LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY VOCAB

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Auguste Comte
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French philosopher – propounded doctrine of “positive philosophy.” In 1830s to 1850s he wrote numerous volumes of Positive Philosophy in which he described human history as a series of 3 stages: Theological, Metaphysical and Scientific(19th century). Thought the revolutions of 1789 and 1848 were excessively metaphysical . Said it was now time to adopt a more scientific approach to human problems. Coined the term “sociology” for a discipline of studying society and recording observable facts and deriving laws of social progress. Saw final stage as a religion of humanity leading to a better future for mankind.
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Alliance for Progress
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(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
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Anastacio Somoza
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dictator of Nicaragua who is supported by U.S. but is over thrown by Sandinistas
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Article 27 of 1917 Mexican Constitution
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Private property shall not be expropriated except for reasons of public use and subject to payment of indemnity.
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Antonio López de Santa Ana
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The Mexican general at the Alamo; mexicos political leader who influenced early mexican and spanish politics; mexicos president for 22 non-consecutive years ; wrote to mexico city to denounce his presidency and focus on his military experience and fight foreign invasions of mexico
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Augusto Sandino
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rediscovered the guerilla tradition in the 1920s, as a young man he worked in Mexican oilfields and been influenced by the anti-yankees and socialist ideas of the Mexican revolution, returned to Nicaragua
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Bay of Pigs
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In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
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Benito Juárez
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Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
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Bourbon Reforms
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a set of economic and political legislation introduced by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon throughout the 18th century. The reforms were intended to stimulate manufacturing and technology in order to modernize Spain. In Spanish America the reforms were designed to make the administration more efficient and to promote its economic, commercial, and fiscal development. The crown did this in hopes that it would have a positive effect on the economy of Spain.
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Carlos Marighella
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Author of Minimanual that shows how to have a successful prosecution of revolution against capitalist establishments. Titled The Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla.
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Caudillos
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independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
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Church Committee
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CIA
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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers
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Científicos
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controlled highest government positions under Diaz; practiced social darwinism to preserve privileges of Criollos and the ruling class; argued that countries problems could be solved by the application of statistics and sound thinking
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Contras
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A Nicaraguan rebel group that got financial support from the CIA. This group was formed as a response to the overthrowing of Anastazio Somoza Debayle
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Creole
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a person of European descent born in the West Indies or Latin America
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Cuban Missile Crisis
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an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
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Debt Peonage
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*A system that forces agricultural laborers (peons) to work and live in large estates (haciendas) until they have repaid their debates to the estate’s owner *Haciendas became one of the most important features of Latin American Life
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Death Squads
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El Salvador, an armed squad that kills civilians, terrorists or guerillas. These groups tend to commit extrajudicial assassinations / extra-judicial killings and forced disappearances of persons
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Dirty War
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War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military. (p. 857)
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Disappeared
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Domingo Fautisno Sarmiento
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was an Argentine activist, intellectual, writer, statesman and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history. He was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the “Generation of 1837”, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was particularly concerned with educational issues and was also an important influence on the region’s literature.
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Dollar Diplomacy
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Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
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Emilano Zapata
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Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately assassinated. 819
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Ernesto Cardenal
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Poet and revolucionary Nicoraguan citizen who was a political activist and sandista; really religios; wanted to help the poor
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Eva Perón
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Wife of Juan Peron and champion of the poor in Argentina. She was a gifted speaker and popular political leader who campaigned to improve the life of the urban poor by founding schools and hospitals and providing other social benefits.
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Evo Morales
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considered himself to be Amerindian; cocoa farmer for tea; prez of Bolivia; radical-socialist; friends with Hugo Chavez
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EZLN/Zapatistas
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They disagreed with NAFTA and were fighting for land reform and the greater independence of indigenous communities and also for economic justice and the end of the PRI’s hold of power. This group began its rebellion after NAFTA was put in affect in 1994.
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Fidel Castro
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Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
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FMLN
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revolutionaries of El Salvador; took their name from a martyred leftist leader of the 1930’s; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front; organized an effective guerrilla force; the U.S. gave them money in military assistance annually and trained units of the army (failed to curb the Salvadoran military’s human rights abuses)
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FSLN
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socialist guerillas in Nicaragua
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Fulgencio Batista
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a Cuban president, dictator, and military leader supported by the US, serving as leader until being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution. His corrupt and repressive regime systematically profited from the exploitation of cuba’s commercial interests. As a result, his July 26th Movement and other rebelling elements led a guerilla uprising against his regime which culminated in his eventual defeat.
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Gadsden Purchase
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The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
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General Jorge Ubico
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dictator in Guatemala
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Getúlio Vargas
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Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo (‘New State’), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization.
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Good Neighbor Policy
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Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy.
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Haitian Revolution
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Toussaint l’Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world’s second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
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Hugo Chávez
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(1954-) Venezuelan political leader and president; he set out to eliminate poverty in his country, but his methods of doing so tended to turn his country away from democracy and toward a dictatorship.
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IMF and World Bank
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Import Substitution Industrialization
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An economic system aimed at building a country’s industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. It proved successful for a time but could not keep up with technological advances in Europe and North America.
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Iran Contra Affair
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President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped keep Iraq from winning the Iraq-Iran War (did not want a Middle Eastern superpower); very illegal (Iran was considered a terrorist state) and almost caused Reagan to be impeached.
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Jacobo Arbenz
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Short termed President of Guatemala…Implemented a Land Reform Policy which mainly targeted the United Fruit Company by taking “uncultivated land”…US saw him as a communist threat…though to have ties with the Soviet Union…CIA Launches coup in 1954 to eject him from Presidency
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José María Morelos
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Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814. (See also Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel.) (p. 626)
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Juan José Arévalo
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Elected president of Guatemala, attempts of reform brought him into conflict with the United Fruit Company
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Juan Manuel De Rosas
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Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
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Juan Perón
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President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Per?n, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. (823
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Lerdo Law
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used to break up communally held Indian Lands in Mexico
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Liberalism
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a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
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Liberation Theology
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the combining of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character
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Manifest Destiny
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This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
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Mariel Boatlift
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The Communist dictator of Cuba, Castro, Allowed some 120,000 Cubans to flee to the U.S.
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Mazorca
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Latin America’s first death squad organised by Argentine tyrant Juan Manuel de Rosas
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Military Coups, 1961-64
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Montoneros
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Group in Argentina who wanted to emulate what Castro had done in Cuba; wanted to establish a left wing socialist/communist society and expel American exploiters. Also known as People’s Revolutionary Army
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Monroe Doctrine
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A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
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Mother’s of the Plaza de Mayo
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an association of Argentine mothers whose children “disappeared” during the Dirty War of the military dictatorship, between 1976 and 1983.
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MR-8
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is a Brazilian political movement, formerly an urban guerrilla group. During the military dictatorship in Brazil, the MR8 was formed by Brazilian Communist Party members who disagreed with the party’s decision not to take part in the armed resistance against the military government – the so called Dissidência da Guanabara (DI-GB).
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NAFTA
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A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
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National Guard
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United States military reserves recruited by the states and equipped by the federal government
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Neocolonialism
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a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
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Neoliberalism
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A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
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Oscar Romero
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Archbishop of San Salvador also known as the defender of the poor. He was assassinated on March 24th as he celebrated mass.
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Panama Canal
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Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
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Pancho Villa
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Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
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Patronage Politics
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jobs, contracts, or favors given to political friends and allies (spoils system)
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Pinochet
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Military dictator who rules Chile w/ iron fist for 20 yrs & is backed fully by US because he opposes communism; made ppl disappear
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Platt Amendment
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This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
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Populism
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the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
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Porfiriato
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the long period of rule by Mexico’s Porfirio Diaz, 1876-1911, often cited as a prime example of neocolonialism in Latin America. Diaz imposed strict political control, encouraged European and US investment, and gave special influence to a group of positivist thinkers called Cientificos.
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Positvism
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created by Auguste comte, this method also known as the scientific method, his new discipline of sociology would soon discover the eternal laws of human relations.
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Rafael Jorge Videla
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is a former senior commander in the Argentine Army who was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. He came to power in a coup d’état that deposed Isabel Martínez de Perón. After the return of a representative democratic government, he was prosecuted for large-scale human rights abuses and crimes against humanity that took place under his rule, including kidnappings or forced disappearance, widespread torture and extrajudicial murder of activists, political opponents (either real, suspected or alleged) as well as their families, at secret concentration camps.
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Rafael Trujilo
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ruled the Dominican Republic from 1930 until his assassination in 1961.[1] He officially served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, otherwise ruling as an unelected military strongman. His 30 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era (Spanish: La Era de Trujillo), is considered one of the bloodiest ever in the Americas, as well as a time of a classic personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance. It has been estimated that Trujillo’s rule was responsible for the death of more than 50,000 people, including 20,000 to 30,000 in the infamous
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
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Sandinistas
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Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
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Scientific Racism
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the use of scientific theories to support or validate racist attitudes or worldviews; also, to support classification of human beings into distinct biological races
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Scorched Earth Policy
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The practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
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Spanish- American War
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War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
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Salvador Allende
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President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
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Sandinismo
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insurgencia empezará en los campesinos, educación = importante
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School of the Americas
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• Now known as the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, • controversial because the US Dept. of Defense has trained many Latin American soldiers and officers in military tactics. • many of these leaders have gone on to commit atrocities in their home countries
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Simón Bolívar
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The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
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The Little School
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Key Points 1. Short story written by Alicia Partnoy, an Argentine woman. 2. She disapeared during the Argentine Dirty wore and talks about the horrible living conditions she endured. 3. Prisoners were blindfolded and not allowed to talk. 4. Example of memory and silence
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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
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February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
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Truman Doctrine
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First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
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United Fruit Company
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trying to monopolize trade in central america by regulating all rights to the railroad and boston fruit company. they need help with exportation and land for growing bananas. guatemala gave them a 99 yr contracts to control of rr’s and to the only atlantic port. america is a major corporation that traded these fruits that sold in US and europe
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Unidad Popular
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was a coalition of political parties in Chile that stood behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election.
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26th of July Movement
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name of Castro’s group to lead revolution in Cuba; based off the failed Moncado Barracks attack

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