IA 4: Plural gen. is I-STEM. ABLATIVE “Ī”, alternative accusative plural ending Remember – Neuter – NOM S = ACC S, NOM P = ACC P
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Adjectives with Irregular Genitive & Dative Singular, demonstrative pronouns
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1: Like 1st / 2nd declension, but ALL GENITIVE (Masc. Fem. & Neuter) is -ĪUS and ALL DATIVE (Masc. Fem. & Neuter) is -Ī 2: Singular: is, eius, ei, eum, eo; ea, eius, ei, eam, ea; id, eius, ei, id, eo! 3: Plural: like 1st / 2nd declension, but ea neuter!
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Comparative & Superlative Adjectives
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1: Comparative formed by adding -IŌR onto stem (ior nom.), then endings. NO I-STEM, but ABLATIVE -I OR -E! 2: Declines like 3rd declension 2-termination, -IUS nom. & acc. singular, -IŌRA nom. & acc. plural (neuter). 3: Superlative formed by adding -ISSIM onto stem, then declining like 1st / 2nd declension. 4: If adj. ends in -er, -ERRIM, If adj. ends in in -lis, ILLIM! (masc. singular forms)
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Present & Imperfect Passive Irregularities
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Note 3rd conjugation endings have e… -> -or, -eris, -etur, -imur, -imini, -untur & -or, -eris, -etur, -imur, -imini, -iuntur 2: Present passive – Same as present active of 1st singular (1st & 3rd “O”, others “vowel & O”) & 3rd plural (1st & 2nd use own, 3rd uses ending only, 3rd I-stem & 4th both). 3: Imperfect passive – Same as imperfect active (1st & 2nd own, 3rd normal ending, 3rd I-stem & 4th both).
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Formation of Adverbs
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POSITIVE – 1st/2nd Declension adjectives add -ē onto stem, 3rd declension adjectives add -er onto stem. COMPARATIVE – this is the NEUTER ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR of comparative adjective! SUPERLATIVE – add -issim, -errim or -illim onto stem + ē
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Future Irregularities
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1: 3rd I-stem & 4th add “I” before conjugating! 2: 1st & 2nd have macron above own vowel in ALL PERSONS but 3rd, 3rd I-stem & 4th have macron ONLY on 2nd singular, 1st & 2nd plural! 3: Active – bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt 1st / 2nd; am, es, et, emus, etis, erunt 3rd / 4th 4: Passive – 1st / 2nd bor, beris / bere, bitur, bimur, bimini, buntur; 3rd / 4th ar, eris, etur, emur, emini, entur
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Subjunctives with Questions
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1: INDIRECT QUESTION – look for verbs of asking, NUM is often an adverb used! 2: DELIBERATIVE QUESTION – look for utrum _ an, utrum after VERB OF WONDERING! 3: -NE after first noun of subordinate clause – miror domumne! UTRUM_NECNE = NUM (whether / or)! 4: SE or SUUS reflexive, but no permanent reflexives!

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